Dungan revolt (1895–96)

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Dungan revolt
Date 1895-1896
Location Qinghai, Gansu
Result Qing victory
Belligerents
China Qing Dynasty Flag 1862.png Qing Empire, loyalist Khafiya Sufis Muslim rebels, Yihewani and rebel Khafiya Sufis
Commanders and leaders
Yang Changjun
Dong Fuxiang
Brigadier General Tang Yanhe
Yang Zengxin
Ma Anliang[1]
Ma Guoliang
Ma Fulu
Ma Fuxiang
Ma Haiyan
Ma Yonglin
Ma Dahan 
Ma Wanfu
Strength
Thousands of Loyalist Muslim Hui troops, Han Chinese, and Tibetans Thousands of Rebel Muslim Hui, Dongxiang, Salar, and Baoan troops
Casualties and losses
All rebels killed
For the eponymous revolt of 1862–77, see Dungan revolt (1862–77).

The Dungan Revolt (1895–96) was a rebellion of various Chinese Muslim ethnic groups in Qinghai and Gansu against the Qing dynasty, that originated because of a violent dispute between two Sufi orders of the same sect. The Wahhabi inspired Yihewani organization then joined in and encouraged the revolt, which was crushed by loyalist Muslims.

Revolt[edit]

After rival Sufi Naqshbandi spiritual orders had fought and accused each other of various misdeeds, instead of continuing the violence they decided to use the Qing legal system to solve the dispute. They filed opposing lawsuits through the office of the Xining Prefect and the judge in the case decided not to issue a ruling on which group was superior to the other in matters of all Islamic affairs, and urged them to behave. As a result, both groups resorted to violence. A taotai (道太) was sent by the Qing to crush the perpetrators of the violence, which ended in several deaths. This led the involved parties in the dispute to rebel against the Qing.[2]

In Xunhua, Qinghai, masses of Hui, Dongxiang, Bao'an, and Salars were incited to revolt against the Qing by the Multicoloured Mosque leader Ma Yonglin. Soldiers were ordered to destroy the rebels by Brigadier General Tang Yanhe.[3] Ma Dahan arranged a deal with the fellow Dongxiang Ma Wanfu when rebelling against the Qing dynasty. In Hezhou, Didao, and Xunhua they directed their adherents to join the rebellion. Guanghe, Sanjiaji, and Tiaoheyan were agreed upon as points in a defensive position and they pledged that they would not surrender.

Ma Wanfu's Wahhabi inspired Yihewani sect was considered the "new teaching" sect.[4] The Yihewani encouraged the rebellion.

Governor General Yang Changjun sent troops to crush the rebellion.[5]

Dong Fuxiang, the Commander in Chief of Kashgaria (Kashgar), received a telegram ordering that he and General Ma Pi-sheng relieve the districts in revolt by conducting forced marches.[6] His loyalist Chinese Muslim troops led by Muslim officers like Ma Anliang, Ma Guoliang, Ma Fuxiang, and Ma Fulu crushed the revolt, reportedly cutting off the heads and ears of rebels. Dong received the rank of generalissimo.[7][8] Dong Fuxiang's troops from Hezhou were armed with Mausers and Remingtons, which were modern European guns, just brought back from Beijing. Their new weapons severely outclassed the bladed weapons and muzzle loading guns of the Muslim rebels and quashed them in battle.[9][10]

Ma Anliang's Muslim cavalry defeated Muslim rebels at Oxheart Mountain, and relieved the siege of Hezhou on December 4. He led Hui cavalry troops to massacre Salar fighters who had agreed to negotiate at a banquet, and was promoted to General of Xinjiang, and Colonel of Hezhou for his service, once the revolt was crushed.[11] The loyalist Muslim Generals led their troops to initiate large massacres of the rebel Muslims. They decapitated the heads of the rebels and removed their ears. It was said Muslim blood colored the red cap of Ma Anliang and Muslim heads were used to construct the offices of Ma Fuxiang and Ma Fulu.[12][13]

In 1895 Ma Anliang lifted the siege of Xining (sining) with four ying (ying is a Chinese unit for battalion).[14][15]

Ma Wanfu surrendered as the Chinese Muslim loyalist General Ma Anliang and Dong Fuxiang arrived to crush the rebel Muslims, and Ma Dahan was killed while fighting.[16]

Ma Yonglin (Ma Yung-lin), his son, and over a hundred other Muslim rebel leaders were captured and beheaded by Dong Fuxiang.[17]

On August 2, 1896, it was reported that the Qing Generals carried out large scale massacres of the rebels, in one Area 8,000 were killed and the females sold into slavery.[18]

Around 400 Muslims in Topa did not join the revolt and proclaimed their loyalty to China. An argument between a Han Chinese and his Muslim wife led to these Muslims getting massacred, when she threatened that the Muslims from Topa would attack Tankar and give a signal to their co-religionists to rise up and open the gates by burning the temples atop the hills. The husband reported this to an official and the next day the Muslims were massacred.[19]

