Early Norwegian black metal scene
The early Norwegian black metal scene was a music scene and subculture in Norway during the early 1990s, based around black metal. Identified by some as a cult – "The Black Circle" or "Black Metal Inner Circle" – it consisted of youths ranging from late teens to mid-twenties, many of whom gathered at the record shop Helvete ("Hell") in Oslo.
The scene was the focus of controversy due to the strong anti-Christian beliefs of its members and the crimes they committed. There were two cases of murder, over two-dozen cases of arson, and other allegedly "Satanically-motivated" crimes. The scene drew the gaze of the Norwegian and international media, who often exaggerated the claims surrounding its members. For example, one Norwegian TV channel aired an interview with a woman who claimed that "Satanists" had sacrificed her child and killed her dog.
- 1 Musical innovations
- 2 Dead's suicide
- 3 Helvete and the 'Black Circle'
- 4 Church arsons and attempted arsons
- 5 Murder of Magne Andreassen
- 6 Bergens Tidende article
- 7 Murder of Euronymous
- 8 Conflict with other music scenes
- 9 List of artists
- 10 List of music releases
- 11 Documentaries
- 12 Bibliography
- 13 References
- 14 External links
During the 1980s, black metal was a loose grouping of a handful of metal bands who shared Satanic lyrics, although most of the "first wave" bands referred to Satanism only for shock value. During 1990–1992, a number of Norwegian artists, who were strongly influenced by those bands, began performing and releasing a new kind of black metal music. The surge of interest and popularity that followed is often referred to as the "second wave of black metal". The Norwegian bands developed the style of their 1980s forebears as a distinct genre of heavy metal music. This was partly thanks to a new style of guitar playing developed by Snorre 'Blackthorn' Ruch of Stigma Diabolicum/Thorns and Øystein 'Euronymous' Aarseth of Mayhem, in which guitarists played full chords using all the strings of the guitar in place of power chords using only two or three strings. Gylve 'Fenriz' Nagell of Darkthrone has credited them with this innovation in a number of interviews. He described it as being "derived from Bathory" and noted that "those kinds of riffs became the new order for a lot of bands in the '90s".
On 8 April 1991, Mayhem vocalist Per Yngve Ohlin (who called himself 'Dead') committed suicide while alone in a house shared by the band. Fellow musicians described Dead as odd, introverted and depressed. Before going onstage he went to great lengths to make himself look like a corpse and would cut his arms while singing.
He was found with slit wrists, a slit throat and a shotgun wound to the head, by Mayhem guitarist Euronymous. Dead's suicide note apologized for firing the weapon indoors and ended: "Excuse all the blood". Before calling the police, Euronymous allegedly went to a nearby shop and bought a disposable camera with which he photographed the body, after re-arranging some items. One of these photographs was later used as the cover of a bootleg live album: Dawn of the Black Hearts. In time, rumors spread that Euronymous had made a stew with bits of Dead's brain and had made necklaces with bits of his skull. The band later denied the former rumor, but confirmed that the latter was true. Moreover, Euronymous claimed to have given these necklaces to musicians he deemed worthy, which was confirmed by several other members of the scene, like Bård 'Faust' Eithun and Metalion.
Euronymous used Dead's suicide to foster Mayhem's 'evil' image and claimed Dead had killed himself because extreme metal had become 'trendy' and commercialized. Mayhem bassist Jørn 'Necrobutcher' Stubberud noted that "people became more aware of the [black metal] scene after Dead had shot himself ... I think it was Dead's suicide that really changed the scene". Emperor drummer Bård 'Faust' Eithun believes that Dead's suicide "marked the point at which, under Euronymous's direction, the black metal scene began its obsession with all things satanic and evil".
Helvete and the 'Black Circle'
Mayhem guitarist Euronymous was "the central figure involved in the formation of the Norwegian black metal scene", which he "almost single-handedly founded". During May–June 1991, he opened a record shop which he called Helvete. The term Helvete is Norwegian for "Hell", and comes from the Norse hels víti, meaning "Hel's punishment". The shop was at Schweigaards gate 56 in Oslo. Norwegian black metal musicians often met at the shop and in its basement. They included the members of Mayhem, the members of Emperor, Varg 'Count Grishnackh' Vikernes of Burzum, and Snorre 'Blackthorn' Ruch of Thorns. Euronymous also founded an independent record label called Deathlike Silence Productions, which was based at Helvete. It released albums by Norwegian bands Mayhem and Burzum, and Swedish bands Merciless and Abruptum. Euronymous, Varg, and Emperor guitarist Tomas 'Samoth' Haugen lived in the shop at various times. Emperor drummer Bård 'Faust' Eithun also lived and worked there. The shop's walls were painted black and bedecked with medieval weapons, posters of bands, and picture discs, while its window featured a polystyrene tombstone.
