Cirque du Soleil
|Headquarters||Montreal, Quebec, Canada|
|Daniel Lamarre, President and CEO|
|Revenue||C$850 million (FY 2010)|
Number of employees
|Divisions||Cirque du Soleil Images, Cirque du Soleil's Merchandising|
|Subsidiaries||Cirque du Soleil Musique|
Cirque du Soleil (pronounced: [siʁk dy sɔ.lɛj], "Circus of the Sun") is a Canadian entertainment company. It is the largest theatrical producer in the world. Based in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, and located in the inner-city area of Saint-Michel, it was founded in Baie-Saint-Paul in 1984 by two former street performers, Guy Laliberté and Gilles Ste-Croix.
Initially named Les Échassiers ([lez‿e.ʃa.sje], "The Waders"), they toured Quebec in 1980 as a performing troupe. Their initial financial hardship was relieved in 1983 by a government grant from the Canada Council for the Arts, as part of the 450th anniversary celebrations of Jacques Cartier's voyage to Canada. Le Grand Tour du Cirque du Soleil was a success in 1984, and after securing a second year of funding, Laliberté hired Guy Caron from the National Circus School to re-create it as a "proper circus". Its theatrical, character-driven approach and the absence of performing animals helped define Cirque du Soleil as the contemporary circus ("nouveau cirque") that it remains today.
Each show is a synthesis of circus styles from around the world, with its own central theme and storyline. Shows employ continuous live music, with performers rather than stagehands changing the props. After financial successes and failures in the late 1980s, Nouvelle Expérience was created – with the direction of Franco Dragone – which not only made Cirque du Soleil profitable by 1990, but allowed it to create new shows.
Cirque du Soleil expanded rapidly through the 1990s and 2000s, going from one show to 19 shows in over 271 cities on every continent except Antarctica. The shows employ approximately 4,000 people from over 40 countries and generate an estimated annual revenue exceeding US$810 million. The multiple permanent Las Vegas shows alone play to more than 9,000 people a night, 5% of the city's visitors, adding to the 90 million people who have experienced Cirque du Soleil's shows worldwide. In 2000, Laliberté bought out Gauthier, and with 95% ownership, has continued to expand the brand. In 2008, Laliberté split 20% of his share equally between two investment groups Istithmar World and Nakheel of Dubai, in order to further finance the company's goals. In partnership with these two groups, Cirque du Soleil had planned to build a residency show in the United Arab Emirates in 2012 directed by Guy Caron (Dralion) and Michael Curry. But since Dubai's financial problems in 2010 caused by the 2008 recession, it was stated by Laliberté that the project has been "put on ice" for the time being and may be looking for another financial partner to bankroll the company's future plans, even willing to give up another 10% of his share. Several more shows are in development around the world, along with a television deal, women's clothing line and the possible venture into other mediums such as spas, restaurants and nightclubs. Cirque du Soleil also produces a small number of private and corporate events each year (past clients have been the royal family of Dubai and the 2007 Super Bowl).
The company's creations have received numerous prizes and distinctions, including a Bambi Award in 1997, a Rose d'Or in 1989, three Drama Desk Awards in 1991, 1998 and 2013, three Gemini Awards, four Primetime Emmy Awards, and a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. In 2000, Cirque du Soleil was awarded the National Arts Centre Award, a companion award of the Governor General's Performing Arts Awards.
- 1 Origins
- 2 Shows
- 3 Other works
- 4 Grand chapiteau tours
- 5 Lounges
- 6 Theme Park
- 7 Discography
- 8 Filmography
- 9 Legal issues
- 10 Fatalities
- 11 References
- 12 External links
A new idea became to come shape the performing arts, Cirque du Soleil founder Guy Laliberté toured Europe as a folk musician and busker after quitting college. By the time he returned home to Canada in 1979, he had learned the art of fire breathing. Although he became "employed" at a hydroelectric power plant in James Bay, his job ended after only three days due to a labour strike. He decided not to look for another job, instead supporting himself on his unemployment insurance. He helped organize a summer fair in Baie-Saint-Paul with the help of a pair of friends named Daniel Gauthier and Gilles Ste-Croix.
