Argentines (argentinos in Spanish), also called Argentinians or Argentineans, are the citizens of Argentina, or their descendants abroad. Argentina is a multiethnic society, which means that it is home to people of many different ethnic backgrounds. As a result, Argentines do not consider their nationality as an ethnicity but as a citizenship with various ethnicities. Aside from the indigenous population, nearly all Argentines or their ancestors immigrated within the past five centuries.
According to the 2010 census [INDEC], Argentina had a population of 40,091,359 inhabitants, of which 1,805,957 or 4.6%, were born abroad. The population growth rate in 2008 was estimated to be 0.917% annually, with a birth rate of 16.32 live births per 1,000 inhabitants and a mortality rate of 7.54 deaths per 1,000 inhabitants.
Argentina's population has long had one of Latin America's lowest growth rates (recently, about one percent a year) and it also enjoys a comparatively low infant mortality rate. Strikingly, though, its birth rate is still nearly twice as high (2.3 children per woman) as that in Spain or Italy, despite comparable religiosity figures. The median age is approximately 30 years and life expectancy at birth is of 75 years.
Ethnic groups 
Argentina is a multiethnic society, which means that it is home to people of many different ethnic backgrounds. As a result, the people there usually treat their nationality as a citizenship, but not an ethnicity. Argentines usually refer to their country as a "crisol de razas" ("crucible of races"), or, a melting pot.
In the mid 19th century a large wave of immigration started to arrive to Argentina due to new Constitutional policies that encouraged immigration, and issues in the countries the immigrants came from such as wars, poverty, hunger, famines, pursuit of a better life, among other reasons. The main immigration sources were from Europe, the countries from the Near and Middle East, Russia and Japan.
Therefore, most Argentines are of European descent, and are either descendents of colonial-era settlers and/or of the 19th and 20th century immigrants from Europe, with over 90% of the population being of ethnic European descent.
The most common ethnic groups are Italian and Spanish (including Galicians and Basques). It is estimated that up to 25 million Argentines are of Italian descent, up to 60% of the total population. There are also Germanic, Slavic, British and French populations. Smaller Jewish, Native, Arab, East Asian, Gypsy, and African communities contribute to the melting pot. Recent decades immigration includes mainly Paraguayans, Bolivians and Peruvians, among other Latin Americans, Eastern Europeans, Africans and East Asians.
European Argentines 
Argentines of European descent constitute the majority of Argentina's population. Ethnic Europeans include the Argentine descendants of colonists from Spain and Portugal during the colonial period prior to 1810, and mainly of immigrants from Europe and the Near and Middle East, in the great immigratory wave from the mid 19th century to the mid 20th century. Although a named category "Argentines of European descent" is not officially used, and no official census data exist, some international sources claim the european component of the population to be as low as 82.9%, to as high as 97% of Argentina's population.
The current most numerous immigrant European communities are: Italian, Spanish (including Basque and Galician), German, Slavic (including Russian, Ukrainian, Polish, Czech, Bulgarian, Slovene, Macedonian and Croat), French, Irish, Portuguese, Dutch, among many others.
Arab Argentines 
Arabs and Argentines with partial Arab ancestry comprise around 2.9% of Argentina's population. They are considered White and represent about 1.3 million people, whose ancestry traces back to any of various waves of immigrants, largely of Arab cultural and linguistic heritage and/or identity, originating mainly from what is now Syria and Lebanon. Due to the fact that many Arab countries were under control of the Ottoman Empire by the time the large immigration wave took place, most Arabs entered the country with Turkish passport, and so they are colloquially referred to as los turcos. Also other ethnic Arabs came from territories which were then under the Austro-Hungarian Empire rule.
Native Argentines 
Contemporary Native cultures are represented in the country mainly by the Mapuche, Kolla, Wichí and Toba peoples. According to the provisional data of INDEC's Complementary Survey of Indigenous Peoples (ECPI) 2004 - 2005, 600,329 Natives (about 1.49% of the total population) reside in Argentina. The most numerous of these communities are the Mapuches, who live mostly in the south, the Kollas and Wichís, from the northwest, and the Tobas, who live mostly in the northeast. Some Mestizo population may identify with Native ethnicity.
Mestizo Argentines 
Within the population totals there may be an imprecise amount of mixed "mestizo" population. Some sources provide estimates, that state Mestizo people represent insignificant amount of the population, around 1,5%, other put it higher at around 6.5%. However, most Argentines of mixed ancestry identify themselves either as Native Argentines or as European Argentines, contrary to other countries like Mexico where the "Mestizo" is a key character in the national identity.
Asian Argentines 
Argentines of Asian ancestry are defined as either born within Argentina, or born elsewhere and later to become a citizen or resident of Argentina. Asian-Argentines settled in Argentina in large numbers during several waves of immigration in the 20th century. Primarily living in their own neighbourhoods in Buenos Aires, many currently own their own businesses of varying sizes - largely textiles, grocery retailing, and buffet-style restaurants. The small Asian-Argentine population has generally kept a low profile, and is accepted by greater Argentine society.
The first Argentines of Asian descent were a small group of Japanese immigrants, mainly from the Okinawa prefecture, which came in the period between the early and mid 20th century. In the 1960s, Koreans began to arrive, and in the 1980s, Taiwanese immigrants. The 1990s brought the largest so far wave of Asian immigration to Argentina, from mainland Chinese immigrants, eventually becoming the 4th largest foreigner community in 2013, after Paraguayans, Bolivians, and Peruvians.