According to Stian 'Occultus' Johannsen, the space that Euronymous rented "was far too big and the rent was too high. That's the reason why it never did well". Only a small part of the building was used for the shop itself. Euronymous would shut Helvete in early 1993 when it began to draw the attention of the police and media. Nevertheless, during the time that it was open it became the focal point of the Norwegian black metal scene. Jon 'Metalion' Kristiansen, writer of the fanzine Slayer, said that the opening of Helvete was "the creation of the whole Norwegian Black Metal scene". Daniel Ekeroth wrote in 2008,
Within just a few months [of Helvete opening], many young musicians had become obsessed with Euronymous and his ideas, and soon a lot of Norwegian death metal bands transformed into black metal bands. Amputation became Immortal, Thou Shalt Suffer turned into Emperor, and Darkthrone swapped their Swedish-inspired death metal for primitive black metal. Most notoriously, Old Funeral's guitar player Varg Vikernes had already left the band to form his own creation, Burzum.
Those who gathered at Helvete have been referred to as the "Black Circle" or "Black Metal Inner Circle". Faust says that the name was invented by Euronymous. At the time, some in the media implied that the "Black Circle" was an organized, cult-like group. However, when asked in Lords of Chaos "What was the Black Circle?", Faust answered:
It's just a name that was invented for the people who hung around the shop […] there wasn't anything like members and membership cards and official meetings.
Likewise, in his review of Lucifer Rising, Varg Vikernes denied its existence, claiming:
First of all the so-called 'Black Circle' was something Euronymous made up because he wanted to make people believe there was such a thing, but it was nonsense and never existed. The media on the other hand believed it existed for a while, but quickly stopped talking about it when they understood it was a fake rumor.
The Norwegian black metal scene was bitterly opposed to Christianity and organized religion as a whole. In interviews during the early 1990s, Euronymous and other members of the scene presented themselves as misanthropic Devil worshippers who wanted to spread hatred, sorrow and evil. They attacked the Church of Satan for being too "humane". The theistic Satanism they espoused was an inversion of Christianity. Euronymous was the key figure behind this ideology. He professed to be in favor of totalitarianism and against individualism, compassion, peace, happiness and fun. When asked why such statements were made to the press, Ihsahn of Emperor said: "I think that was very much to create fear among people". He added that the scene "wanted to be in opposition to society" and "tried to concentrate more on just being 'evil' than having a real Satanic philosophy". Vikernes said that the reason they claimed to advocate "evil" was to provoke. According to Lords of Chaos, many who knew Euronymous say that "the extreme Satanic image he projected was, in fact, just that – a projection which bore little resemblance to his real personality". They include Kjetil Manheim, Vikernes and Blackthorn (the latter two were convicted for his murder). Faust said that with Euronymous, "there was a lot of smoke but not so much fire". Mortiis, however, said that Euronymous "was such a devil worshipper you wouldn't believe it", and Metalion (who knew Euronymous since 1985 and considered him to be his best friend) said that Euronymous "was always telling what he thought [...] worshipping death and being extreme". As for the other scene members, Sanna Fridh says that there is no evidence to support their early claims of being Devil worshippers, and Leif A. Lier, who led the police investigation after Euronymous's death, said he and his men had not met one Satanist. Faust said that "For some people it [Satanism] was bloody serious, but to a lot of them it was all a big hype".
In retrospect, Metalion wrote: "In the past, people just wrote about Satan, but now people meant it. I believe it was serious—maybe not all the Satanism, but definitely the approach to the music and the lifestyle. It was certainly more destructive than metal had been in the past". Tenebris from the Misanthropic Luciferian Order (a Swedish Satanic order) wrote that the Norwegian scene "meant a lot as long as it lasted. Back then, in 1991, things mainly concerned black metal and ideological Satanism (not so much practical Satanism, but anyway...) [...] It grew quickly to become a sort of black metal army [...] and kind of stood and fell with Euronymous and his shop. Therefore, it vanished with his death in '93 [...] Sadly enough, many people involved at the time betrayed their ideals and lost their interest when things fell apart. Like it was nothing more than a hype of temporary nature".