Generals Dong Fuxiang, Ma Anliang and Ma Haiyan were originally called to Beijing during the First Sino-Japanese War in 1894, but the Dungan Revolt (1895) broke out and they were subsequently sent to crush the rebels.[20]

Due to the rebellion the western Inner Mongolian Han Chinese Catholic village Xiaoqiaopan had defensive procedures institted by the Belgian Priests in charge.[21]

References[edit]

  •  This article incorporates text from Encyclopædia of religion and ethics, Volume 8, by James Hastings, John Alexander Selbie, Louis Herbert Gray, a publication from 1916 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from The Chinese recorder, Volume 26, a publication from 1895 now in the public domain in the United States.
  1. ^ Lipman, Jonathan Neaman (1998). Familiar strangers: a history of Muslims in Northwest China. University of Washington Press. p. 207. ISBN 0295800550. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  2. ^ Lipman, Jonathan N. (Jul 1984). "Ethnicity and Politics in Republican China: The Ma Family Warlords of Gansu". Sage Publications, Inc. p. 299. JSTOR 189017. 
  3. ^ Michael Dillon (1999). China's Muslim Hui community: migration, settlement and sects. Richmond: Curzon Press. p. 136. ISBN 0-7007-1026-4. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  4. ^ Papers from the Conference on Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of Dominance, Banff, August 20–24, 1987, Volume 3. 1987. p. 29. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  5. ^ Jonathan Neaman Lipman (2004). Familiar strangers: a history of Muslims in Northwest China. Seattle: University of Washington Press. p. 142. ISBN 0-295-97644-6. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  6. ^ The Chinese recorder, Volume 26. Shanghai: American Presbyterian Mission Press. 1895. p. 452. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  7. ^ James Hastings, John Alexander Selbie, Louis Herbert Gray (1916). Encyclopædia of religion and ethics, Volume 8. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark. p. 893. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  8. ^ M. Th. Houtsma, A. J. Wensinck (1993). E.J. Brill's first encyclopaedia of Islam 1913-1936. Stanford BRILL. p. 850. ISBN 90-04-09796-1. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  9. ^ Lipman, Jonathan Neaman (1998). Familiar strangers: a history of Muslims in Northwest China. University of Washington Press. p. 157. ISBN 0295800550. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  10. ^ Lipman, Jonathan Neaman (1980). The border world of Gansu, 1895-1935. Stanford University. p. 81. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  11. ^ Papers from the Conference on Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of Dominance, Banff, August 20–24, 1987, Volume 3 Papers from the Conference on Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of Dominance, Banff, August 20–24, 1987, Joint Committee on Chinese Studies (U.S.). Ann Arbor. 1987. p. 29. 
  12. ^ Jonathan Neaman Lipman (2004). Familiar strangers: a history of Muslims in Northwest China. Seattle: University of Washington Press. p. 168. ISBN 0-295-97644-6. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  13. ^ Ma Tong, Zhongguo Yisilan... shilue, p 245
  14. ^ University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Center for Asian Studies (1979). Chinese Republican studies newsletter, Volumes 5-7. p. 35. Retrieved 2011-06-06. [1]
  15. ^ Chinese Republican Studies Newsletter, Volumes 1-7. Contributors University of Connecticut. Dept. of History, Denison University. Dept. of History, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Center for Asian Studies. Center for Asian Studies, University of Illinois. 1975. p. 171. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  16. ^ Michael Dillon (1999). China's Muslim Hui community: migration, settlement and sects. Richmond: Curzon Press. p. 102. ISBN 0-7007-1026-4. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  17. ^ TRANSLATION OF THE PEKING GAZETTE for 1896. Shanghai: REPRINTED FROM THE "NORTH-CHINA HERALD AND SUPREME COURT AND CONSULAR GAZETTE". 1897. p. 6. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  18. ^ "SLAUGHTER OF MOHAMMEDANS.; The Chinese Commander Showing No Mercy to Insurrectionists.". THE NEW YORK TIMES. 14 August 1896. Retrieved 2010-11-28. 
  19. ^ Rijnhart, M.D. (1868-1908), Susie Carson (1901). "CHAPTER VIII OUR REMOVAL TO TANKAR". With the Tibetans in Tent and Temple (Third Edition ed.). Chicago, New York & Toronto: Fleming H. Revell Company. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  20. ^ 董福祥与西北马家军阀的的故事 - 360Doc个人图书馆
  21. ^ Bickers, Robert A.; Tiedemann, R. G., eds. (2007). The Boxers, China, and the World (illustrated ed.). Rowman & Littlefield. p. 30. ISBN 0742553957. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 

See also[edit]