Dungan revolt (1895–96)
|Qing Empire, loyalist Khafiya Sufis||Muslim rebels, Yihewani and rebel Khafiya Sufis|
|Commanders and leaders|
Brigadier General Tang Yanhe
Ma Dahan †
|Thousands of Loyalist Muslim Hui troops, Han Chinese, and Tibetans||Thousands of Rebel Muslim Hui, Dongxiang, Salar, and Baoan troops|
|Casualties and losses|
|All rebels killed|
|Islam in China|
|Islam in China portal|
The Dungan Revolt (1895) was a rebellion of various Muslim ethnic groups in Qinghai and Gansu against the Qing Dynasty, that originated because of a violent dispute between two Sufi orders of the same sect. The Wahhabi inspired Yihewani organization then joined in and encouraged the revolt, which was crushed by loyalist Muslims.
Rival Sufi Naqshbandi orders fought against each other. They accused each other of various misdeeds, and then decided to using the Qing legal system instead to solve the dispute, filing a lawsuit against each other through the office of the Xining prefect instead of continuing the violence. The Judge decided not to issue a ruling on which group was superior to the other in matters of all Islamic affairs, and urged them to behave. As a result, both grous went back to fighting each other violently. A Daotai was sent by the Qing to crush the perpetrators of the violence, which ended in several deaths. This led the involved parties in the dispute to rebel against the Qing.
In Xunhua, Qinghai, masses of Hui, Dongxiang, Baoan, and Salars were incited to revolt against the Qing by the Multicoloured Mosque leader Ma Yonglin. Soldiers were ordered to destroy the rebels by Brigadier General Tang Yanhe. Ma Dahan arranged a deal with the fellow Dongxiang Ma Wanfu when rebelling against the Qing dynasty. In Hezhou, Didao, and Xunhua they directed their adherents to join the rebellion. Guanghe, Sanjiaji, and Tiaoheyan were agreed upon as points in a defensive position and they pledged that they would not surrender.
Dong Fuxiang was the Commander in Chief of Kashgaria (kashgar), and he received a telegram ordering that he and General Ma Pi-sheng relieve the districts in revolt by conducting forced marches. His loyalist Chinese Muslim troops led by Muslim officers like Ma Anliang, Ma Guoliang, Ma Fuxiang, and Ma Fulu crushed the revolt, reportedly cutting off the heads and ears of rebels. Dong received the rank of generalissimo.
Ma Anliang's Muslim cavalry defeated Muslim rebels at Oxheart Mountain, and relieved the siege of Hezhou on December 4. He led Hui cavalry troops to massacre Salar fighters who had agreed to negotiate at a banquet, and was promoted to General of Xinjiang, and Colonel of Hezhou for his service, once the revolt was crushed. The loyalist Muslim Generals led their troops to initiate large massacres of the rebel Muslims. They decapitated the heads of the rebels and removed their ears. It was said Muslim blood colored the red cap of Ma Anliang and Muslim heads were used to construct the offices of Ma Fuxiang and Ma Fulu.
On August 2, 1896, it was reported that the Qing Generals carried out large scale massacres of the rebels, in one Area 8,000 were killed and the females sold into slavery.
This Dungan revolt took place during the same time China was fighting the First Sino-Japanese War.
- This article incorporates text from Encyclopædia of religion and ethics, Volume 8, by James Hastings, John Alexander Selbie, Louis Herbert Gray, a publication from 1916 now in the public domain in the United States.
- This article incorporates text from The Chinese recorder, Volume 26, a publication from 1895 now in the public domain in the United States.
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