Regarding the term 'black metal', Euronymous said that it applies to any heavy metal band who are theistic Satanists and write Satanic lyrics. Such ideas were repeated by other scene members, such as Faust. At the time, bands with a style similar to Norwegian black metal, but without Satanic lyrics, tended to use other terms for their music.
Church arsons and attempted arsons
Musicians and fans of the Norwegian black metal scene took part in over 50 arsons of Christian churches from 1992 to 1996. Some of the buildings were hundreds of years old, and widely regarded as important historical landmarks. One of the first and most notable was Norway's Fantoft stave church, which the police believed was burnt by Varg Vikernes. In May 1994, he was found guilty for the burnings of Holmenkollen Chapel, Skjold Church and Åsane Church. To coincide with the release of Mayhem's De Mysteriis Dom Sathanas, Vikernes and Euronymous had allegedly plotted to blow up Nidaros Cathedral, which appears on the album cover. Euronymous's murder in August 1993 put an end to this plan and stalled the album's release. The musicians Samoth, Faust and Jørn Inge Tunsberg were also convicted for church arsons.
Many of those convicted for the church burnings have said that their actions were a symbolic "retaliation" against Christianity in Norway. According to Mayhem drummer Hellhammer, he had urged the others to focus their attacks on mosques and Hindu temples instead. Today, opinions on the church burnings differ within the black metal community. Guitarist Infernus and former vocalist Gaahl of the band Gorgoroth have praised the church burnings in interviews, with the latter saying "there should have been more of them, and there will be more of them". However, Necrobutcher and Kjetil Manheim of Mayhem have berated the church burnings, with the latter claiming "It was just people trying to gain acceptance within a strict group [the black metal scene] … they wanted some sort of approval and status".
The following is a partial list of the church arsons:
- May 23: burning of Storetveit Church in Bergen
- Jun 6: burning of Fantoft stave church in Bergen – Varg Vikernes is strongly suspected as the culprit, but was not convicted.
- Aug 1: burning of Revheim Church in Stavanger
- Aug 21: burning of Holmenkollen Chapel in Oslo – Varg Vikernes and Faust were convicted for this; Euronymous also participated, but was murdered before the trial began.
- Sep 1: burning of Ormøya Church in Oslo
- Sep 13: burning of Skjold Church in Vindafjord – Varg Vikernes and Samoth were convicted for this.
- Oct 3: burning of Hauketo Church in Oslo.
- Dec 24: burning of Åsane Church in Bergen – Varg Vikernes and Jørn Inge Tunsberg were convicted for this.
- Dec 25: burning of a Methodist church in Sarpsborg – a firefighter was killed while fighting this fire.
- Mar 13: burning of a church in Sund
- Mar 27: burning of Seegård Church in Snertingdal
- May 16: attempted burning of Gol stave church in Buskerud
- May 17: attempted burning of Åmodt Chapel in Buskerud
- Jun 4: burning of Frogn Church in Drøbak
- Jun 19: attempted burning of Heni Church in Gjerdrum
- Jul 7: burning of a church in Jeløy
- Jul 21: attempted burning of Odda's Church
- Aug 13: attempted burning of Loop Chapel in Meldal
- Dec 10: attempted burning of Åkra Church
- Dec 22: attempted burning of Askim Church
- Dec 26: attempted burning of Klemestrud Church
- May 13: burning of Lord Church in Telemark
- May 25: burning of Såner Church in Vestby
- Jun 14: burning of Moe Church in Sandefjord
- Jul 21: attempted burning of a church college in Eidanger
- Sep 3: attempted burning of Vågsbygd church college in Oddernes
- Nov 3: burning of Innset Church in Rennebu
Murder of Magne Andreassen
On 21 August 1992, Bård 'Faust' Eithun stabbed to death Magne Andreassen, a gay man, in a forest just outside Lillehammer. Faust was visiting his family there. He went to a pub and had a drink, but "the atmosphere didn't suit him, so he decided to head home". According to Faust, while walking in the Olympic park, "this man approached me – he was obviously drunk and obviously a faggot [...] it was obvious that he wanted to have some contact. Then he asked me if we could [...] go up to the woods. So I agreed, because already then I had decided that I wanted to kill him, which was very weird because I'm not like this". Faust carried a knife because, as he explained: "It's better to have a knife you don't need than to not have one when you need it". Once in the woods, Faust stabbed Andreassen 37 times and then kicked him in the head repeatedly as he lay on the ground.
