Dominion of India
|Dominion of India|
God Save the King
|Religion||Hinduism, Islam, Jainism, Buddhism, Sikhism, Christianity|
|Governor-General previously Viceroy|
|Prime Minister previously Secretary for State|
|Historical era||First World War|
|-||Indian Independence Act||15 August 1947|
|-||Indo-Pakistani War||22 October 1947|
|-||Constitution adopted||26 January 1950|
|-||1950||3,287,263 km² (1,269,219 sq mi)|
The Dominion of India (Hindi: भारत अधिराज्य, Bhārata Adhirājya) was a predecessor to modern-day India and an independent state that existed between 15 August 1947 and 26 January 1950. It was transformed into the Republic of India by the promulgation of the Constitution of India on 26 January 1950.
George VI was made King of India (the head of state) and was represented by the Governor-General of India. However, the governor-general was not designated viceroy, as had been customary under the British Raj. Two governors-general held office in India during the Dominion period (after the office of Viceroy was abolished by the Indian Independence Act 1947): the Earl Mountbatten of Burma (1947–48) and Chakravarti Rajagopalachari (1948–50). Jawaharlal Nehru held office as prime minister formerly as Secretary for State (the head of government) of the Union of India throughout this period. Unlike the Indian subcontinent, countries such as Canada and Australia have chosen to retain the British monarch as head of state, although the topic of switching towards a republic has been discussed many times.
Partition of India
The Partition of India was the partition of the British Indian Empire that led to the creation of the sovereign states of the Dominion of Pakistan (it later split into the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the People's Republic of Bangladesh) and the Union of India (later Republic of India) on 15 August 1947. "Partition" here refers not only to the division of the Bengal province of British India into East Pakistan and West Bengal (India), and the similar partition of the Punjab province into Punjab (West Pakistan) and Punjab, India, but also to the respective divisions of other assets, including the British Indian Army, the Indian Civil Service and other administrative services, the railways, and the central treasury.
In the riots which preceded the partition in the Punjab region, between 200,000 to 500,000 people were killed in the retributive genocide. UNHCR estimates 14 million Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims were displaced during the partition; it was the largest mass migration in human history.
The Constituent Assembly adopted the Constitution of India, drafted by a committee headed by B. R. Ambedkar, on 26 November 1949. India (with the addition of Sikkim) became a federal, democratic republic after its constitution came into effect on 26 January 1950. Rajendra Prasad became the first President of India.
The monarchy of India was the system in which a hereditary monarch was the sovereign of the India from 1947 to 1950. India shared the same person as its sovereign with the United Kingdom and the other Dominions in the British Commonwealth of Nations. The monarch's constitutional roles were mostly carried out by the governor-general. The royal succession was governed by the Act of Settlement 1701.
On 22 June 1948, King George VI abandoned the title King-Emperor and Queen Elizabeth Queen-Empress.
The monarchy was abolished on 26 January 1950, when India became a republic within the Commonwealth, the first Commonwealth country to do so.
List of Indian monarchs
|House of Windsor|
|Portrait||Name||Birth||Death||Monarch From||Monarch Until||Relationship with Predecessor(s)|
|King George VI||14 December 1895||6 February 1952||15 August 1947||26 January 1950||None (position ceded)|
- Mohin Jadarro Harappa. India Divided Religion 'Then' (1947) (East-West): 'Now' What Languages ( North-South ) ?. Publish America. p. 65.
- Khan 2007, p. 1.
- Paul R. Brass (2003). "The partition of India and retributive genocide in the Punjab, 1946–47: means, methods, and purposes". Journal of Genocide Research. p. 75 (5(1), 71–101). Retrieved 2014-08-16.
- "20th-century international relations (politics) :: South Asia". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2014-08-16.
- "Rupture in South Asia". UNHCR. Retrieved 2014-08-16.
- Dr Crispin Bates (2011-03-03). "The Hidden Story of Partition and its Legacies". BBC. Retrieved 2014-08-16.
- Tanya Basu (August 15, 2014). "The Fading Memory of South Asia's Partition". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2014-08-16.
- The London Gazette: . 22 June 1948. Retrieved 25 August 2014. Royal Proclamation of 22 June 1948, made in accordance with the Indian Independence Act 1947, 10 & 11 GEO. 6. CH. 30.('Section 7: ...(2)The assent of the Parliament of the United Kingdom is hereby given to the omission from the Royal Style and Titles of the words " Indiae Imperator " and the words " Emperor of India " and to the issue by His Majesty for that purpose of His Royal Proclamation under the Great Seal of the Realm.'). According to this Royal Proclamation, the King retained the Style and Titles 'George VI by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, Ireland and the British Dominions beyond the Seas King, Defender of the Faith', and he thus remained King of the various Dominions, including India and Pakistan, though these two (and others) eventually chose to abandon their monarchies and became republics.
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