Gauthier and Ste-Croix were managing a youth hostel for performing artists named Le Balcon Vert at that time. By the summer of 1979, Ste-Croix had been developing the idea of turning the Balcon Vert, and the talented performers who lived there, into an organized performing troupe. As part of a publicity stunt to convince the Quebec government to help fund his production, Ste-Croix walked the 56 miles (90 km) from Baie-Saint-Paul to Quebec City on stilts. The ploy worked, giving the three men the money to create Les Échassiers de Baie-Saint-Paul. Employing many of the people who would later make up Cirque du Soleil, Les Échassiers toured Quebec during the summer of 1980.
Although well received by audiences and critics alike, Les Échassiers was a financial failure. Laliberté spent that winter in Hawaii plying his trade while Ste-Croix stayed in Quebec to set up a nonprofit holding company named "The High-Heeled Club" to mitigate the losses of the previous summer. In 1981, they met with better results. By that fall, Les Échassiers de Baie-Saint-Paul had broken even. The success inspired Laliberté and Ste-Croix to organize a summer fair in their hometown of Baie-Saint-Paul.
This touring festival, called "La Fête Foraine", first took place in July 1982. La Fête Foraine featured workshops to teach the circus arts to the public, after which those who participated could take part in a performance. Ironically, the festival was barred from its own hosting town after complaints from local citizens. Laliberté managed and produced the fair over the next couple years, nurturing it into a moderate financial success. But it was in 1983 that the government of Quebec gave him a $1.5 million grant to host a production the following year as part of Quebec's 450th anniversary celebration of the French explorer Jacques Cartier's discovery of Canada. Laliberté named his creation "Le Grand Tour du Cirque du Soleil".
Le Grand Tour du Cirque du Soleil
Originally intended to only be a one-year project, Cirque du Soleil was scheduled to perform in 11 towns in Quebec over the course of 13 weeks running concurrent with the third La Fête Foraine. The first shows were riddled with difficulty, starting with the collapse of the big top after the increased weight of rainwater caused the central mast to snap. Working with a borrowed tent, Laliberté then had to contend with difficulties with the European performers who were so unhappy with the Quebec circus's inexperience, that they had at one point sent a letter to the media complaining about how they were being treated.
The problems were only transient, however, and by the time 1984 had come to a close, Le Grand Tour du Cirque du Soleil was a success. Having only $60,000 left in the bank, Laliberté went back to the Canadian government to secure funding for a second year. While the Canadian federal government was enthusiastic, the Quebec provincial government was resistant to the idea. It was not until Quebec's premier, René Lévesque, intervened on their behalf that the provincial government relented.
The original big top tent that was used during the 1984 Le Grand Tour du Cirque du Soleil tour can now be seen at Carnivàle Lune Bleue, a 1930s-style carnival that is home to the Cirque Maroc acrobats.
La Magie Continue
After securing funding from the Canadian government for a second year, Laliberté took steps to renovate Cirque du Soleil from a group of street performers into a "proper circus". To accomplish this he hired the head of the National Circus School, Guy Caron, as Cirque du Soleil's artistic director. The influences that Laliberté and Caron had in reshaping their circus were extensive. They wanted strong emotional music that was played from beginning to end by musicians. They wanted to emulate the Moscow Circus' method of having the acts tell a story. Performers, rather than a technical crew, move equipment and props on and off stage so that it did not disrupt the momentum of the "storyline". Most importantly, their vision was to create a circus with neither a ring nor animals. The rationale was that the lack of both of these things draws the audience more into the performance.
To help design the next major show, Laliberté and Caron hired Franco Dragone, another instructor from the National Circus School who had been working in Belgium. When he joined the troupe in 1985, he brought with him his experience in commedia dell'arte techniques, which he imparted to the performers. Although his experience would be limited in the next show due to budget restraints, he would go on to direct every show up to, but not including Dralion.
By 1986, the company was once again in serious financial trouble. During 1985 they had taken the show outside Quebec to a lukewarm response. In Toronto they performed in front of a 25% capacity crowd after not having enough money to properly market the show. Gilles Ste-Croix, dressed in a monkey suit, walked through downtown Toronto as a desperate publicity stunt. A later stop in Niagara Falls turned out to be equally problematic.
