Death metal

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For other uses, see Death metal (disambiguation).

Death metal is an extreme subgenre of heavy metal music. It typically employs heavily distorted guitars, tremolo picking, deep growling vocals, double kick or blast beat drumming, minor keys or atonality, and multiple tempo changes.

Building from the musical structure of thrash metal and early black metal, death metal emerged during the mid-1980s.[3] Bands such as Venom, Slayer, and Kreator, were important influences on the genre's creation.[4][5][6] Possessed and Death, along with bands such as Obituary, Deicide, Cannibal Corpse, and Morbid Angel, are often considered pioneers of the genre.[7][8][9] In the late 1980s and early 1990s, death metal gained more media attention as popular genre niche record labels like Combat, Earache, and Roadrunner, began to sign death metal bands at a rapid rate.[10] Since then, death metal has diversified, spawning a variety of subgenres.

History[edit]

Emergence and early history[edit]

English heavy metal band Venom, from Newcastle, crystallized the elements of what later became known as thrash metal, death metal and black metal, with their 1981 album Welcome to Hell.[11] Their dark, blistering sound, harsh vocals, and macabre, proudly Satanic imagery proved a major inspiration for extreme metal bands.[12] Another highly influential band, Slayer, formed in 1981. Although the band was a thrash metal act, Slayer's music was more violent than their thrash contemporaries Metallica, Megadeth, and Anthrax.[13] Their breakneck speed and instrumental prowess combined with lyrics about death, violence, war and Satanism, won Slayer a rabid cult following.[14] According to AllMusic, their third album Reign in Blood inspired the entire death metal genre.[15] It had a big impact on the genre leaders such as Death, Obituary and Morbid Angel.[13]

Jeff Becerra of Possessed, who coined the term "Death Metal" in 1983 on the band's 1984 demo of the same name.[16]

Possessed, a band that formed in the San Francisco Bay Area during 1983, is attributed by Allmusic for "connecting the dots" between thrash metal and death metal with their 1985 debut album, Seven Churches.[17] While attributed as having a Slayer influence,[18] current and former members of the band had actually cited Venom and Motörhead, as well as early work by Exodus, as the main influences on their sound. Although the group had released only two studio albums and an EP in their formative years, they have been described by music journalists and musicians as either being "monumental" in developing the death metal style,[19] or as being the first death metal band.[20][21][22] Earache Records noted that "the likes of Trey Azagthoth and Morbid Angel based what they were doing in their formative years on the Possessed blueprint laid down on the legendary Seven Churches recording. Possessed arguably did more to further the cause of 'Death Metal' than any of the early acts on the scene back in the mid-late 80's."[23]

Chuck Schuldiner (1967–2001) of Death, during a 1992 tour in Scotland in support of the album Human.

During the same period as the dawn of Possessed, a second influential metal band was formed in Florida: Death. Death, originally called Mantas, was formed in 1983 by Chuck Schuldiner, Kam Lee, and Rick Rozz. In 1984 they released their first demo entitled Death by Metal, followed by several more. The tapes circulated through the tape trader world, quickly establishing the band's name. With Death guitarist Schuldiner adopting vocal duties, the band made a major impact on the scene. The fast minor-key riffs and solos were complemented with fast drumming, creating a style that would catch on in tape trading circles.[19] Schuldiner has been credited by Allmusic's Eduardo Rivadavia for being widely recognized as the "Father of Death Metal".[24] Death's 1987 debut release, Scream Bloody Gore, has been described by About.com's Chad Bowar as being the "evolution from thrash metal to death metal",[25] and "the first true death metal record" by the San Francisco Chronicle.[26] Along with Possessed and Death, other pioneers of death metal in the United States include Autopsy, Immolation, Cannibal Corpse, and Post Mortem.[27][28]

Growing popularity[edit]

By 1989, many bands had been signed by eager record labels wanting to cash in on the subgenre, including Florida's Obituary, Morbid Angel and Deicide.[29] This collective of death metal bands hailing from Florida are often labeled as "Florida death metal". Death metal spread to Sweden in the late 1980s, flourishing with pioneers such as Carnage, God Macabre, Entombed, Dismember and Unleashed. In the early 1990s, the rise of the melodic death metal was recognized, with bands such as Dark Tranquillity, At the Gates, and In Flames.

