Elections in Bulgaria

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This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Bulgaria

Bulgaria elects on national level a head of state - the president - and a legislature. The president is elected for a five-year term directly by the people. The National Assembly (Narodno Sabranie) has 240 members, elected for a four-year term by proportional representation in multi-seat constituencies with a 4% threshold. Bulgaria has a multi-party system, in which no one party often has a chance of gaining power alone, and parties must work with each to form governments.

National legislatures[edit]

Legislatures Term Seats
Constituent Assembly 10.02.1879-16.04.1879 231
1 Grand National Assembly 17.04.1879-26.06.1879 231
1 Ordinary National Assembly 21.10.1879-24.11.1879 158
2 Ordinary National Assembly 23.03.1880-18.12.1880 172
2 Grand National Assembly 01.07.1881 307
3 Ordinary National Assembly 10.12.1882-25.12.1883 47
4 Ordinary National Assembly 27.06.1884-06.09.1886 195/286
3 Grand National Assembly 19.10.1886-03.08.1887 493
5 Ordinary National Assembly 15.10.1887-17.12.1889 285
6 Ordinary National Assembly 15.10.1890-15.12.1892 276
4 Grand National Assembly 03.05.1893-17.05.1893 577
7 Ordinary National Assembly 15.10.1893-21.12.1893 145
8 Ordinary National Assembly 15.10.1894-04.02.1896 149
9 Ordinary National Assembly 01.12.1896-19.12.1898 159
10 Ordinary National Assembly 16.05.1899-29.11.1900 169
11 Ordinary National Assembly 22.02.1901-23.12.1901 166
12 Ordinary National Assembly 22.04.1902-31.03.1903 188
13 Ordinary National Assembly 02.11.1903-22.12.1907 189
14 Ordinary National Assembly 15.06.1908-15.02.1911 203
5 Grand National Assembly 09.06.1911-09.07.1911 414
15 Ordinary National Assembly 15.10.1911-23.07.1913 213
16 Ordinary National Assembly 19.12.1913-31.12.1913 204
17 Ordinary National Assembly 20.03.1914-15.04.1919 257
18 Ordinary National Assembly 02.10.1919-20.02.1920 237
19 Ordinary National Assembly 15.04.1920-11.03.1923 232
20 Ordinary National Assembly 21.05.1923-11.06.1923 245
21 Ordinary National Assembly 09.12.1923-15.04.1927 267
22 Ordinary National Assembly 19.06.1927-18.04.1931 275
23 Ordinary National Assembly 20.08.1931-19.05.1934 283
24 Ordinary National Assembly 22.05.1938-27.04.1939 160
25 Ordinary National Assembly 24.02.1940-23.08.1944 160
26 Ordinary National Assembly 15.12.1945-28.09.1946 279
6 Grand National Assembly 07.11.1946-21.10.1949 465(375)
1(27) National Assembly 17.01.1950-02.11.1953 239
2(28) National Assembly 14.01.1954-11.12.1957 249
3(29) National Assembly 13.01.1958-04.11.1961 254
4(30) National Assembly 15.03.1962-08.12.1965 321
5(31) National Assembly 11.03.1966-18.05.1971 416
6(32) National Assembly 07.07.1971-09.03.1976 400
7(33) National Assembly 15.06.1976-07.04.1981 400
8(34) National Assembly 16.06.1981-21.03.1986 400
9(35) National Assembly 17.06.1986-03.04.1990 400
7 Grand National Assembly 10.07.1990-02.10.1991 400
36 National Assembly 04.11.1991-17.10.1994 240
37 National Assembly 12.01.1995-13.02.1997 240
38 National Assembly 07.05.1997-19.04.2001 240
39 National Assembly 05.07.2001-17.06.2005 240
40 National Assembly 11.07.2005- 27.06.2009 240
41 National Assembly 14.07.2009–14.03.2013 240
42 National Assembly 21.05.2013-Present 240

Parliamentary election[edit]

Parliamentary elections have been held in Bulgaria since 1879. There was a period when partisan politics was banned from 1934 to 1944; in the wake of the Bulgarian coup d'état of 1934 and the sequential personal rule of Tsar Boris III. There was also period of single party system between 1945 and 1989, during the People's Republic of Bulgaria, during which only candidates sanctioned by authorities could run. This, in practice, gave the Bulgarian Communist Party and its collaborators a monopoly on power.