Several factors prevented the company from going bankrupt that year. The Desjardins Group, which was Cirque du Soleil's financial institution at the time, covered about $200,000 of bad checks. Also, a financier named Daniel Lamarre, who worked for one of the largest public relations firms in Quebec, represented the company for free, knowing that they didn't have the money to pay his fee. The Quebec government itself also came through again, granting Laliberté enough money to stay solvent for another year.
Le Cirque Réinventé
In 1987, after Laliberté re-privatized Cirque du Soleil, it was invited to perform at the Los Angeles Arts Festival. Although they continued to be plagued by financial difficulties, Normand Latourelle took the gamble and went to Los Angeles, despite only having enough money to make a one-way trip. Had the show been a failure, the company would not have had enough money to get their performers and equipment back to Montreal.
The festival turned out to be a huge success, both critically and financially. The show attracted the attention of entertainment executives, including Columbia Pictures, which met with Laliberté and Gauthier under the pretense of wanting to make a movie about Cirque du Soleil. Laliberté was unhappy with the deal, claiming that it gave too many rights to Columbia, which was attempting to secure all rights to the production. Laliberté pulled out of the deal before it could be concluded, and that experience stands out as a key reason why Cirque du Soleil remains independent and privately owned today.
In 1988, Guy Caron left the company due to artistic differences over what to do with the money generated by Cirque du Soleil's first financially successful tour. Laliberté wanted to use it to expand and start a second show while Caron wanted the money to be saved, with a portion going back to the National Circus School. An agreement was never met and Caron, along with a large number of artists loyal to him, departed. This stalled plans that year to start a new touring show.
Laliberté sought out Gilles Ste-Croix as replacement for the artistic director position. Ste-Croix, who had been away from the company since 1985, agreed to return. The company went through more internal troubles, including a failed attempt to add Normand Latourelle as a third man to the partnership. This triumvirate lasted only six months before internal disagreements prompted Gauthier and Laliberté to buy out Latourelle. By the end of 1989, Cirque du Soleil was once again in a deficit.
With Saltimbanco finished and touring in the United States and Canada, Cirque du Soleil toured Japan in the summer of 1992 at the behest of the Fuji Television Network. Taking acts from Nouvelle Expérience and Cirque Réinventé, they created a show for this tour, titled Fascination. Although Fascination was never seen outside of Japan, it represented the first time that Cirque du Soleil had produced a show that took place in an arena rather than a big top. It was also the first that Cirque du Soleil performed outside of North America.
Knie Presents Cirque du Soleil
Also in 1992, Cirque du Soleil made its first collaboration with Switzerland's Circus Knie in a production named "Knie Presents Cirque du Soleil" that ran for nine months from March 20 to November 29, 1992 through 60 cities in Switzerland, opening in Rapperswil and closing in Bellinzona.
The show went in a bit of a different direction of Cirque du Soleil, as Circus Knie used animals in their shows, therefore the production merged Circus Knie's animal acts with Cirque du Soleil's purely acrobatic acts. The stage resembled that of Cirque du Soleil's previous shows La Magie Continue and Le Cirque Reinventé, though was modified to accommodate Circus Knie's animals. The show also featured acts seen previously in Le Cirque Reinventé, including:
The 30th Anniversary Concert
Cirque du Soleil's 30th Anniversary Concert premiered at the Saint-Jean-Baptiste Church in Montréal on December 13, 2014 and ran for a limited run until December 28. The show, unlike others, was solely a concert that featured a variety of songs from some of Cirque du Soleil's previous shows, rather than acrobatic feats. The 75-minute show featured a 30-person orchestra, a 70-person choir, and 8 veteran Cirque du Soleil singers as the focal point of the concert.