Music sample of Possessed's "Death Metal" from the album Seven Churches (1985).

Music sample of Morbid Angel's "Blessed Are the Sick" from the live album Entangled in Chaos (1996).

Problems playing these files? See media help.

Following the original death metal innovators, new subgenres began by the end of the decade. British band Napalm Death became increasingly associated with death metal, in particular, on 1990s Harmony Corruption. This album displays aggressive and fairly technical guitar riffing, complex rhythmics, a sophisticated growling vocal delivery by Mark "Barney" Greenway, and socially aware lyrical subjects, leading to a merging with the "grindcore" subgenre. Other bands contributing significantly to this early movement include Britain's Bolt Thrower and Carcass, and New York's Suffocation.

To close the circle, Death released their fourth album Human in 1991, an example of modern death metal. Death's founder Schuldiner helped push the boundaries of uncompromising speed and technical virtuosity, mixing technical and intricate rhythm guitar work with complex arrangements and emotive guitar solos.[30] Other examples are Carcass's Necroticism – Descanting the Insalubrious, Suffocation's Effigy of the Forgotten and Entombed's Clandestine from 1991. At this point, all the above characteristics are present: abrupt tempo and count changes, on occasion extremely fast drumming, morbid lyrics and growling vocal delivery.

Earache Records, Relativity Records and Roadrunner Records became the genre's most important labels,[31] with Earache releasing albums by Carcass, Napalm Death, Morbid Angel, and Entombed, and Roadrunner releasing albums by Obituary, and Pestilence. Although these labels had not been death metal labels, initially, they became the genre's flagship labels in the beginning of the 1990s. In addition to these, other labels formed as well, such as Nuclear Blast, Century Media, and Peaceville. Many of these labels would go on to achieve successes in other genres of metal throughout the 1990s.

In September 1990, Death's manager Eric Greif held one of the first North American death metal festivals, Day of Death, in Milwaukee suburb Waukesha, Wisconsin, and featured 26 bands including Autopsy, Broken Hope, Hellwitch, Obliveon, Revenant, Viogression, Immolation, Atheist, and Cynic.[32]

Later history[edit]

Death metal's popularity achieved its initial peak between the 1992–93 era, with some bands such as Morbid Angel, Cannibal Corpse, and Obituary, enjoying mild commercial success. However, the genre as a whole never broke into the mainstream. The genre's mounting popularity may have been partly responsible for a strong rivalry between Norwegian black metal and Swedish death metal scenes. Fenriz of Darkthrone has noted that Norwegian black metal musicians were "fed up with the whole death metal scene" at the time. Death metal diversified in the 1990s, spawning a rich variety of subgenres which still have a large "underground" following at the present.[33]

Characteristics[edit]

Instrumentation[edit]

The setup most frequently used within the death metal genre is two guitarists, a bass player, a vocalist and a drummer often using "hyper double-bass blast beats".[34][35] Although this is the standard setup, bands have been known to occasionally incorporate other instruments such as electronic keyboards.[36] The genre is often identified by fast, highly distorted and down tuned guitars, played with techniques such as palm muting and tremolo picking. The percussion is usually aggressive and powerful.

Death metal is known for its growled vocals and for abrupt tempo, key, and time signature changes. Death metal may include chromatic chord progressions and a varied song structure. In some circumstances, the style will incorporate melodic riffs and harmonies for effect. This incorporation of melody and harmonious playing was even further used in the creation of melodic death metal. These compositions tend to emphasize an ongoing development of themes and motifs.