Faust claimed that he felt no remorse at the time. In the late 1990s, he said of the murder: "I was outside, just waiting to get out some aggression. It's not easy to describe why it happened. It was meant to happen, and if it was this man or another man, that's not really important". Ihsahn, his bandmate in Emperor, said that Faust "had been very fascinated by serial killers for a long time, and I guess he wanted to know what it's like to kill a person". The murder has also been linked to black metal, Satanism or fascism, but in a 2008 interview Faust explained: "I was never a Satanist or fascist in any way, but I put behind me the hatred and negativity. Those feelings just eat you up from inside".
Police initially had no suspects, and Faust remained free for about a year. However, he told Euronymous, Vikernes and a few others what he had done. The day after the stabbing, he returned to Oslo and burnt down Holmenkollen Chapel with Vikernes and Euronymous. After Euronymous' murder in August 1993, Faust was arrested and confessed to Andreassen's murder. In 1994, he was sentenced to 14 years imprisonment, but was released in 2003 after serving nine years and four months.
Bergens Tidende article
In January 1993, an article in one of Norway's biggest newspapers, Bergens Tidende (BT), brought the black metal scene into the media spotlight. Two friends of Vikernes interviewed him and brought the interview to the newspaper, hoping they would print it. In the anonymous interview, 'Count Grishnackh' (Vikernes) claimed to have burnt the churches and killed a man in Lillehammer. BT journalist Finn Bjørn Tønder set-up a meeting with 'Count Grishnackh', with help from the friends. The journalists were summoned to an apartment and, allegedly, warned that they would be shot if the police were called. There, Vikernes and his companions told the journalists that they had burnt the churches, or knew who had done it, and said that the attacks would continue. They claimed to be Devil worshippers and said: "Our intention is to spread fear and devilry […] that is why we are telling this to Bergens Tidende". They told the journalists details about the arsons that hadn't been released to the press and so BT spoke with the police before publishing it, who confirmed these details. The article was published on 20 January as the front page of the BT. It was headlined "We Lit the Fires" and included a photo of Vikernes, his face mostly hidden, holding two large knives. However, by the time the article was printed, Vikernes had already been arrested. The police allegedly found him by going to an address printed on a Burzum flyer, although Vikernes believes that Tønder "snitched" on him.
According to Vikernes, the anonymous interview was planned by himself and Euronymous. The goal, he says, was to scare people, promote black metal and get more customers for Helvete. At the time, Burzum was about to release the Aske mini-album. Vikernes said of the interview: "I exaggerated a lot and when the journalist left we [...] had a good laugh, because he didn't seem to understand that I was pulling his leg". He added that the interview revealed nothing that could prove his involvement in any crime. Vikernes claims that, after he was arrested, "the journalist edited the interview and [...] published an insane version of it the following day, without even letting me read through it". Some of the other scene members were also arrested and questioned, but all were released for lack of evidence.
Euronymous, however, did not take advantage of this publicity. Vikernes wrote:
The interesting thing is that when I was arrested Euronymous closed down the shop instead of taking advantage of the situation, because his parents thought the attention was too uncomfortable! So the "evil" Black Metal hero did what his mother and father told him to! Pretty pathetic, alright, but by doing so he also made all my efforts more or less pointless. I spent six weeks in custody because of that, and all he did was to close down the shop! The customers came in droves, but to a closed shop! How stupid is that?!
Norwegian magazine Rock Furore published an interview with Vikernes in February 1993. In it, he said of the prison system: "It's much too nice here. It's not hell at all. In this country prisoners get a bed, toilet and shower. It's completely ridiculous. I asked the police to throw me in a real dungeon, and also encouraged them to use violence". He was released in March for lack of evidence.
Shortly after this episode, the Oslo police dispatched its Church Fire Group to Bergen, where they set up a makeshift headquarters in the Hotel Norge. According to Lords of Chaos, citing a police report, Vikernes knocked on their door and "virtually forced his way into the suite". He was "dressed in chain mail, carrying two large knives in his belt, and flanked by the two young men who apparently behaved as if they were his bodyguards or henchmen". Vikernes "stated that he was fed up with being harassed by the authorities, and that the police investigation into the Black Metal scene should be stopped". When told that he had no right to issue orders to the police, Vikernes "took one step back and raised his right arm in a Roman salute".
