|Stylistic origins||Thrash metal, first wave black metal, hardcore punk|
|Cultural origins||Mid 1980s, United States (particularly Florida)|
|Typical instruments||Vocals, electric guitar, bass, drums|
|Melodic death metal, technical death metal|
|Deathcore, blackened death metal, death/doom, deathgrind, death 'n' roll|
|Florida, New York, Sweden, United Kingdom, Brazil, Netherlands, Japan, Poland|
|Extreme metal, death growl, blast beat, list of death metal bands|
Death metal is an extreme subgenre of heavy metal music. It typically employs heavily distorted guitars, tremolo picking, deep growling vocals, double kick and/or blast beat drumming, minor keys or atonality, and multiple tempo changes.
Building from the musical structure of thrash metal and early black metal, death metal emerged during the mid-1980s. Metal bands such as Slayer, Kreator, Celtic Frost, and Venom were very important influences to the crafting of the genre. Possessed and Death, along with bands such as Obituary, Carcass, Deicide, Cannibal Corpse and Morbid Angel are often considered pioneers of the genre. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, death metal gained more media attention as popular genre niche record labels like Combat, Earache and Roadrunner began to sign death metal bands at a rapid rate. Since then, death metal has diversified, spawning a variety of subgenres.
Emergence and early history
English heavy metal band Venom, from Newcastle, crystallized the elements of what later became known as thrash metal, death metal and black metal, with their 1981 album Welcome to Hell. Their dark, blistering sound, harsh vocals, and macabre, proudly Satanic imagery proved a major inspiration for extreme metal bands. Another highly influential band, Slayer, formed in 1981. Although the band was a thrash metal act, Slayer's music was more violent than their thrash contemporaries Metallica, Megadeth and Exodus. Their breakneck speed and instrumental prowess combined with lyrics about death, violence, war and Satanism won Slayer a rabid cult following. According to Allmusic, Slayer's third album Reign in Blood "inspired the entire death metal genre". It had a big impact on the genre leaders such as Death, Obituary and Morbid Angel.
Possessed, a band that formed in the San Francisco Bay Area during 1983, was attributed by Allmusic as "connecting the dots" between thrash metal and death metal with their 1985 debut album, Seven Churches. While attributed as having a Slayer influence, current and former members of the band had actually cited Venom and Motorhead, as well as early work by Exodus, as the main influences of their sound. Although the group had released only 2 studio albums and an EP in their formative years, they have been described by both music journalists and musicians as either being "monumental" in developing the death metal style, or as being the first death metal band. Earache Records noted that "....the likes of Trey Azagthoth and Morbid Angel based what they were doing in their formative years on the Possessed blueprint laid down on the legendary Seven Churches recording. Possessed arguably did more to further the cause of 'Death Metal' than any of the early acts on the scene back in the mid-late 80's."
During the same period as the dawn of Possessed, a second influential metal band was formed in Florida: Death. Death, originally called Mantas, was formed during 1983 by Chuck Schuldiner, Kam Lee, and Rick Rozz. In 1984 they released their first demo entitled Death by Metal, followed by several more. The tapes circulated through the tape trader world, quickly establishing the band's name. With Death guitarist Schuldiner adopting vocal duties, the band made a major impact on the scene. The fast minor-key riffs and solos were complemented with fast drumming, creating a style that would catch on in tape trading circles. Schuldiner has been attributed by Allmusic's Eduardo Rivadavia as being "widely recognized as the Father of Death Metal". Death's 1987 debut release, Scream Bloody Gore, has been described by About.com's Chad Bowar as being the "evolution from thrash metal to death metal", and "the first true death metal record" by the San Francisco Chronicle.
Along with Possessed and Death, other pioneers of death metal in the United States include Autopsy, Necrophagia, Master, Morbid Angel, Massacre, Atheist, Post Mortem, Obituary and Deicide.