Black, Mulato and Zambo Argentines 
Blacks, Mulatos (mixed Black and European ancestry) and Zambos (mixed Black and Native ancestry) in Argentina might be about 67,000 people; this figure includes 53,000 direct descendants from slaves, plus 12,000-15,000 Caboverdian Mulatto immigrants and their descendants, who arrived in the 1950s and 1960s. With constant wars in the 19th century, spread of diseases like the yellow fever, thousands of immigrants from Europe arriving to Argentine soil, and most black women intermarrying with them; noting that their populations were already low, the Afro-Argentine population faded into oblivion.
A new wave of Black immigration started in the 1990s to arrive to Argentina, from African countries (Nigeria, Senegal, Angola, Ivory Coast, Cameroon, Ghana, Sierra Leone, Congo, etc.), Colombia, Venezuela, and Dominican Republic, among other sources.
Although Spanish is dominant, being the national language spoken by virtually all Argentines, the spoken languages of Argentina number at least 40. Languages spoken by at least 100,000 Argentines include Native American languages such as Southern Quechua, Guaraní and Mapudungun, and immigrant languages such as German, Italian, or Levantine Arabic.
Two native languages are extinct (Abipón and Chané), while some others are endangered, spoken by elderly people whose descendants do not speak the languages (such as Vilela, Puelche, Tehuelche and Selknam).
There are also other communities of immigrants that speak their native languages, such as the Chinese language spoken by at least half of the over 60,000 Chinese immigrants (mostly in Buenos Aires) and an Occitan-speaking community in Pigüé, Buenos Aires Province.
A majority of the population of Argentina is Christian. According to CONICET survey on creeds, about 76.5% of Argentines are Roman Catholic, 11.3% religiously indifferent, 9% Protestant (with 7.9% in Pentecostal denominations), 1.2% Jehovah's Witnesses, and 0.9% Mormons.
Although Jews account for less than 1% of Argentina's population, Buenos Aires has the second largest population of Jews in the Americas, second only to New York City. Argentina also has the largest Muslim minority in America (see Islam in Argentina).
The rate of Argentine emigration to Europe (especially to Spain and Italy) and, to a lesser degree, to South America (mostly to Uruguay and the Brazil) peaked in the late 1970s and early 1980s and is noteworthy.
Most Argentines outside Argentina are people who have migrated from the middle and upper middle classes. The most popular immigration destinations in America are: USA, Chile, Paraguay, Brazil, Uruguay, Bolivia and Canada, but other communities' stationed in Venezuela, Mexico, Peru, Colombia, Ecuador and Costa Rica. In Europe, Spain and Italy have large communities but also in the France, United Kingdom and Germany. There are also significant communities in Israel and Australia. According to official estimates there are 600,000 worldwide Argentine, according to estimates by the International Organization for Migration are about 806,369 since 2001. It is estimated that their descendants would be around 1,900,000.
The first wave of emigration occurred during the military dictatorship between 1976 and 1983, with the main destinations in Spain, USA, Mexico and Venezuela. During the 1990s, due to the abolition of visas between Argentina and the United States, thousands of Argentines emigrated to the North American country. The last major wave of emigration occurred during the 2001 crisis, the main destination in Europe, especially Spain, although there was also an increase in emigration to neighboring countries, particularly Brazil, Chile and Paraguay.
See also 
- Perfil migratorio de Argentina 2012. Buenos Aires: International Organization for Migration. 2012. p. 184. ISBN 978-92-9068-657-6. Retrieved March 2, 2013.
- "Proyecciones provinciales de población por sexo y grupos de edad 2001-2015" (pdf). Gustavo Pérez (in español). INDEC. Retrieved 2008-06-24. Unknown parameter
- UN Demographic Yearbook, 2007
- Enrique Oteiza y Susana Novick sostienen que «la Argentina desde el siglo XIX, al igual que Australia, Canadá o Estados Unidos, se convierte en un país de inmigración, entendiendo por esto una sociedad que ha sido conformada por un fenómeno inmigratorio masivo, a partir de una población local muy pequeña.» (Oteiza, Enrique; Novick, Susana. Inmigración y derechos humanos. Política y discursos en el tramo final del menemismo. [en línea]. Buenos Aires: Instituto de Investigaciones Gino Germani, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, 2000 [Citado FECHA]. (IIGG Documentos de Trabajo, Nº 14). Available on: http://www.iigg.fsoc.uba.ar/docs/dt/dt14.pdf); El antropólogo brasileño Darcy Ribeiro incluye a la Argentina dentro de los «pueblos trasplantados» de América, junto conUruguay, Canadá y Estados Unidos (Ribeiro, Darcy. Las Américas y la Civilización (1985). Buenos Aires:EUDEBA, pp. 449 ss.); El historiador argentino José Luis Romero define a la Argentina como un «país aluvial»(Romero, José Luis. «Indicación sobre la situación de las masas en Argentina (1951)», en La experiencia argentina y otros ensayos, Buenos Aires: Universidad de Belgrano,1980, p. 64). (Spanish)
- World Statesmen.org: Argentina
- "Argentina (People)". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 13 August 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-08.
- Travel for good: Argentina
- The Joshua Project: Ethnic people groups of Argentina
- Caboverdianos: Vientos de Cambio La Nación revista. 3 December 2006. (Spanish)
- Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.), 2005. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International. Online version: Languages of Argentina, Retrieved on 2007-01-02.
- "Encuesta CONICET sobre creencias" (PDF). Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- Reversal Of Fortune - TIME
- La otra cara de la 'fuga de cerebros'
- About Argentine population at www.Argentina.gov.ar (English)