Murder of Euronymous
In early 1993, animosity arose between Euronymous and Vikernes, and between Euronymous and the Swedish black metal scene.
On the night of 10 August 1993, Vikernes and Snorre 'Blackthorn' Ruch drove from Bergen to Euronymous's apartment at Tøyengata (English: Tøyen Street) in Oslo. Upon their arrival a confrontation began and Vikernes fatally stabbed Euronymous. His body was found on the stairs outside the apartment with 23 cut wounds – two to the head, five to the neck, and sixteen to the back. At first, many blamed Swedish black metalers for the murder.
It has been speculated that the murder was the result of a power struggle, a financial dispute over Burzum records, or an attempt at "outdoing" Andreassen's stabbing in Lillehammer. Vikernes denies all of these, claiming that he attacked Euronymous in self-defense. He says that Euronymous had plotted to stun him with an electroshock weapon, tie him up and torture him to death while videotaping the event. Vikernes explains: "If he was talking about it to everybody and anybody I wouldn't have taken it seriously. But he just told a select group of friends, and one of them told me". He said Euronymous planned to use a meeting about an unsigned contract to ambush him. Blackthorn stood outside smoking while Vikernes climbed the stairs to Euronymous's apartment on the fourth floor. Vikernes said he met Euronymous at the door and handed him the contract, but when he stepped forward and confronted Euronymous, Euronymous "panicked" and kicked him in the chest. The two got into a struggle and Vikernes stabbed Euronymous to death. After the slaying, Vikernes and Blackthorn drove back to Bergen. On the way, they stopped at a lake where Vikernes disposed of his bloodstained clothes. The self-defense story is doubted by Faust and other members of the scene.
According to Vikernes, Blackthorn only came along to show Euronymous some new guitar riffs and was "in the wrong place at the wrong time". Blackthorn claims that, in the summer of 1993, he was almost committed to a mental hospital but fled to Bergen and stayed with Vikernes. He said Vikernes planned to murder Euronymous and pressured him into coming along. Blackthorn said of the murder, "I was neither for nor against it. I didn't give a shit about Øystein". Vikernes called Blackthorn's claims a "defense […] to make sure I couldn't blame him [for the murder]".
Vikernes was arrested on 19 August 1993 in Bergen. Many other members of the scene, including Blackthorn and Faust, were also taken in for questioning. Some of them confessed to their crimes and implicated others. According to Lords of Chaos, "Vikernes is disgusted by the fact that, while he held fast to a code of silence, others confessed". The trial began on 2 May 1994 and during it the media made Vikernes "the nation's first real bogeyman in fifty years". At the trial it was claimed that he, Blackthorn and another friend had planned the murder. The third person stayed at the apartment in Bergen as an alibi. To make it look like they never left Bergen, he was to rent films, play them in the apartment, and withdraw money from Vikernes's credit card. On 16 May 1994, Vikernes was sentenced to 21 years in prison (Norway's maximum penalty) for the murder of Euronymous, the arson of three churches, the attempted arson of a fourth church, and for the theft and storage of 150 kg of explosives. However, he only confessed to the latter. Two churches were burnt the day he was sentenced, "presumably as a statement of symbolic support". Blackthorn was sentenced to 8 years in prison for being an accomplice, while Faust was sentenced to 14 years in prison for the murder of Magne Andreassan and the arson of Holmenkollen Chapel.
That month saw the release of Mayhem's album De Mysteriis Dom Sathanas, which has Euronymous on electric guitar and Vikernes on bass guitar. Before the release, Euronymous's family had asked Mayhem's drummer, Hellhammer, to remove the bass tracks recorded by Vikernes. Hellhammer said: "I thought it was appropriate that the murderer and victim were on the same record. I put word out that I was re-recording the bass parts, but I never did".
In 2003, Vikernes failed to return to Tønsberg prison after being given a short leave. He was re-arrested shortly after while driving a stolen car with various weapons. He was released from prison on parole in May 2009.
Conflict with other music scenes
There was a strong rivalry between Norwegian black metal and Swedish death metal scenes. Fenriz and Tchort have noted that Norwegian black metal musicians had become "fed up with the whole death metal scene" and that "death metal was very uncool in Oslo" at the time. A number of times, Euronymous sent death threats to some of the more 'mainstream' death metal groups in Europe. Allegedly, a group of Norwegian black metal fans even plotted to kidnap and murder certain Swedish death metal musicians.