Until 1945 there was no universal suffrage for the women. The table below show the elections since 1990, when the government became a democratic republic.

All elections since 1990 have had 240 members, elected for a four-year term by proportional representation in multi-seat constituencies with a 4% threshold. The two elections that differed from this model was the 1990 Grand National Assembly election, where 400 representatives were elected: half by proportional representation and half by first-past-the-post voting. The other exception was the 2009 election when 209 representatives were elected by proportional representation and 31 through First Past the Post; seats corresponding to the provinces and the largest cities.

Distribution of votes by constituency, 2013 election
e • d Summary of the 2013 National Assembly of Bulgaria election results:
Party Votes  % +/– Seats +/–
  GERB 1,081,605 30.54 -9.16 97 −20
  Coalition for Bulgaria 942,541 26.61 +8.91 84 +44
  Movement for Rights and Freedoms 400,466 11.31 -2.69 36 -1
  Attack 258,481 7.30 -2.10 23 +2
  National Front for the Salvation of Bulgaria 131,169 3.70 new 0 new
  Bulgaria for Citizens Movement 115,190 3.25 new 0 new
  Democrats for a Strong Bulgaria 103,638 2.93 0 -5
  IMRO – Bulgarian National Movement 66,803 1.89 new 0 new
  Lider 61,482 1.74 -1.56 0 0
  Order, Law and Justice 59,145 1.67 -2.43 0 -10
  Center–Freedom and Dignity 57,611 1.63 new 0 new
  Union of Democratic Forces 48,681 1.38 0 -9
  Others 124,886 0
Invalid votes 90,047
Votes cast (turnout: %) 3,541,745 51.33
Registred voters 6,919,260
Source: Electoral Commission of Bulgaria
Distribution of votes by constituency, 2009 election
e • d Summary of the 2009 National Assembly of Bulgaria election results:
Party Votes  % +/– Seats +/–
  GERB 1,678,583 39.7 new 117 new
  Coalition for Bulgaria 748,114 17.7 −13.3 40 −42
  Movement for Rights and Freedoms 592,381 14.0 +1.2 38 +3
  Attack 395,707 9.4 +1.3 21 ±0
  Blue Coalition 285,671 6.8 −7.3 15 −22
  Order, Law and Justice 174,570 4.1 new 10 new
  Lider 137,795 3.3 new
  National Movement for Stability and Progress 127,470 3.0 −16.9 −53
  The Greens 21,841 0.5 new
  For the Homeland 11,524 0.3
  Bulgarian Left Coalition 8,762 0.2
  Union of the Patriotic Forces 6,426 0.2
  Social Democrats 5,004 0.1
  Bulgarian New Democracy 3,813 0.1
  The Other Bulgaria 3,455 0.1
  Party of the Liberal Alternative and Peace 2,828 0.1
  Union of the Bulgarian Patriots 2,175 0.1
  National Movement for the Salvation of the Fatherland 1,874 0.0
Total valid votes 4,226,194 100.00 240
Invalid votes 97,387 2.25
Votes cast (turnout: 60.20%) 4,323,581 100.00
Registred voters 7,129,965
Source: Bulgarian Parliament Electoral Commission of Bulgaria
Distribution of votes by constituency, 2005 election
e • d Summary of the 2005 National Assembly of Bulgaria election results:
Party Votes % Seats +/−
Coalition for Bulgaria 1,129,196 31.0 82 +34
National Movement Simeon II 725,314 19.9 53 −67
Movement for Rights and Freedoms 467,400 12.8 34 +13
National Union Attack 296,848 8.1 21 +21
United Democratic Forces 280,323 7.7 20 −31
Democrats for a Strong Bulgaria 234,788 6.4 17 +17
People's Union 189,268 5.2 13 +13
Others 324,050 8.8 0 -
Total valid votes 3,648,177 100.0 240 -
Invalid votes 99,616
Votes cast (turnout: 55.8%) 3,747,793
Registered voters in the main list 6,720,941
Source: Electoral Commission of Bulgaria and Adam Carr's Electoral Archive