|Nouvelle Expérience||1990-MAY-08||Touring||Grand Chapiteau||Retired|
|Saltimbanco||1992-APR-23||Touring||Grand Chapiteau (1992 - 2006)
Arena (2007 - 2012)
|Mystère||1993-DEC-25||Treasure Island, Las Vegas||Resident||Active|
|Alegría||1994-APR-21||Touring||Grand Chapiteau (1994 - 2009)
Arena (2009 - 2013)
|Quidam||1996-APR-23||Touring||Grand Chapiteau (1996 - 2010)
Arena (since 2010)
|O||1998-OCT-15||Bellagio, Las Vegas||Resident||Active|
|La Nouba||1998-DEC-23||Downtown Disney, Lake Buena Vista, Florida||Resident||Active|
|Dralion||1999-APR-22||Touring||Grand Chapiteau (1999 - 2010)
Arena (2010 - 2015)
|Varekai||2002-APR-22||Touring||Grand Chapiteau (2002 - 2013)
Arena (since 2013)
|Zumanity||2003-JUL-31||New York-New York, Las Vegas||Resident||Active|
|Kà||2005-FEB-03||MGM Grand, Las Vegas||Resident||Active|
|Corteo||2005-APR-21||Touring||Grand Chapiteau (since 2005)||Active|
|Love||2006-JUN-02||The Mirage, Las Vegas||Resident||Active|
|Koozå||2007-APR-19||Touring||Grand Chapiteau (since 2007)||Active|
|Wintuk||2007-NOV-01||Madison Square Garden, New York City||Arena (seasonal)||Retired|
|Zaia||2008-JUL-26||The Venetian Macao, Cotai Strip, Macau||Resident||Retired|
|Zed||2008-AUG-15||Tokyo Disney Resort, Tokyo, Japan||Resident||Retired|
|Criss Angel Believe||2008-SEP-26||Luxor, Las Vegas||Resident||Active|
|Ovo||2009-APR-23||Touring||Grand Chapiteau (since 2009)||Active|
|Viva Elvis||2009-DEC-16||Aria Resort and Casino, Las Vegas||Resident||Retired|
|Totem||2010-APR-22||Touring||Grand Chapiteau (since 2010)||Active|
|Zarkana||2011-JUN-29||Aria Resort and Casino, Las Vegas||Arena (2011 - 2012)
Resident (since 2012)
|Iris||2011-SEPT-25||Dolby Theatre, Los Angeles||Resident||Retired|
|Michael Jackson: The Immortal World Tour||2011-OCT-2||Touring||Arena||Retired|
|Amaluna||2012-APR-19||Touring||Grand Chapiteau (since 2012)||Active|
|Michael Jackson: One||2013-MAY-23||Mandalay Bay Resort and Casino, Las Vegas||Resident||Active|
|Kurios: Cabinet of Curiosities||2014-APR-24||Touring||Grand Chapiteau (since 2014)||Active|
|JOYÀ||2014-NOV-8||Riviera Maya, Mexico||Resident||Active|
- A new arena touring show based on James Cameron's Avatar was announced on Thursday, May 29, 2014. The tour will open during the later half of 2015, ahead of the release of Avatar 2. The production team is to be announced.
- Cirque du Monde: a social action project designed to reach marginalized youth.
- Jukari Fit to Fly: A fitness program promoted cooperatively with Reebok.
- Safewalls: An artistic project curated by Cirque du Soleil that is bringing time-honoured circus posters into the 21st century by pairing up with renowned international street art and lowbrow artists.
- Cultural Action Art Exhibitions: As part of its Cultural Action programs, Cirque du Soleil offers artists the opportunity to exhibit at its Montreal Headquarters and at its Las Vegas offices. Artists who have participated include: France Jodoin, Dominique Fortin-Mues, Laurent Craste and Dominic Besner.
- Desigual inspired by Cirque du Soleil: Cirque du Soleil has partnered with Desigual fashion design to develop a clothing collection which will include 60 items of clothing and accessories. The clothing will be made available at Desigual stores as well as Cirque du Soleil show boutiques.
- Movi.Kanti.Revo: in association with Google, Cirque du Soleil has released an extension to Google Chrome, meant to bring some of Cirque du Soleil's imagination to the browser.