By 1989, many bands had been signed by eager record labels wanting to cash in on the subgenre, including Florida's Obituary, Morbid Angel and Deicide. This collective of death metal bands hailing from Florida are often labeled as "Florida death metal". Death metal spread to Sweden in the late 1980s, flourishing with pioneers such as Carnage, God Macabre, Entombed, Dismember and Unleashed. In the early 1990s, the rise of typically melodic "Gothenburg metal" was recognized, with bands such as Dark Tranquillity, At the Gates, and In Flames.
|Problems playing this file? See media help.|
Music sample of Morbid Angel's "Blessed Are the Sick" from the live album Entangled in Chaos (1996).
|Problems playing this file? See media help.|
Following the original death metal innovators, new subgenres began by the end of the decade. British band Napalm Death became increasingly associated with death metal, in particular, on 1990s Harmony Corruption. This album displays aggressive and fairly technical guitar riffing, complex rhythmics, a sophisticated growling vocal delivery by Mark "Barney" Greenway, and socially aware lyrical subjects, leading to a merging with the "grindcore" subgenre. Other bands contributing significantly to this early movement include Britain's Bolt Thrower and Carcass, and New York's Suffocation.
To close the circle, Death released their fourth album Human in 1991, an example of modern death metal. Death's founder Schuldiner helped push the boundaries of uncompromising speed and technical virtuosity, mixing technical and intricate rhythm guitar work with complex arrangements and emotive guitar solos. Other examples are Carcass's Necroticism – Descanting the Insalubrious, Suffocation's Effigy of the Forgotten and Entombed's Clandestine from 1991. At this point, all the above characteristics are present: abrupt tempo and count changes, on occasion extremely fast drumming, morbid lyrics and growling vocal delivery.
Earache Records, Relativity Records and Roadrunner Records became the genre's most important labels, with Earache releasing albums by Carcass, Napalm Death, Morbid Angel, and Entombed, and Roadrunner releasing albums by Obituary, and Pestilence. Although these labels had not been death metal labels, initially, they became the genre's flagship labels in the beginning of the 1990s. In addition to these, other labels formed as well, such as Nuclear Blast, Century Media, and Peaceville. Many of these labels would go on to achieve successes in other genres of metal throughout the 1990s.
In September 1990, Death's manager Eric Greif held one of the first North American death metal festivals, Day of Death, in Milwaukee suburb Waukesha, Wisconsin, and featured 26 bands including Autopsy, Broken Hope, Hellwitch, Obliveon, Revenant, Viogression, Immolation, Atheist, and Cynic.
Death metal's popularity achieved its initial peak between the 1992–93 era, with some bands such as Morbid Angel, Cannibal Corpse and Obituary enjoying mild commercial success. However, the genre as a whole never broke into the mainstream. The genre's mounting popularity may have been partly responsible for a strong rivalry between Norwegian black metal and Swedish death metal scenes. Fenriz of Darkthrone has noted that Norwegian black metal musicians were "fed up with the whole death metal scene" at the time. Death metal diversified in the 1990s, spawning a rich variety of subgenres which still have a large "underground" following at the present.
The setup most frequently used within the death metal genre is two guitarists, a bass player, a vocalist and a drummer often using "hyper double-bass blast beats". Although this is the standard setup, bands have been known to occasionally incorporate other instruments such as electronic keyboards.
Death metal is known for its abrupt growled vocals, tempo, key, and time signature changes. Death metal may include chromatic chord progressions and a varied song structure. In some circumstances, the style will incorporate melodic riffs and harmonies for effect. This incorporation of melody and harmonious playing was even further used in the creation of melodic death metal. These compositions tend to emphasize an ongoing development of themes and motifs.
Vocals and lyrics
Death metal vocals are referred to as death growls; hoarse roars/snarls. Death growling is mistakenly thought to be a form of screaming using the lowest vocal register known as vocal fry, however vocal fry is actually a form of overtone screaming, and while growling can be performed this way by experienced vocalists who use the fry screaming technique, "true" death growling is in fact created by an altogether different technique.[specify] The three major methods of harsh vocalization used in the genre are often mistaken for each other, encompassing vocal fry screaming, false chord screaming, and "true" death growls.[full citation needed] Growling is sometimes also referred to as Cookie Monster vocals, tongue-in-cheek, due to the vocal similarity to the voice of the popular Sesame Street character of the same name. Although often criticized, death growls serve the aesthetic purpose of matching death metal's aggressive lyrical content. High-pitched screaming is occasionally utilized in death metal, being heard in songs by Death, Exhumed, Dying Fetus, Cannibal Corpse, and Deicide.
