Guugu Yimithirr language
|50–100 (2013)|
Guugu Yimithirr, also rendered Guugu Yimidhirr, Guguyimidjir /ˈkuːku ˈjɪmɪt̪ɪr/ and many other spellings, is an Australian Aboriginal language, the traditional language of the Guugu Yimithirr people of Far North Queensland. It belongs to the Pama-Nyungan language family. Most of the speakers today live at the community of Hopevale, about 46 km from Cooktown. Guugu Yimithirr is one of the more famous Aboriginal, or otherwise non-English, Australian languages because it is the source language of the word "kangaroo."
The word guugu means "speech, language", while yimithirr (or yumuthirr) means yimi-having, yimi being the word for "this". The use of the word yi(mi), rather than some other word for "this", was seen as a distinctive feature of Guugu Yimithirr. The element guugu and the practice of naming based on some distinctive word is found in many other languages.
The name has many spelling variants, including Gogo-Yimidjir, Gugu-Yimidhirr, Gugu Yimithirr, Guugu Yimidhirr, Guguyimidjir (used by Ethnologue), Gugu Yimijir, Kukuyimidir, Koko Imudji, Koko Yimidir, Kuku Jimidir, Kuku Yimithirr, and Kuku Yimidhirr.
Location of the Guugu Yimithirr people
The original territory of the Guugu Yimithirr tribe extended northwards to the mouth of the Jeannie River, where it was bordered by speakers of Guugu Nyiguudji; southwards to the Annan River, where it was bordered by speakers of Guugu Yalandji; to the west, it was bordered by speakers of a language called Guugu Warra (literally "bad talk") or Lama-Lama. The modern town of Cooktown is located within Guugu Yimithirr territory.
Guugu Yimithirr originally consisted of several dialects, although even the names of most have now been forgotten. Today two main dialects are distinguished: the coastal dialect, called dhalundhirr "with the sea", and the inland dialect, called waguurrga "of the outside". Missionaries used the coastal dialect to translate hymns and Bible stories, so some of its words now have religious associations that the inland equivalents lack. There was once also a Ngegudi or Gugu Nyiguudyi dialect.
In 1770, Guugu Yimithirr became the first Australian Aboriginal language to be written down when Lieutenant (later Captain) James Cook and his crew recorded words while their ship, the HM Bark Endeavour, was being repaired after having run aground on a shoal of the Great Barrier Reef. Joseph Banks described the language as totally different from that of the Islanders; it sounded more like English in its degree of harshness tho it could not be calld [sic] harsh neither.
Among the words recorded were kangooroo or kanguru (IPA: /ɡaŋuru/), meaning a large black or grey kangaroo, which would become the general English term for all kangaroos, and dhigul (transcribed by Banks as Je-Quoll), the name of the quoll.
|High||i iː||u uː|
Short /u/ may be realized as unrounded [ɯ], and unstressed /a/ may be reduced to [ə].
The stops are usually voiceless and unaspirated initially and after short vowels, and voiced after consonants and long vowels.
The retroflexes [ɖ ɳ] may not be single phonemes, but clusters of /ɻd ɻn/. However, there is at least one word which, for older speakers, is pronounced with a word-initial retroflex: "run", which is [ɖudaː] or [ɖuɖaː].
All words, with the exception of a couple of interjections, begin with one consonant. The consonant can be a stop, nasal, or semivowel (that is, /l r ɻ/ do not occur initially).
Words can end in either a vowel or a consonant. The allowed word-final consonants are /l r ɻ j n n̪/.
Within words, any consonant can occur, as well as clusters of up to three consonants, which cannot occur initially or finally.
Like many Australian languages, Guugu Yimithirr pronouns have accusative morphology while nouns have ergative morphology. That is, the subject of an intransitive verb has the same form as the subject of a transitive verb if the subject is a pronoun, but the same form as the object of a transitive verb otherwise.
Regardless of whether nouns or pronouns are used, the usual sentence order is subject–object–verb, although other word orders are possible.
The language is notable for its use of pure geographic directions (north, south, east, west) rather than egocentric directions (left, right, forward, backward)., though such "purity" is disputed
- Guugu Yimithirr at the Australian Indigenous Languages Database, Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies
- Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Guguyimidjir". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
- , and following pages.
- Deutscher, Guy (26 August 2010). "Does Your Language Shape How You Think?". The New York Times.
- Haviland, John B. (March 1998). "Guugu Yimithirr Cardinal Directions". Ethos 26 (1): 25–47. doi:10.1525/eth.19220.127.116.11. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
- Banks, Joseph (1962). J. C. Beaglehole, ed. The Endeavour journal of Joseph Banks, 1768-1771.
- Breen, Gavan (1970). "A re-examination of Cook's Gogo-Yimidjir word list". Oceania 41 (1): 28–38.
- Cook, James (1955). The Journals of Captain James Cook. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-665-35756-7.
- Dixon, R. M. W. (2002). Australian Languages: Their Nature and Development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-47378-0.
- Haviland, John B. (1974). "A last look at Cook's Guugu-Yimidhirr wordlist". Oceania 44 (3): 216–232.
- Haviland, John B. (1979). "Guugu Yimidhirr Sketch Grammar". In R. M. W. Dixon and B. Blake. Handbook of Australian Languages Vol I. pp. 26–180.
- Haviland, John B. (1985). "The life history of a speech community: Guugu Yimidhirr at Hopevale". Aboriginal History 8 (7): 170–204.
- Richard Phillips; Sidney H. Ray (1898). "Vocabulary of Australian Aborigines in the neighbourhood of Cooktown, North Queensland". The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland (Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland) 27: 144–147. doi:10.2307/2842861. JSTOR 2842861.
- Roth, Walter E. (1901). The structure of the Koko-Yimidir language. Brisbane: Government Printer.
- Schwarz, G. H. (1946). Order of service and hymns. Brisbane: Watson, Ferguson.
- de Zwaan, Jan Daniel (1969). A preliminary analysis of Gogo-Yimidjir. Canberra: Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies.
- de Zwaan, Jan Daniel (1969). "Two studies in Gogo-Yimidjir". Oceania 39 (3): 198–217.