Cirque du Soleil has a "Special Events" team which coordinates various events, both public and private.
|Date||Name or Event||Location||Notes|
|24 Mar. 2002||74th Academy Awards||Los Angeles
|A five-minute performance for the category of special effects at the 74th Academy Awards. They spent four months creating the show, which featured 11 acts from a variety of Cirque du Soleil shows. Each of the acts were choreographed and themed to their equivalent movie by re-creating the special effect scene featured in the film on stage while playing clips on a large screen behind the performances.|
|11 July 2004||Soleil de Minuit
|A special one-night event in Montreal celebrating the 20th anniversary of Cirque du Soleil and the 25th anniversary of the Montreal International Jazz Festival.|
|2004–2005||A Taste of Cirque du Soleil||Celebrity Cruises||A special 30-minute performance on the Constellation and Summit Celebrity Cruises cruise ships. Included on these ships was The Bar at the Edge of the Earth, a dreamlike bar/lounge/disco.|
|15 Jul. 2005||Reflections in Blue||Montreal
|A unique one-night water show in Montreal as part of the opening ceremonies for the 2005 World Aquatics Championships.|
|4 Feb. 2007||One Day, One Game, One Dream||Miami Gardens, Florida
|Produced by David Saltz, this was performed during the Super Bowl XLI pre-game show.|
|7 Dec. 2007||Prêmio Craque do Brasileirão||Brazil||Cirque du Soleil took part in the celebration. Their artists performed acts from various shows.|
|2008||The Awakening of the Serpent||Zaragoza
|Cirque du Soleil participated in the presentation of a daily parade spectacle called The Awakening of the Serpent at Expo 2008 in Zaragoza, Spain.|
|5 Dec. 2008||Il Sogno Di Volare
(The dream to Fly)
|During the white night of Lecce. The show is developed to today only, it's had in fact an exhibition in Saint Oronzo Plaza. In such show, inspired to Leonardo da Vinci and Cristoforo Colombo, the Baroque plaza has developed the role of scenography of the show.|
|16 May 2009||Eurovision Song Contest 2009||Moscow
|Cirque du Soleil was the opening act of the song contest, along with Dima Bilan who sung "Believe." They performed a spectacle called "Prodigal Son."|
|2009||Les Chemins invisibles||Quebec City
|The first year of Les Chemins invisibles was "The Enriched Encounter."|
|Cirque du Soleil co-created the Canada Pavilion in association with the Government of Canada for Expo 2010 in Shanghai, China, which was available for viewing from May to September 2010.|
|14 June 2010||Electronic Entertainment Expo||Los Angeles
|Cirque du Soleil created and performed a 45-minute presentation on the eve of the 2010 Electronic Entertainment Expo at the USC's Galen Center in Los Angeles to introduce Microsoft's hands-free gaming device for the Xbox 360, Microsoft Kinect.|
|2010||Les Chemins invisibles||Quebec City
|The second year of Les Chemins invisibles was the "Furrow of Dreams."|
|2011||Les Chemins invisibles||Quebec City
|The third year of Les Chemins invisibles was "The Tin Kingdom."|
|5 Feb. 2012||Super Bowl XLVI Halftime Show||Indianapolis
|During the halftime show, some artists performed with Madonna, using the slackline.|
|26 Feb. 2012||84th Academy Awards||Los Angeles
|Over 50 artists performed a routine, scored by Danny Elfman, during the 84th Academy Awards in the Dolby Theatre.|
|2012||Les Chemins invisibles||Quebec City
|The fourth year of Les Chemins invisibles was "The Pixel Frontier."|
|22 Sep. 2012||2012 FIFA U-17 Women's World Cup||Baku
|Opening ceremony at Tofiq Bahramov Stadium in Baku.|
|2013||Les Chemins invisibles||Quebec City
|The fifth and final year of Les Chemins invisibles was "The Harbor of Lost Souls."|
|A summer seasonal open air event, developed by Cirque du Soleil for the Principality of Andorra, that depicted the competitiveness of the four seasons.|
|2014||Scalada Mater Natura||Andorra
|A summer seasonal open air event; the second year is entitled "Mater Nature," directed and choreographed by Stéphane Boko.|
Grand chapiteau tours
Cirque du Soleil shows normally tour under a Grand Chapiteau (i.e. big top) for an extended period of time until they are modified, if necessary, for touring in arenas and other venues. The company's grands chapiteaux are easily recognizable by their blue and yellow coloring. The infrastructure that tours with each show could easily be called a mobile village; it includes the Grand Chapiteau, a large entrance tent, artistic tent, kitchen, school, and other items necessary to support the cast and crew.