Summary of the 2001 National Assembly of Bulgaria election results:

Party Votes Seats
National Movement Simeon II 1,952,513 120
United Democratic Forces 830,338 51
Coalition for Bulgaria 783,372 48
Movement for Rights and Freedoms 340,395 21
Others
Total 4,608,135 (67.0%) 240

Summary of the 1997 National Assembly of Bulgaria election results:

Party Votes Seats
United Democratic Forces 2,223,714 137
Coalition for Bulgaria 939,308 58
Union for National Salvation 323,429 19
Bulgarian Euroleft 234,058 14
Bulgarian Business Block 209,796 12
Others
Total 4,291,257 (62.9%) 240

Summary of the 1994 National Assembly of Bulgaria election results:

Party Votes Seats
Coalition for Bulgaria 2,262,943 125
Union of Democratic Forces 1,260,374 69
People's Union 338,478 18
Movement for Rights and Freedoms 283,094 15
Bulgarian Business Block 245,849 13
Others
Total 5,264,448 (75.3%) 240

Summary of the 1991 National Assembly of Bulgaria election results:

Party Votes Seats
Union of Democratic Forces 1,903,567 110
Coalition for Bulgaria 1,836,050 106
Movement for Rights and Freedoms 418,168 24
Others
Total 5,694,764 (83.9%) 240

Summary of the 1990 National Assembly of Bulgaria election results:

Party Votes Seats
Bulgarian Socialist Party 2,886,363 211
Union of Democratic Forces 2,216,127 144
Bulgarian Agrarian National Union 491,597 16
Movement for Rights and Freedoms 368,929 24
Alternative Socialist Parties 121,514 2
Patriotic Party of Labour 36,668 2
Others
Total 6,333,334 (90.3%) 400

Presidential election[edit]

Presidential elections are held since 1992. The last were held in 2011.

e • d Summary of the 2011 Bulgarian presidential election results:
Candidate Party First round Second round
Votes % Votes %
Rosen Plevneliev GERB 1,349,380 40.11 1,698,136 52.58
Ivaylo Kalfin Bulgarian Socialist Party 974,300 28.96 1,531,193 47.42
Meglena Kuneva Initiative committee 470,808 14.00
Volen Siderov Attack 122,466 3.64
Stefan Solakov National Front for Salvation of Bulgaria 84,205 2.50
Rumen Hristov Union of Democratic Forces 65,761 1.95
Atanas Semov Order, Law and Justice 61,797 1.84
Svetoslav Vitkov Initiative committee 54,125 1.61
Sali Ibrayim National Movement Unity 41,837 1.24
Krasimir Karakachanov IMRO – Bulgarian National Movement 33,236 0.99
Aleksey Petrov Initiative committee 31,613 0.94
Maria Kapon United People's Party 30,665 0.91
Nikolay Nenchev Bulgarian Agrarian National Union 9,827 0.29
Pavel Chernev Party for the People of the Nation 8,081 0.24
Ventsislav Yosifov Initiative committee 7,021 0.21
Dimitar Kutsarov Initiative committee 6,989 0.21
Andrey Chorbanov Bulgarian Democratic Unity 6,340 0.19
Nikolay Vasilev Initiative committee 5,633 0.17
Total valid votes 3,364,084 100 3,229,329 100
Invalid/blank votes 229,844 6.40 104,837 3.14
Votes cast 3,593,928 100 3,334,166 100
Registered voters/turnout 6,873,589 52.29 6,910,491 48.25
Source: Electoral Commission of Bulgaria
e • d Summary of the 2006 Bulgarian presidential election results:
Candidate Party First round Second round
Votes % Votes %
Georgi Parvanov Bulgarian Socialist Party 1,780,119 64.047% 2,050,488 75.948%
Volen Siderov Attack 597,175 21.486% 649,387 24.052%
Nedelcho Beronov Union of Democratic Forces 271,078 9.753%
Georgi Markov Order, Law and Justice 75,478 2.716%
Petar Beron Initiative committee 21,812 0.785%
Grigor Velev Аll in one Bulgaria 19,857 0.714%
Lyuben Petrov Initiative committee 13,854 0.498%
Total / turnout 2,856,734 (44.3%) 100.000% 2,757,441 (42.8%) 100.000%
e • d Summary of the 2001 Bulgarian presidential election results:
Candidate Party First round Second round
Votes % Votes %
Georgi Parvanov Bulgarian Socialist Party 1,032,665 36.4% 2,043,443 54.1%
Petar Stoyanov Union of Democratic Forces 991,680 34.9% 1,731,676 45.9%
Bogomil Bonev Citizens' Party of Bulgaria 546,801 19.3%
Reneta Indzhova Democratic Alliance 139,680 4.9%
George Ganchev Bulgarian Business Block 95,481 3.4%
Petar Beron Union for Bulgaria 31,394 1.1%
Total valid votes / turnout 2,850,297 (41.6%) 100.0% 3,784,036 (54.9%) 100.0%
Source: President of Bulgaria and Demetra/BAN