Vocals and lyrics[edit]

Death metal vocals are referred to as death growls; hoarse roars/snarls. Death growling is mistakenly thought to be a form of screaming using the lowest vocal register known as vocal fry, however vocal fry is actually a form of overtone screaming, and while growling can be performed this way by experienced vocalists who use the fry screaming technique, "true" death growling is in fact created by an altogether different technique.[37] The three major methods of harsh vocalization used in the genre are often mistaken for each other, encompassing vocal fry screaming, false chord screaming, and "true" death growls.[citation needed] Growling is sometimes also referred to as Cookie Monster vocals, tongue-in-cheek, due to the vocal similarity to the voice of the popular Sesame Street character of the same name.[38] Although often criticized, death growls serve the aesthetic purpose of matching death metal's aggressive lyrical content.[39] High-pitched screaming is occasionally utilized in death metal, being heard in songs by Death, Exhumed, Dying Fetus, Cannibal Corpse, and Deicide.

The lyrical themes of death metal may invoke slasher film-stylized violence,[40] but may also extend to topics like Satanism, religion, occultism, Lovecraftian horror, nature, mysticism, philosophy, science fiction, and politics.[41][42] Although violence may be explored in various other genres as well, death metal may elaborate on the details of extreme acts, including mutilation, dissection, torture, rape, cannibalism, and necrophilia. Sociologist Keith Kahn-Harris commented this apparent glamorization of violence may be attributed to a "fascination" with the human body that all people share to some degree, a fascination which mixes desire and disgust.[43] Heavy metal author Gavin Baddeley also stated there does seem to be a connection between "how acquainted one is with their own mortality" and "how much they crave images of death and violence" via the media.[44] Additionally, contributing artists to the genre often defend death metal as little more than an extreme form of art and entertainment, similar to horror films in the motion picture industry.[3] This explanation has brought such musicians under fire from activists internationally, who claim that this is often lost on a large number of adolescents, who are left with the glamorization of such violence without social context or awareness of why such imagery is stimulating.[3]

According to Alex Webster, bassist of Cannibal Corpse, "The gory lyrics are probably not, as much as people say, [what's keeping us] from being mainstream. Like, 'death metal would never go into the mainstream because the lyrics are too gory?' I think it's really the music, because violent entertainment is totally mainstream."[45]

Origin of the term[edit]

The most popular theory of the subgenre's christening is Possessed's 1984 demo, Death Metal; the song from the eponymous demo would also be featured on the band's 1985 debut album, Seven Churches.[46] Possessed vocalist/bassist Jeff Becerra said he coined the term in early 1983 for a high school English class assignment.[47] Another possible origin is a fanzine called Death Metal, started by Thomas Fischer and Martin Ain of Hellhammer and Celtic Frost. The name was later given to the 1984 compilation Death Metal released by Noise Records.[46] The term might also have originated from other recordings, such as the demo released by Death in 1984, called Death by Metal.[48]

Subgenres[edit]

It should be noted that cited examples are not necessarily exclusive to one particular style. Many bands can easily be placed in two or more of the following categories, and a band's specific categorization is often a source of contention due to personal opinion and interpretation.

  • Technical death metal: Technical death metal and "progressive death metal" are related terms that refer to bands distinguished by the complexity of their music. Common traits are dynamic song structures, uncommon time signatures, atypical rhythms and unusual harmonies and melodies. Bands described as technical death metal or progressive death metal usually fuse common death metal aesthetics with elements of progressive rock, jazz or classical music. While the term technical death metal is sometimes used to describe bands that focus on speed and extremity as well as complexity, the line between progressive and technical death metal is thin. "Tech death" and "prog death", for short, are terms commonly applied to such bands as Nile, Edge of Sanity, and Opeth. Necrophagist and Spawn of Possession are known for a classical music-influenced death metal style. Death metal pioneers Death also refined their style in a more progressive direction in their final years. The Polish band Decapitated gained recognition as one of Europe's primary modern technical death metal acts.[49][50]
Aborted are "key contributors to the death-grind genres," according to Allmusic.[53]