The lyrical themes of death metal may invoke slasher film-stylized violence, but may also extend to topics like Satanism, religion, occultism, Lovecraftian horror, nature, mysticism, philosophy, science fiction, and politics. Although violence may be explored in various other genres as well, death metal may elaborate on the details of extreme acts, including mutilation, dissection, torture, rape, cannibalism, and necrophilia. Sociologist Keith Kahn-Harris commented this apparent glamorization of violence may be attributed to a "fascination" with the human body that all people share to some degree, a fascination which mixes desire and disgust. Heavy metal author Gavin Baddeley also stated there does seem to be a connection between "how acquainted one is with their own mortality" and "how much they crave images of death and violence" via the media. Additionally, contributing artists to the genre often defend death metal as little more than an extreme form of art and entertainment, similar to horror films in the motion picture industry. This explanation has brought such musicians under fire from activists internationally, who claim that this is often lost on a large number of adolescents, who are left with the glamorization of such violence without social context or awareness of why such imagery is stimulating.
According to Alex Webster, bassist of Cannibal Corpse, "The gory lyrics are probably not, as much as people say, [what's keeping us] from being mainstream. Like, 'death metal would never go into the mainstream because the lyrics are too gory?' I think it's really the music, because violent entertainment is totally mainstream."
Origin of the term
The most popular theory of the subgenre's christening is Possessed's 1984 demo, Death Metal; the song from the eponymous demo would also be featured on the band's 1985 debut album, Seven Churches. Possessed vocalist/bassist Jeff Becerra said he coined the term in early 1983 for a high school English class assignment. Another possible origin is a fanzine called Death Metal, started by Thomas Fischer and Martin Ain of Hellhammer and Celtic Frost. The name was later given to the 1984 compilation Death Metal released by Noise Records. The term might also have originated from other recordings. A demo released by Death in 1984 is called Death by Metal.
It should be noted that cited examples are not necessarily exclusive to one particular style. Many bands can easily be placed in two or more of the following categories, and a band's specific categorization is often a source of contention due to personal opinion and interpretation.
- Melodic death metal: Scandinavian death metal could be considered the forerunner of "melodic death metal". Melodic death metal, sometimes referred to as "melodeath", is traditional heavy metal mixed with some death metal elements. Unlike most other death metal, melodeath usually features screams instead of growls, slower tempos, much more melody and even clean vocals are heard at rare times. Carcass is sometimes credited with releasing the first melodic death metal album with 1993's Heartwork, although Swedish bands In Flames, Dark Tranquillity, and At the Gates are usually mentioned as the main pioneers of the genre and of the Gothenburg metal sound.
- Technical death metal: Technical death metal and "progressive death metal" are related terms that refer to bands distinguished by the complexity of their music. Common traits are dynamic song structures, uncommon time signatures, atypical rhythms and unusual harmonies and melodies. Bands described as technical death metal or progressive death metal usually fuse common death metal aesthetics with elements of progressive rock, jazz or classical music. While the term technical death metal is sometimes used to describe bands that focus on speed and extremity as well as complexity, the line between progressive and technical death metal is thin. "Tech death" and "prog death", for short, are terms commonly applied to such bands as Nile, Edge of Sanity, and Opeth. Necrophagist and Spawn of Possession are known for a classical music-influenced death metal style. Death metal pioneers Death also refined their style in a more progressive direction in their final years. The Polish band Decapitated gained recognition as one of Europe's primary modern technical death metal acts.
- Death/doom: Death/doom is a style that combines the slow tempos and melancholic atmosphere of doom metal with the deep growling vocals and double-kick drumming of death metal. The style emerged during the late 1980s and gained a certain amount of popularity during the 1990s. It was pioneered by bands such as Autopsy, Winter, Asphyx, Disembowelment, Paradise Lost, and My Dying Bride. This style spawned the more extreme subgenre of funeral doom metal, which is even slower and more atmospheric.
- Goregrind, deathgrind and pornogrind are styles that mix the intensity, speed, and brevity of grindcore with the complexity of death metal. They differ from death metal in that guitar solos are often a rarity, shrieked vocals are more prominent as the main vocal style (though death growls are still utilized and some deathgrind bands make more use of the latter vocal style), and songs are generally shorter in length, usually between one and three minutes that keep with grindcore's tradition of short time lengths in songs. All three of these styles differs from grindcore in the more technical approach and less evident hardcore punk influence and aesthetics. Some notable examples of deathgrind are Brujeria, Cattle Decapitation, Cephalic Carnage, Pig Destroyer, Circle of Dead Children, Rotten Sound, GUT and Cock and Ball Torture.