There was also rivalry between Norwegian and Finnish black metal bands. Impaled Nazarene printed "No orders from Norway accepted" and "Kuolema Norjan kusipäille!" ('Death to the arseholes of Norway!') on early pressings of their first album and innuendo and snarky comments were made in fanzines. Beherit's mainman 'Nuclear Holocausto' used the rivalry to play a series of telephone pranks on Mika Luttinen (of Impaled Nazarene) in which he would call him in the dead of the night playing nursery rhymes at high speed on a cassette recorder. At the time, Luttinen upheld that the messages were threats from Norwegian black metallers. The Finnish band Black Crucifixion criticized the Norwegian band Darkthrone as "trendies" due to Darkthrone originally being a death metal band who later played black metal.
List of artists
The following is a list of Norwegian artists that released black metal music during 1987–1993:
|Arcturus (aka Mortem)||1987||Oslo|
|Carpathian Forest (aka Enthrone)||1990||Sandnes, Rogaland|
|Darkthrone (aka Black Death)||1986||Kolbotn, Oppegård|
|Hades/Hades Almighty||1992||Bergen, Hordaland|
|Thorns (aka Stigma Diabolicum)||1989||Trondheim, Sør-Trøndelag|
|Thou Shalt Suffer||1991||Notodden, Telemark|
List of music releases
The following is a list of black metal recordings and releases by the aforesaid bands during 1987–1993. Releases in bold are albums, whilst the rest are demos and extended plays.
|1989-12||Stigma Diabolicum||Luna de Nocturnus|
|1990-03||Stigma Diabolicum||Lacus de Luna|
|1990-04||Mayhem||Freezing Moon and Carnage||these songs feature Dead as vocalist and appeared on the 1991 Projections of a Stained Mind compilation|
|1990-11||Mayhem||Live in Leipzig||recorded live on 26/11/1990 but not released officially until July 1993|
|1991-05||Burzum||Burzum Demo I|
|1991-07||Thou Shalt Suffer||Open the Mysteries of Your Creation|
|1991-08||Darkthrone||A Blaze in the Northern Sky||recorded in August 1991 but not released until February 1992|
|1991-09||Burzum||Burzum Demo II|
|1991-10||Thou Shalt Suffer||Into the Woods of Belial|
|1992-04||Burzum||Det som engang var||recorded in April 1992 but not released until August 1993|
|1992-06||Darkthrone||Under a Funeral Moon||recorded in June 1992 but not released until June 1993|
|1992-07||Immortal||Diabolical Fullmoon Mysticism|
|1992-07||Emperor||Wrath of the Tyrant|
|1992-08||Burzum||Aske||recorded in August 1992 but not released until March 1993|
|1992-09||Carpathian Forest||Bloodlust & Perversion|
|1992-09||Burzum||Hvis lyset tar oss||recorded in September 1992 but not released until April 1994|
|1992-12||Fimbulwinter||Rehearsal Demo||re-released as a full-length album, Servants of Sorcery, in 1994|
|1992-12||Emperor||Emperor||recorded in December 1992 and released in May 1993|
|1992-12||Emperor||As the Shadows Rise||recorded in December 1992 and released in 1994|
|1993-03||Burzum||Filosofem||recorded in March 1993 but not released until January 1996|
|1993-03||Satyricon||The Forest Is My Throne|
|1993-04||Gorgoroth||A Sorcery Written in Blood|
|1993-06||Hades Almighty||Alone Walkyng|
|1993-07||Emperor||In the Nightside Eclipse||recorded in July 1993 but not released until February 1994|
|1993-08||Ancient||Eerily Howling Winds|
|1993-09||Satyricon||Dark Medieval Times||recorded in Aug–Sep 1993 and released in early 1994|
|1993-12||Darkthrone||Transilvanian Hunger||recorded in Nov–Dec 1993 and released in February 1994|
|1993-??||Carpathian Forest||Journey Through the Cold Moors of Svarttjern|
|1992-??-1993-??||Mayhem||De Mysteriis Dom Sathanas||recorded in 1992/1993 but not released until 1994|
- Det svarte alvor (1994).
- Satan rir Media (English: Satan Rides the Media) (1998).
- Norsk Black Metal (2003), aired on Norwegian TV by the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation (NRK).
- Metal: A Headbanger's Journey (2005) touches on black metal in the early 1990s, and includes an extensive 25-minute feature on the DVD release.