The tour has great financial impacts to the cities which they visit by renting out lots for shows, parking spaces, selling and buying promotions, and contributing to local economy in manners of hotel stays, purchasing food, and hiring local help. For example, during its stay in Santa Monica, California, Koozå brought an estimated US$16,700,000 ($18,357,825 in 2015) to the city government and local businesses.
- The site takes around eight days to construct and three days to pack up.
- Anywhere from 50–75 large tractor-trailer containers are necessary to transport the vast amount of equipment. Totem, for example, requires 65 such containers to transport 1,200 tonnes (1,180 long tons; 1,320 short tons).
- Five generators are used to provide electricity to the site.
- Totem's canvas tent is constructed by Les Voileries du Sud-Ouest and weighs approximately 5,227.3 kilograms (11,524 lb).
- The tent is 19 metres high (62 ft) and is 51 metres (167 ft) in diameter.
- A single performance can seat more than 2,600 spectators.
- The Entrance Tent holds the concessions and merchandise.
- The Tapis Rouge is for VIP guests (up to 250) and is also available for private functions.
- The Artistic Tent for the performers houses the wardrobe area, a fully equipped training area, and a physiotherapy room.
- Used as the primary commons area, the kitchen serves 200–250 meals a day (6 days a week).
Cirque du Soleil has started to take on new forms of entertainment by creating bar lounges. As of early 2011, they have partnered with The Light Group to create their lounge concepts.
Revolution is a 5,000-square-foot (500 m2) lounge concept designed for The Mirage resort in Las Vegas, in which cast members perform to the music of The Beatles. Cirque du Soleil drew inspiration from the Beatles' lyrics to design some of the lounge's features. For instance, the ceiling is decorated with 30,000 dichroic crystals, representing "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds". The VIP tables use infrared technology which allows guests to create artwork which is then projected onto amorphic columns.
Cirque du Soleil's second lounge is the Gold Lounge, which is located in the Aria Resort & Casino in Las Vegas and is 3,756 square feet (349 m2). The design is reminiscent of Elvis' mansion, Graceland, and black and gold are utilized extensively throughout the décor. The bar has the same shape as the bar in the Elvis mansion as well. The music played here changes throughout the night including upbeat Classic rock, commercial House music, upbeat Elvis remixes, minimal hip-hop, Top 40, and Pop.
Light Night Club
In May 2013 The Light Group opened the nightclub LIGHT at the Mandalay Bay Hotel and Casino, costing $25 million. LIGHT is a partnership with Cirque du Soleil, and the first time Cirque du Soleil worked as part of a nightclub. Among other features the club has a large wall of LED screens, and the room is illuminated with fog, lasers and strobes. DJs at the events include charting artists such as Kaskade and Tiesto, with prices ranging from $30 to $10,000 for certain table placements.
- As part of the future resident show of the Michael Jackson One at the Mandalay Bay Resort and Casino, Cirque du Soleil plans to also construct a Michael Jackson-themed lounge, similar to the Gold Lounge at the Aria Resort & Casino and Revolution at The Mirage.
On November 12, 2014, Cirque du Soleil, Grupo Vidanta, and Goddard Group announced plans for a theme park in Nuevo Vallarta, Mexico. The plans call for at least two lands, the Village of the Sun and the Village of the Moon, as well as an outdoor evening show accommodating as many as 3,000 to 5,000 spectators, and may include a water park and nature park elements.
Cirque du Soleil Images creates original products for television, video and DVD and distributes its productions worldwide.