- Deathcore: With the rise in popularity of metalcore, some of its traits have been incorporated into death metal. Bands such as Suicide Silence, Carnifex and Salt the Wound combine death metal with a variance of metalcore influence. Characteristics of death metal, such as fast drumming (including blast beats), down-tuned guitars, tremolo picking and growled vocals, are combined with the screamed vocals, melodic riffs and breakdowns of metalcore. Decibel magazine stated that "One of Suffocation's trademarks, breakdowns, has spawned an entire metal subgenre: deathcore."
- Death 'n' roll: is a style that combines death metal's growled vocals and highly distorted detuned guitar riffs along with elements of classic rock and roll and 1970s hard rock and heavy metal. Notable examples include Entombed, Gorefest and Six Feet Under .
- Blackened death metal: is a style that combines death metal and black metal. Examples of blackened death metal bands are Belphegor, Behemoth, Akercocke, and Sacramentum.
Other fusions and subgenres
There are other heavy metal music subgenres that have come from fusions between death metal and other non-metal genres, such as the fusion of death metal and jazz. Atheist and Cynic are two examples; the former went so far as to include jazz-style drum solos on albums, while the latter incorporated elements of jazz fusion. Nile have also incorporated Egyptian music and Middle Eastern themes into their work, while Alchemist have incorporated psychedelia along with Aboriginal music. Some groups, such as Nightfall, Septic Flesh, Fleshgod Apocalypse, and Eternal Tears of Sorrow, have incorporated keyboards and symphonic elements, creating a fusion of symphonic metal and death metal, sometimes referred to as symphonic death metal.
- "Death Metal/Black Metal". Allmusic. Retrieved 2008-07-04. "Death Metal grew out of the thrash metal in the late '80s."
- Dunn, Sam (Director) (August 5, 2005). Metal: A Headbanger's Journey (motion picture). Canada: Dunn, Sam.
- Bayer, Gerd (2009). Heavy metal music in Britain. Ashgate Publishing. p. 59. ISBN 0754693287.
- Joel McIver Extreme Metal, 2000, Omnibus Press pg.14 ISBN 88-7333-005-3
- The greatest metal band for Mtv
- Joel McIver Extreme Metal, 2000, Omnibus Press pg.100 ISBN 88-7333-005-3
- Joel McIver Extreme Metal, 2000, Omnibus Press pg.55 ISBN 88-7333-005-3
- Rivadavia, E. Possessed: Biography, allmusic, (Retrieved August 13, 2008)
- allmusic ((( Death > Biography )))
- Metal Rules Interview with Chuck Schuldiner
- The Best Of NAMM 2008: Jimmy Page, Satriani Models Among The Highlights | News @ Ultimate-Guitar.Com
- Morbid Angel page @ Allmusic "Formed in 1984 in Florida, Morbid Angel (along with Death) would also help spearhead an eventual death metal movement in their home state"
- Is Metal Still Alive? WATT Magazine, Written by: Robert Heeg, Published: April 1993
- Silver Dragon Records "During the 1990s death metal diversified influencing many subgenres"
- Venom – Welcome to Hell review @ Allmusic "Make no mistake: Welcome to Hell, more than any other album, crystallized the elements of what later became known as thrash, death, black, and virtually every other form of extreme metal"
- Venom band page @ Allmusic "Venom developed a dark, blistering sound which paved the way for the subsequent rise of thrash music; similarly, their macabre, proudly Satanic image proved a major inspiration for the legions of black metal bands"
- Into The Lungs of Hell Metal Hammer magazine, Written by: Enrico de Paola, Translated by: Vincenzo Chioccarelli, Published: March 2000 ""
- Slayer band page @ Allmusic
- Huey, Steve. "Reign in Blood – Slayer". Allmusicguide.com. Retrieved 2007-01-05.
- John Peel,, Albert Mudrian (2004). Choosing Death: The Improbable History of Death Metal and Grindcore. Feral House. ISBN 1-932595-04-X.
- Scaruffi, Piero (October 15, 2003). A History of Rock Music: 1951–2000 (page 277). iUniverse. ISBN 0-595-29565-7.
- Possessed – Seven Churches review @ Allmusic
- Possessed band page @ Allmusic
- POSSESSED interview – Jeff Becerra
- POSSESSED interview – Brian Montana
- Purcell, Natalie J. (2003). Death Metal music: the passion and politics of a subculture (page 54). McFarland & Company. ISBN 0-7864-1585-1.
- McIver, Joel (2008). The Bloody Reign of Slayer. Omnibus Press. ISBN 1-84772-109-5.
