Episcopal Church in Jerusalem and the Middle East
|Episcopal Church in Jerusalem and the Middle East|
|Territory||Israel, Palestinian territories, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, Cyprus, the Persian Gulf states, Oman, Yemen, Iraq, Egypt, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, Djibouti, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Iran|
The Episcopal Church in Jerusalem and the Middle East is a province of the Anglican Communion stretching from Iran in the east to Algeria in the west, and Cyprus in the north to Somalia in the south. It is the largest and the most diverse Anglican province. The church is headed by a President Bishop, currently the Most Reverend Mouneer Anis, who ranks as a representative primate in the Anglican Communion. The Central Synod of the church is its deliberative and legislative organ. The province is divided into four dioceses:
- Diocese of Jerusalem — covering Israel, Palestinian territories, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon,
- Diocese of Cyprus and the Gulf — covering Cyprus, the Persian Gulf states, Arabia and Iraq,
- Diocese of Egypt with North Africa, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia and Djibouti — also covering Algeria, Tunisia and Libya,
- Diocese of Iran.
Each diocese is headed by a bishop. The President Bishop is chosen from among the diocesan bishops, and retains diocesan responsibility. The current President Bishop also serves as Bishop of Egypt and North Africa. The province estimates that it has around 35,000 baptized members in 55 congregations. The province has around 40 educational or medical establishments and 90 clergy. Today, in Jerusalem, Anglicans constitute a large portion of the Christian community.
The Episcopal Church in Jerusalem and the Middle East began as a number of missionary posts of the Church Mission Society (CMS) in Cyprus, the Middle East and the Persian Gulf. The Church Mission Society continues to provide the province with lay mission partners and ordained chaplains, but now the majority of its ministry is drawn from local congregations.
During the 1820s, CMS began to prepare for permanent missionary stations in the region.
In 1833, a missionary station was established in Jerusalem with the support of the London Society for Promoting Christianity Amongst the Jews (a Jewish Christian missionary society now known as the Church's Ministry Among Jewish People or CMJ). In 1839, the building of the Church of Saint Mark, Alexandria was begun.
In 1841, Michael Solomon Alexander, a converted rabbi, arrived in Jerusalem as bishop. His diocese originally covered the mission stations in the Middle East and Egypt, and was a joint venture with the Evangelical Church in Prussia (the so-called Anglo-Prussian Union), serving Lutherans and Anglicans.
In 1849, Christ Church, Jerusalem, became the first Anglican church in Jerusalem.
In 1881, the Anglo-Prussian Union ceased to function, and it was formally dissolved in 1887. From that time, the diocese became solely Anglican.
Saint George's Cathedral was built in 1898 in Jerusalem as a central focus for the diocese.
Although the diocese of Jerusalem began as a foreign missionary organisation, it quickly established itself as part of the Palestinian community. In 1905, the Palestinian Native Church Council was established to give Palestinians more say in the running of the church. This led to an increase in the number of Palestinian and Arab clergy serving the diocese.
In 1920, the Diocese of Egypt and the Sudan was formed, separate from the Diocese of Jerusalem, with Llewelyn Gwynne as its first bishop. In the 1920s the Bishop founded St. George's College as a seminary for local clergy-in-training. Bishop Gwynne established the second cathedral of All Saints', Cairo (the present cathedral is the third building) in 1938.
In 1957, the Diocese of Jerusalem was elevated to the rank of an archdiocese (its bishop being an archbishop) under the authority of the Archbishop of Canterbury. The Archbishop in Jerusalem had metropolitan oversight of the entire area of the current province with the addition of the Sudan (five dioceses in all). In that same year, Najib Cubain was consecrated Bishop of Jordan, Lebanon and Syria, the first Arab bishop, assistant to the Archbishop in Jerusalem. During the 1950s, political unrest in Egypt left the diocese in the care of four Egyptian clergy under the oversight of the Archbishop in Jerusalem.
An Anglican Bishop of Egypt was appointed in 1968, and, in 1974, the first Egyptian bishop, Ishaq Musaad, was consecrated. In 1976, Faik Hadad became the first Palestinian Anglican bishop in Jerusalem.
In 1976, the structure of the Anglican church in the region was overhauled. Jerusalem became an ordinary bishopric and the four dioceses had equal status in the Province of Jerusalem and the Middle East. The Archbishop of Canterbury relinquished his metropolitan authority to a Presiding Bishop and the Central Synod, with the four dioceses rotating the responsibility of the Bishop President and synodical leadership. The central synod includes the four dioceses of the Province of Jerusalem and the Middle East. When a bishop reaches the age of 68 a coadjutor bishop should be elected to work alongside the bishop for two years.
The Diocese of Egypt was expanded to take in the chaplaincies of Ethiopia, Somalia, Libya, Tunisia and Algeria. Sudan became a fully separate and independent province.
In 1970, the Cathedral of All Saints in Cairo was demolished to make way for a new Nile bridge. In 1977, work on a new building on Zamalek was begun, and completed in 1988.
Diocese of Cyprus and the Gulf
Main Article Anglican Diocese of Cyprus and the Gulf
The current bishop is Michael Lewis.
The diocese is divided into two archdeaconries: one for Cyprus and one for the Persian Gulf.
Diocese of Egypt with North Africa and the Horn of Africa
The current bishops include: Mouneer Anis, diocesan Bishop of Egypt and Presiding Bishop of the Church in Jerusalem; Bill Musk, Area Bishop for North Africa and Dr. Grant LeMarquand, Area Bishop for the Horn of Africa.
80% of the communicants of this diocese are refugees, owing to the civil war in Sudan. The churches of Holy Trinity, Algiers, and Christ Church, Mogadishu, are currently without chaplains due to local unrest.
Diocese of Iran
The Diocese of Iran was first established in 1912 as the Diocese of Persia and was incorporated into the Jerusalem Archbishopric in 1957. The current bishop is the Rt Rev Azad Marshall. The diocesan seat is Saint Luke's Church, Isfahan, Iran.
Diocese of Jerusalem
The parish with the largest congregation is the Church of the Redeemer, Amman, Jordan. The cornerstone of the church was laid in 1949, and the church houses both Arabic and English-speaking congregations today.
- White, Malcolm (April 2012). "Anglican Pioneers of the Ottoman Period". St Francis Magazine 8 (2).
- Miller, Duane Alexander (October 2012). "Christ Church (Anglican) in Nazareth". St Francis Magazine 8 (5).
- Miller, Duane Alexander (August 2011). "Book Review: The Episcopal Church and the Middle East by Charles Thorley Bridgeman". St Francis Magazine 7 (3): 126.
- Buchanan, Colin (2009). The A to Z of Anglicanism. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-8108-6842-7.
- Anglican Mainstream (9 August 2007). "Iran’s New Bishop Installed". Church of England Newspaper. Retrieved 10 December 2011.
- Miller, Duane Alexander (December 2007). "The Installation of a Bishop in Jerusalem: The Cathedral Church of St George the Martyr, 15 April 2007". Anglican and Episcopal History 76 (4): 549–554. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
- Miller, Duane Alexander (September 2007). "Morning Prayer, Low Style, in the Anglican Diocese of Jerusalem: Church of the Redeemer, Amman, Jordan, Sunday, 11 March 2007". Anglican and Episcopal History 76 (3): 404–408.
- Episcopal Diocese of Jerusalem
- Diocese of Egypt
- Diocese of Cyprus and the Gulf
- Jerusalem and Middle East Church Association