Its creations have been awarded numerous prizes and distinctions, including two Gemini Awards and a Primetime Emmy Award for Cirque du Soleil: Fire Within (in 2003) and three Primetime Emmy Awards for Dralion (in 2001).
|1988||La Magie Continue||A film adaptation of the production La Magie Continue. Filmed live in Toronto in 1986.|
|1990||Le Cirque Réinventé||A film adaptation of the production Le Cirque Réinventé. Filmed live in Montréal in 1988.|
|1991||Quel Cirque||A look into the creation of Nouvelle Expérience. Either out of print or never released.|
|1992||Nouvelle Expérience||A film adaptation of the production Nouvelle Expérience. Filmed in live Toronto in 1991.|
|1992||Saltimbanco's Diary||A behind-the-scenes featurette on the making of Saltimbanco. Either out of print or never released.|
|1994||Saltimbanco||Film adaptation of Saltimbanco as directed by Jacques Payette. Filmed live in Atlanta in 1993.|
|1994||A Baroque Odyssey||A 10-year anniversary retrospective. Additional film shot in Montréal.|
|1994||The Truth of Illusion||Documentary about the production Alegría. Filmed in Montréal in 1994. Out of print.|
|1996||Full Circle: The Making of Quidam||A behind-the-scenes look at the making of Quidam. Filmed in Montréal in 1996. Out of print.|
|1999||Quidam||A film adaption of the production Quidam as directed by David Mallet. Filmed live in Amsterdam in 1999.|
|1999||Alegría, the Film||A fictional story loosely inspired by the stage production Alegría, directed by Franco Dragone.|
|1999||In the Heart of Dralion||Behind the scenes of Dralion. Released along with the Dralion film adaptation DVD.|
|2000||Journey of Man||A compilation of acts from various Cirque du Soleil shows including Mystère and Quidam. This movie was shot in wide format and released at IMAX theaters.|
|2000||Inside La Nouba: From Conception to Perception||Highlights of the show and interviews with creators. Out of print.|
|2001||Dralion||A film adaptation of the production Dralion, directed by Guy Caron and David Mallet. Filmed live in San Francisco in 2000.|
|2001||Alegría||A film adaptation of the production Alegría, as directed by Nick Morris. Filmed live in Sydney in 2001.|
|2002||Varekai||Film adaptation of the touring show Varekai, directed by Dominic Champagne and Nick Morris. Filmed live in Toronto in 2002.|
|2002||Cirque du Soleil: Fire Within||A 13-episode inside look into the creation and production of Varekai shown on Bravo. Filmed mainly in Montréal.|
|2003||Whatever 'Stie||A parody of Varekai show acted by the technical crew only for the actual artists (actors) DVD.|
|2003||La Nouba||A film adaptation of the production show La Nouba, directed by David Mallet. Filmed live in Orlando in 2003.|
|2004||Midnight Sun||Filmed live at the Festival International de Jazz de Montréal on July 11, 2004, to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the Festival International de Jazz de Montréal and Cirque du Soleil's 20th birthday.|
|2004||Solstrom||A 13-episode series using various acts from Cirque du Soleil and other productions shown on Bravo. Each episode has a different theme. Filmed in Montréal in 2003.|
|2005||Kà Extreme||A documentary which explores the production of Kà by following the show's evolution from early rehearsals through to the first public performance.|
|2006||Corteo||Film adaptation of the touring show Corteo, directed by Jocelyn Barnabé. Filmed live in Toronto in 2005.|
|2006||Lovesick||Filmed over two years and set in Las Vegas during the creation of the cabaret-style production, Zumanity. Filmed in Las Vegas.|
|2007||Flow: A Tribute to the Artists of "O"||A homage to the artists of "O" that provides an in-depth documentary of the Las Vegas aquatic extravaganza. Filmed in Las Vegas in 2007.|
|2007||The Mystery of Mystère||A documentary about Mystère, the critically acclaimed theatrical production playing at the permanent location at the Treasure Island Resort. Filmed in Las Vegas in 2007.|
|2007||A Thrilling Ride through Koozå||A short documentary filmed during the creation period of Koozå. Filmed in Montréal in 2007.|
|2007||Kà - Backstage||Filmed exclusively for French language TV channel Arte and the German national TV channel, ZDF. The performance in its entirety was broadcast on the latter.|
|2008||Koozå||Film adaptation of the touring show Koozå, directed by Mario Janelle. Filmed live in Toronto in 2007.|
|2008||Delirium||The last performance of Delirium was filmed in London. This film was released in limited theatrical runs on August 20 and October 15, 2008.|