- Ekeroth, Daniel (2008). Swedish Death Metal (page 12). Bazillion Points. ISBN 978-0-9796163-1-0.
- John Peel, Albert Mudrian (2004). Choosing Death: The Improbable History of Death Metal and Grindcore (page 70). Feral House. ISBN 1-932595-04-X.
- Earache.com Jeff Becerra interview
- Death band page
- Purcell, Natalie J. (2003). "3". Death Metal Music: The Passion and Politics of a Subculture. McFarland & Company. p. 54. ISBN 0-7864-1585-1. Retrieved June 2007.
- Death biography, allmusic
- Aldis, N. & Sherry, J. Heavy metal Thunder, 2006, San Francisco: Chronicle ISBN 0-8118-5353-5
- about.com: "Post Mortem offered my first real exposure ever to death metal, arriving before standards like Death’s Scream Bloody Gore in 1987 and Autopsy’s Severed Survival in 1989"
- Boston Herald: "Boston isn’t known as a death-metal hotbed, but if the city could claim one pioneer band in the genre, it was Post Mortem"
- Boston Globe:"helped pioneer the underground subgenre of death metal"
- Sullivan, Andy (August 25, 2012). "Death metal, the sound of Tampa, won't be heard at Republican convention". Reuters. Yahoo News. Retrieved August 25, 2012. "When they convene in Tampa to nominate Mitt Romney for president next week, Republicans will not hear a note from the city's most notable musical exports: death-metal bands such as Deicide and Obituary."
- Empty Words, where there are dozens of reviews along this line
- 'Death Metal Special: Dealers in Death' Terrorizer #151
- Biography, Official Atheist site. Retrieved December 10, 2008
- Zebub, Bill (2007). Black Metal: A Documentary.
- Purcell, N. Death Metal music: the passion and politics of a subculture, at 9, McFarland, 2003 (Retrieved October 28, 2010)
- Kahn-Harris, K. Extreme metal: music and culture on the edge, at 32, Berg Publishers, 2007 (Retrieved October 28, 2010)
- Marsicano, D. Melodic Death Metal, About.com (Retrieved October 27, 2010)
- Interview with Samuel Deschaine, Death Metal Vocal Instructor 2011
- Melissa Cross, The Zen Of Screaming
- "Cookie Monster Vocals". about.com. Retrieved January 21, 2006.. See further examples of this usage at "The cookie monster vocal explained". rocknerd. Archived from the original on February 18, 2006. Retrieved January 21, 2006.
- Sharpe-Young, Garry. Death Metal, ISBN 0-9582684-4-4
- Moynihan, Michael, and Dirik Søderlind (1998). Lords of Chaos (2nd ed.). Feral House. ISBN 0-922915-94-6, p. 27
- Purcell, Natalie J. (2003). "3". Death Metal Music: The Passion and Politics of a Subculture. McFarland & Company. pp. 39–42. ISBN 0-7864-1585-1. Retrieved June 2007.
- Wikihow: How to Appreciate Death Metal
- Khan-Harris, Keith. Extreme Metal: Music and Culture on the Edge. Oxford: Berg, 2006. ISBN 978-1-84520-399-3
- Baddeley, Gavin. Raising Hell!: The Book of Satan and Rock 'n' Roll
- Alex Webster (Cannibal Corpse) interview
- Purcell, Natalie J. (2003). "4". Death Metal Music: The Passion and Politics of a Subculture. McFarland & Company. p. 53. ISBN 0-7864-1585-1. Retrieved June 2007. "Meanwhile, in 1983, the term was co-coined by some American teens who formed the band Possessed and labeled their demo "Death Metal"."
- Ekeroth, Daniel (2008). Swedish Death Metal (page 11). Bazillion Points. ISBN 978-0-9796163-1-0.
- Purcell, Natalie J. (2003). "3". Death Metal Music: The Passion and Politics of a Subculture. McFarland & Company. p. 53. ISBN 0-7864-1585-1. Retrieved June 2007. "The term "Death Metal" emerged when Thomas Fischer and Martin Ain, a pair of Swiss Venom fans in the band Hellhammer (later Celtic Frost), started a fanzine called "Death Metal". Later, their record label German Noise Records used the "Death Metal" name for a compilation featuring Hellhammer"
- Hellhammer biography"Karl from Noise is planning to call the LP Black Mass but it is Tom who talks him out of it and proposes Death Metal which actually is the name of the underground mag Tom used to run"
- THE DEATH OF DEATH Martelgang Magazine, Written by: Anton de Wit, Published: January 2002, "Yet it's almost unthinkable that the term wasn't inspired by the band name Death or their first demo, Death by Metal from 1984."