- Black Metal: A Documentary (2006), produced by Bill Zebub.
- Murder Music: A History of Black Metal (2007).
- Once Upon a Time in Norway (2007).
- Pure Fucking Mayhem (2008).
- Black Metal: The Norwegian Legacy (2008), produced by Bill Zebub.
- Until the Light Takes Us (2009)
- Black Metal: The Music of Satan (2010), produced by Bill Zebub.
- Michael Moynihan, Didrik Søderlind: Lords of Chaos: The Bloody Rise of the Satanic Metal Underground (Revised and Expanded Edition). Feral House, 2003.
- Gavin Baddeley: Lucifer Rising: Sin, Devil Worship and Rock and Roll. Plexus Publishing, 1999.
- Grude, Torstein (director) (1998). Satan rir Media (motion picture). Norway: Grude, Torstein.
- Moynihan, Michael; Søderlind, Didrik (2003) . Lords of Chaos: The Bloody Rise of the Satanic Metal Underground (revised and expanded ed.). Feral House. p. 16.
- Campion, Chris (20 February 2005). "In the Face of Death". The Observer (Guardian Unlimited). Retrieved 6 October 2007.
- Mudrian, Albert (2009). Precious Metal: Decibel Presents the Stories Behind 25 Extreme Metal Masterpieces. Da Capo Press. p. 184.
- Aites, Aaron (director, producer); Ewell, Audrey (director, producer) (2009). Until the Light Takes Us (motion picture). Variance Films.
- "Web-exclusive interview: Darkthrone's Fenriz (Part 2)". Revolver. 14 January 2010.
- Dome, Michael (director) (2007). Murder Music: Black Metal (motion picture). Rockworld TV.
- Ledang, Martin (director); Aasdal, Pål (director) (2007). Once Upon a Time in Norway (motion picture). Another World Entertainment.
- Rydehed, Stefan (director) (2008). Pure Fucking Mayhem (motion picture). Index Verlag.
- Basik, Dmitry (June 1998). "Hellhammer interview". Archived from the original on 19 February 2008.
- Lords of Chaos, p. 62.
- Lords of Chaos, p. 49.
- Sam Dunn (director) (2005). Metal: A Headbanger's Journey (motion picture). Seville Pictures.
- Lords of Chaos, p. 55.
- Kristiansen, p. 219.
- Lords of Chaos, pp. 59–60.
- Unrestrained magazine #15: Necrobutcher interview
- MusicMight: Biography of Immortal
- Discogs: Erik Brødreskift
- Find A Grave: Erik "Grim" Brødreskift (1969-1999)
- Ravn: Strid. In: Slayer, No. 20, Blood Fire Death, 2010, p. 78.
- Olson, Benjamin Hedge: I am the Black Wizards: Multiplicity, mysticism and identity in black metal music and culture. Bowling Green State University, May 2008. p. 27.
- Lords of Chaos, p. 119.
- Lords of Chaos, p. 66.
- "Øystein 'Euronymous' Aarseth". June 1992. Retrieved 10 October 2009. "Well, the original idea was to make a specialist shop for metal in general, but that's a long time ago. Normal metal isn't very popular any more, all the children are listening to 'death' metal now. I'd rather be selling Judas Priest than Napalm Death, but at least now we can be specialized within 'death' metal and make a shop where all the trend people know that they will find all the trend music. This will help us earning money so that we can order more EVIL records to the evil people. But no matter how shitty music we have to sell, we'll make a BLACK METAL look on the shop, we've had a couple of 'actions' in churches lately, and the shop is going to look like a black church in the future. We've also thought about having total darkness inside, so that people would have to carry torches to be able to see the records."
- Norwegian dictionary entry for "Helvete"
- Christe, Ian (2003). Sound of the Beast: the Complete Headbanging History of Heavy Metal. New York: HarperCollins Publishers Inc. p. 271.
- Lords of Chaos, p. 64.
- Lords of Chaos, p. 39.
- Ekeroth, Daniel: Swedish Death Metal. Second printing. Brooklyn, NY: Bazillion Points 2009, p. 247.
- Lords of Chaos, p. 68.
- Vikernes, Varg (13 August 2004). "A personal review of Gavin Baddeley's book Lucifer Rising: Sin, Devil Worship and Rock'n'Roll". Burzum.org. Retrieved 31 January 2007.
- Olson, pp. 7f.
- Lords of Chaos, p. 220.