|2008||All Together Now||A documentary about the making of Love.|
|2010||Zed in Tokyo||A documentary filmed during the creation period of the Tokyo residency show, Zed.|
|2010||Flowers in the Desert||A look at all the Vegas shows including Viva Elvis.|
|2011||Crossroads in Macao||A documentary filmed during the creation period of the Macao residency show, Zaia. Filmed in Macau in 2010.|
|2012||Cirque du Soleil: Worlds Away||Cirque du Soleil partnered with James Cameron and Andrew Adamson in association with Reel FX Entertainment to produce this 3D motion picture. Distributed worldwide by Paramount Pictures on December 21, 2012, the film tells the story of a girl named Mia going to a traveling circus and falling in love with its main attraction, the Aerialist. After the Aerialist falls during his act, he and Mia are transported to another world where each encounter the different worlds of Cirque du Soleil through O, Mystère, Kà, Love, Zumanity, Viva Elvis and Criss Angel Believe.|
|2013||Amaluna||Film adaptation of the touring show Amaluna, directed by Mario Janelle. Filmed live in Toronto in 2012.|
|2015||Cirque du Soleil: Le Grand Concert||A film adaptation of The 30th Anniversary Concert, produced by Echo Media exclusively for French Canadian TV language channel Ici Radio-Canada Télé. Filmed live in Montréal in 2014.|
In November 2003, a US federal discrimination complaint was filed against Cirque du Soleil by Lambda Legal Defense and Education Fund on behalf of gymnast Matthew Cusick. The allegation was that in April 2002, they fired Cusick because he tested HIV positive. Cusick had not yet performed, but had completed his training and was scheduled to begin working at Mystère just a few days after he was terminated. Even though company doctors had already cleared him as healthy enough to perform, Cirque du Soleil alleged that due to the nature of Cusick's disease coupled with his job's high risk of injury, there was a significant risk of his infecting other performers, crew or audience members. Cirque du Soleil said that they had several HIV-positive employees, but in the case of Cusick, the risk of him spreading his infection while performing was too high to take the risk. A boycott ensued and Just Out ran a story on it with the headline "Flipping off the Cirque".
An additional complaint was filed on Cusick's behalf by the San Francisco Human Rights Commission. Their complaint stemmed from the issue that the City of San Francisco bans contracts (or in this case land leases) to discriminatory employers.
Although Cirque du Soleil's position remains that this was a safety issue, not a discrimination issue, they settled with Cusick on April 22, 2004. The terms of the settlement include that the company would initiate a companywide anti-discrimination training program and alter its employment practices pertaining to HIV-positive applicants. In addition, Matthew Cusick received $60,000 in lost wages, $200,000 in front pay, $300,000 in compensatory damages and Lambda Legal received $40,000 in attorney fees.
Cirque du Soleil opposed Neil Goldberg and his company Cirque Productions over its use of the word "Cirque" in the late 1990s. Goldberg's company was awarded a trademark on its name "Cirque Dreams" in 2005.
In August 1999, Fremonster Theatrical filed an application for the trademark Cirque de Flambe. This application was opposed by the owners of the Cirque du Soleil trademark in August 2002, on the grounds that it would cause confusion and "[dilute] the distinctive quality" of Cirque du Soleil's trademarks. A judge dismissed the opposition and the Cirque de Flambe trademark application was approved in 2005.
The first ever death during a performance occurred on June 29, 2013. Acrobat Sarah Guyard-Guillot, from Paris, France, was killed after she fell fifty feet into an open pit at the MGM Grand during the Kà show. After the fall, everyone on the stage looked "visually scared and frightened". Then the audience could hear her groans and screams from the floor.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cirque du Soleil.|
- Cirque du Soleil official site
- The Cirque Club
- One Drop Foundation
- Cirque du Soleil collected news and commentary at The New York Times
- Cirque du Soleil on Twitter
- Safewalls – an art project by Cirque du Soleil
- The Cirque: An American Odyssey, documentary film about Cirque du Soleil's 1988 U.S. tour, National Film Board of Canada
- Backstage : Cirque du Soleil by Véronique Vial and Guy Laliberté. Assouline Publishing, New York 2014. p. 232 (ISBN : 978-1-61428297-6)