Other fusions and subgenres[edit]

There are other heavy metal music subgenres that have come from fusions between death metal and other non-metal genres, such as the fusion of death metal and jazz. Atheist and Cynic are two examples; the former went so far as to include jazz-style drum solos on albums, while the latter incorporated elements of jazz fusion. Nile have also incorporated Egyptian music and Middle Eastern themes into their work, while Alchemist have incorporated psychedelia along with Aboriginal music. Some groups, such as Nightfall, Septic Flesh, Fleshgod Apocalypse, and Eternal Tears of Sorrow, have incorporated keyboards and symphonic elements, creating a fusion of symphonic metal and death metal, sometimes referred to as symphonic death metal.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ Bayer, Gerd (2009). Heavy Metal Music in Britain. Ashgate Publishing. p. 59. ISBN 978-1-409-49385-3. 
  3. ^ a b c Dunn, Sam (Director) (August 5, 2005). Metal: A Headbanger's Journey (motion picture). Canada: Dunn, Sam. 
  4. ^ McIver 2000, p. 14.
  5. ^ McIver 2000, p. 100.
  6. ^ McIver 2000, p. 55.
  7. ^ Rivadavia, Eduardo. "Possessed Biography". AllMusic. Retrieved August 13, 2008. 
  8. ^ Renda, Patricia (1999). "Chuck Schuldiner: The pain of a genius". Metal Rules. Retrieved February 14, 2014. 
  9. ^ Prato, Greg. "Morbid Angel Biography". AllMusic. Retrieved August 13, 2008. 
  10. ^ Heeg, Robert (April 1993). "Is Metal Still Alive?". WATT. Retrieved August 13, 2008. 
  11. ^ Rivadavia, Eduardo. "Venom: Welcome to Hell". AllMusic. Retrieved February 14, 2014. 
  12. ^ Ankeny, Jason. "Venom Biography". AllMusic. Retrieved February 14, 2014. 
  13. ^ a b de Paola, Enrico (March 2000). "Into The Lungs of Hell". Metal Hammer. Empty Words. Retrieved July 19, 2014. 
  14. ^ Huey, Steve. "Slayer Biography". AllMusic. Retrieved February 14, 2014. 
  15. ^ Huey, Steve. "Slayer: Reign in Blood". AllMusic. Retrieved January 5, 2007. 
  16. ^ Mudrian 2004.
  17. ^ Rivadavia, Eduardo. "Possessed: Seven Churches". AllMusic. Retrieved February 14, 2014. 
  18. ^ Rivadavia, Eduardo. "Possessed Biography". AllMusic. Retrieved February 14, 2014. 
  19. ^ a b Purcell 2003, p. 54.
  20. ^ McIver, Joel (2008). The Bloody Reign of Slayer. Omnibus Press. ISBN 1-84772-109-5. 
  21. ^ Ekeroth 2008, p. 12.
  22. ^ Mudrian 2004, p. 70.
  23. ^ "Interview With Jeff Becerra". Earache Records. Retrieved July 19, 2014. 
  24. ^ Rivadavia, Eduardo. "Death Biography". AllMusic. Retrieved August 13, 2008. 
  25. ^ Bowar, Chad. "Death Profile". About.com. Retrieved January 14, 2014. 
  26. ^ Aldis, N.; Sherry, J. (2006). "Heavy metal Thunder". San Francisco Chronicle. 
  27. ^ Norton, Justin M. (February 19, 2009). "Post Mortem - 'Coroner's Office' Retrospective". About.com. Retrieved February 14, 2014. 
  28. ^ Marquard, Bryan (February 8, 2009). "John McCarthy, at 40; was lead singer for local thrash rockers Post Mortem". The Boston Globe. Retrieved February 14, 2014. 