- Eduardo Rivadavia. "Decapitated Biography". Allmusic. Retrieved 2010-02-07.
- "Decapitated's New Lineup Performs Live For First Time; Photos Available – Feb. 3, 2010". Blabbermouth.net. Retrieved 2010-02-07.
- 'Doom Metal Special:Doom/Death' Terrorizer #142
- Purcell, Nathalie J. (2003). Death Metal Music: The Passion and Politics of a Subculture. McFarland & Company. p. 23. ISBN 0-7864-1585-1. Retrieved April 2008.
- Rivadavia, Eduardo. "Aborted". Allmusic. Retrieved 2009-06-10.
- Brown, Jonathon (2007-09-06). "Everything you ever wanted to know about pop (but were too old to ask)". The Independent (London). Retrieved 2009-06-16.
- Purcell, Natalie J. (2003). Death Metal Music: The Passion and Politics of a Subculture. McFarland. p. 24. ISBN 0-7864-1585-1. Retrieved 2007-11-28.
- "The Locust, Cattle Decapitation, Daughters", Pop and Rock Listings, The New York Times, April 13, 2007. Access date: August 6, 2008.
- Bryan Reed, The Daily Tar Heel, July 19, 2007.  Access date: August 6, 2008.
- Hess, Amanda. "Brick and Mordor: A record store heavy on the metal spins its last gloom and doom.". Washington City Paper. Retrieved 2009-06-16.
- Mincemoyer, John. "Gore International" (2002). Terrorizer No. 98, pp. 19–20.
- Sharpe-Young, Garry. "Deaden biography". MusicMight. Retrieved 2009-07-17.
- Sharpe-Young, Garry. "Salt the Wound". MusicMight. Retrieved 2009-07-08.
- Lee, Cosmo (#059 September 2009). "Suffocation reclaim their rightful place as kings of death metal". Decibel Magazine. "One of Suffocation's trademarks, breakdowns, has spawned an entire metal subgenre: deathcore"
- Cosmo Lee. "Stylus magazine review". stylusmagazine.com. Retrieved 2008-07-18. "“Death ’n’ roll” arose with Entombed’s 1993 album Wolverine Blues ... Wolverine Blues was like ’70s hard rock tuned down and run through massive distortion and death growls."
- Huey, Steve. "((( Gorefest > Biography )))". allmusic.com. Retrieved 2008-02-15. "Erase, was released in 1994 and found the band moving subtly toward more traditional forms of metal, partly through its sure sense of groove. That approach crystallized on 1996's Soul Survivor, which combined death metal with the elegant power and accessibility of '70s British metal."
- Henderson, Alex. "Ninewinged Serpent review". Allmusic. Retrieved 2009-05-03.
- Bowar, Chad. "Venganza review". About.com. Retrieved 2009-05-03.
- Tom. "Belphegor suspend all activities". Terrorizer Online. Retrieved January 29, 2012.
- "allmusic ((( Behemoth > Biography )))". Retrieved 2012-01-29.
- "AKERCOCKE". Musicmight.com. Retrieved 2012-01-29.
- "Sacramentum's Official homepage". Retrieved 2012-01-29.
- Christe, Ian. Sound of the Beast: The Complete Headbanging History of Heavy Metal. (New York, NY. Harper Collins, 2003) ISBN 978-0-380-81127-4
- Ekeroth, Daniel (2008). Swedish Death Metal. Bazillion Points Books. ISBN 978-0-9796163-1-0
- Harrell, Jack. "The Poetics of Destruction: Death Metal Rock." Popular Music and Society. Spring 1995. Republished, April 1996 in the Social Issues Resources Series (SIRS) database.
- Kahn-Harris, Keith 'Extreme Metal: Music and Culture on the Edge' Berg, http://soulremnants.com, ISBN 1-84520-399-2
- Mudrian, Albert, Choosing Death: The Improbable History of Death Metal & Grindcore (Feral House) ISBN 978-1-932595-04-8
- Purcell, Natalie J. 'Death Metal Music: The Passion and Politics of a Subculture' McFarland & Company, ISBN 0-7864-1585-1
- Media related to Death metal at Wikimedia Commons