Summary of the 1996 Bulgarian presidential election results:

Candidate Party First round Second round
Votes % Votes %
Petar Stoyanov Union of Democratic Forces 1,889,825 44.1 2,502,517 59.7
Ivan Marazov Bulgarian Socialist Party 1,158,204 27.0 1,687,242 40.3
George Ganchev Bulgarian Business Bloc 937,686 21.9
Aleksander Tomov Independent 135,571 3.2
Hristo Boychev Movement for the Protection of Retired, Unemployed and Poor People 57,668 1.3
Vera Ilieva Bulgarian Communist Party 34,004 0.8
Slavomir Tsankov Union of Democratic Forces and Movements "Era 3" 22,724 0.5
Ivan Stoyanov Democratic Party in Bulgaria 14,659 0.3
Mincho Minchev Patriotic Party of Labour 13,567 0.3
Mitko Dimitrov Alliance for the Preservation of Bulgaria's Wealth 7,793 0.2
Lyubomir Stefanov Alternative Socialist Alliance 6,056 0.1
Dimitar Markovski Free Cooperative Party 5,823 0.1
Iliyan Nikolov Bulgarian National Ecological Party Veliko Tarnovo 4,920 0.1
Invalid/blank votes 28,662 25,412
Total 4,317,161 (63.3%) 100 4,215,145 (61.8%) 100
Source: Nohlen & Stöver, University of Essex

Summary of the 1992 Bulgarian presidential election results:

Candidate Party First round Second round
Votes % Votes %
Zhelyu Zhelev Union of Democratic Forces 2,261,913 44.4 2,738,436 52.8
Velko Valkanov Bulgarian Socialist Party 1,546,843 30.4 2,443,435 47.2
George Ganchev Bulgarian Business Bloc 853,044 16.8
Blagovest Sendov-Ognyan Saparev Independent 113,897 2.2
Other candidates 315,482 6.2
Invalid/blank votes 48,712 24,382
Total 5,139,891 (75.4%) 100 5,206,253 (75.2%) 100
Source: Nohlen & Stöver

Referendums[edit]

Four nationwide referendums have been held in Bulgaria since it gained its De Facto independence in 1878:

  • On 19 November 1922 the question was if criminals from the three previous wars were to be prosecuted;[1]
  • On 8 September 1946 the question was if Bulgaria was to remain a monarchy to become a republic;[2]
  • On 16 May 1971 the nation's approval of a new constitution was asked;[3]
  • On 27 January 2013 the question was if Bulgaria should develop its nuclear power by building a new nuclear power plant.[4][5]

Several regional referendums have been held as well.

Local elections[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bulgarien, 19. November 1922 : Anklage gegen Kriegsverbrecher Direct Democracy
  2. ^ Nohlen, D & Stöver, P (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p368 ISBN 978-3-8329-5609-7
  3. ^ Nohlen & Stöver, p368
  4. ^ Q&A: Bulgaria's nuclear energy referendum BBC News, 25 January 2013
  5. ^ Bulgarians vote in referendum on nuclear energy Deutsche Welle

External links[edit]