- Lords of Chaos, p. 76.
- Lahdenpera, Esa: Northern Black Metal Legends. In: Kill Yourself, no. 2, August 1993. Retrieved 30 January 2013.
- Lords of Chaos, p. 222.
- Lords of Chaos, p. 218f.
- Lords of Chaos, p. 161.
- Lords of Chaos, p. 137.
- Lords of Chaos, p. 134.
- Christe, Ian: Sound of the Beast: the Complete Headbanging History of Heavy Metal. New York, NY: Harper Collins, 2004.
- Kristiansen 2011, p. 39.
- Kristiansen 2011, pp. 266–269.
- Fridh, Sanna. Satan: The Perfect Man: A Symbol and Gender Analysis of Satanism in Black Metal. University of Gothenburg, 2010. p. 7.
- Lords of Chaos, p. 255.
- Kristiansen, p. 222.
- MLO. Misantropiska Lucifer Orden. In: Jon Kristiansen: Metalion: The Slayer Mag Diaries. Bazillion Points Books 2011, p. 551.
- Kristiansen, Jon (2011). Metalion: The Slayer Mag Diaries. Bazillion Points Books. p. 274.
- Halupczok, Marc. Waldschrate & Met-Trinker. In: Metal Hammer. March 2010. p. 30.
- Enslaved: Frost. Osmose Productions 1994.
- Various Artists: Nordic Metal - A Tribute to Euronymous. Necropolis Records 1995.
- Lords of Chaos, p. 93.
- Lords of Chaos, p. 100.
- Lords of Chaos, p. 94f.
- Lords of Chaos, p. 89.
- Lords of Chaos, p. 105.
- Lords of Chaos, pp. 82f.
- Kristiansen, p. 261.
- Lords of Chaos, p. 89.
- Lords of Chaos, p. 117.
- Church of Norway (Den Norske Kirke) - History (Historie) - 1994
- Church of Norway (Den Norske Kirke) - History (Historie) - 1995
- Lords of Chaos, p. 111.
- Lords of Chaos, p. 112.
- Lords of Chaos, p. 116.
- Lords of Chaos, p. 113.
- Lords of Chaos, p. 114.
- Bowar, Chad. "Interview with former Emperor drummer Faust". Retrieved 30 May 2008. "I was never a Satanist or fascist in any way, but I put behind me the hatred and negativity. Those feelings just eat you up from inside."
- Lords of Chaos, pp. 95–97.
- Varg Vikernes's review of Satan Rides the Media. Burzum.org
- "Count" Regrets Nothing. Burzum.org.
- Vikernes, Varg: A Burzum Story: Part II - Euronymous. Burzum.org.
- A Burzum Story: Part II - Euronymous
- Lords of Chaos, p. 42.
- Lords of Chaos, p. 143.
- Steinke, Darcey. "Satan's Cheerleaders". SPIN. February 1996.
- Mayhem Biography on Yahoo! Music
- Lords of Chaos, p. 123.
- Lords of Chaos, p. 130.
- Lords of Chaos, p. 120.
- Lords of Chaos, p. 141.
- Lords of Chaos, p. 145.
- Lords of Chaos, p. 129.
- Police nab 'The Count' after he fled jail - Aftenposten.no
- Bill Zebub (director) (2007). Black Metal: A Documentary (motion picture). Bill Zebub Productions.
- The End of a Legend? Isten smokes Holocaust Vengeance out of BEHERIT. In: Isten, no. 6, 1995, pp. 44f.
- "The Oath of the Goat's Black Blood". Sinister Flame 1: 28–32. 2003.
- Darkthrone - A Blaze in the Northern Sky CD cover
- Burzum "Det Som Engang Var" 1993 - Burzum.org
- Burzum "Aske" (mini-LP) 1993 - Burzum.org
- Burzum "Hvis Lyset Tar Oss" 1994 - Burzum.org
- Emperor - Emperor vinyl cover at Discogs.com
- Emperor - As the Shadows Rise vinyl cover at Discogs.com
- Burzum "Filosofem" 1996 - Burzum.org
- Satyricon - Dark Medieval Times cassette cover
- Darkthrone - Transilvanian Hunger vinyl cover at Discogs.com
- Mayhem: De Mysteriis Dom Sathanas. Deathlike Silence Productions 1994.
- Until the Light Takes Us (2008)
- "In the Face of Death" - article about the early Norwegian black metal scene, focusing on Mayhem (2005)