  29. ^ Sullivan, Andy (August 25, 2012). "Death metal, the sound of Tampa, won't be heard at Republican convention". Reuters. Yahoo News. Retrieved August 25, 2012. "When they convene in Tampa to nominate Mitt Romney for president next week, Republicans will not hear a note from the city's most notable musical exports: death-metal bands such as Deicide and Obituary." 
  30. ^ Empty Words, where there are dozens of reviews along this line
  31. ^ 'Death Metal Special: Dealers in Death' Terrorizer #151
  32. ^ Biography, Official Atheist site. Retrieved December 10, 2008
  33. ^ Zebyb, Bill (2007). Black Metal: A Documentary (motion picture). 
  34. ^ Purcell 2003, p. 9.
  35. ^ Kahn-Harris 2007, p. 32.
  36. ^ Marsicano, D. Melodic Death Metal, About.com (Retrieved October 27, 2010)
  37. ^ Interview with Samuel Deschaine, Death Metal Vocal Instructor 2011
  38. ^ "Cookie Monster Vocals". About.com. Retrieved January 21, 2006. 
  39. ^ Sharpe-Young, Garry. Death Metal, ISBN 0-9582684-4-4
  40. ^ Moynihan, Michael, and Dirik Søderlind (1998). Lords of Chaos (2nd ed.). Feral House. ISBN 0-922915-94-6, p. 27
  41. ^ Purcell 2003, p. 39-42.
  42. ^ Wikihow: How to Appreciate Death Metal
  43. ^ Kahn-Harris 2007.
  44. ^ Baddeley, Gavin. Raising Hell!: The Book of Satan and Rock 'n' Roll
  45. ^ Alex Webster (Cannibal Corpse) interview
  46. ^ a b Purcell 2003, p. 53.
  47. ^ Ekeroth 2008, p. 11.
  48. ^ de Wit, Anton (January 2002). "The Death of Death". Martelgang Magazine. Retrieved February 14, 2014. 
  49. ^ Rivadavia, Eduardo. "Decapitated Biography". AllMusic. Retrieved February 7, 2010. 
  50. ^ "Decapitated's New Lineup Performs Live For First Time". Blabbermouth.net. February 3, 2010. Retrieved February 7, 2010. 
  51. ^ "Doom Metal Special:Doom/Death". Terrorizer (142). 
  52. ^ Purcell 2003, p. 23.
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  62. ^ Lee, Cosmo (September 2009). "Suffocation reclaim their rightful place as kings of death metal". Decibel (59). "One of Suffocation's trademarks, breakdowns, has spawned an entire metal subgenre: deathcore" 
  63. ^ a b Lee, Cosmo (March 14, 2007). "Phazm: Antebellum Death ‘n’ Roll". Stylus Magazine. Retrieved September 18, 2007. "Death ’n’ roll arose with Entombed’s 1993 album Wolverine Blues ... Wolverine Blues was like ’70s hard rock tuned down and run through massive distortion and death growls." 
  64. ^ a b Steve, Huey. "Gorefest Biography". AllMusic. Retrieved February 15, 2008. "Erase, was released in 1994 and found the band moving subtly toward more traditional forms of metal, partly through its sure sense of groove. That approach crystallized on 1996's Soul Survivor, which combined death metal with the elegant power and accessibility of '70s British metal." 
  65. ^ Henderson, Alex. "Devian: Ninewinged Serpent". AllMusic. Retrieved May 3, 2009. 
  66. ^ Bowar, Chad. "Hacavitz - Venganza". About.com. Retrieved May 3, 2009. 
  67. ^ Yardley, Miranda (October 21, 2011). "Belphegor suspend all activities". Terrorizer. Retrieved January 29, 2012. 
  68. ^ Prato, Greg. "Behemoth Biography". AllMusic. Retrieved January 29, 2012. 
  69. ^ Sharpe-Young, Garry. "Akercocke Biography". MusicMight. Retrieved January 29, 2012. 
  70. ^ "Sacramentum Profile". Sacramentum.com. Retrieved January 29, 2012. 

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]