Jean Gabin

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Jean Gabin
JeanGabin.jpg
Born Jean-Alexis Moncorgé
17 May 1904
Paris, France
Died 15 November 1976(1976-11-15) (aged 72)
Neuilly-sur-Seine
Years active 1928–1976
Spouse(s) Gaby Basset (1925–1930)
Suzanne Marguerite Jeanne Mauchain (1933–1939)
Dominique Fournier (1949–1976)

Jean Gabin (17 May 1904 – 15 November 1976) was a French actor and sometime singer. Considered a key figure in French cinema, he starred in several classic films including Pépé le Moko (1937), La Grande illusion (1937), Le Quai des brumes (1938), La Bête humaine (1938), Le Jour se lève (1939), and Le Plaisir (1952).

Early life[edit]

Gabin was born Jean-Alexis Moncorgé in Paris, the son of Madeleine Petit and Ferdinand Moncorgé, a cafe entertainer whose stage name was Gabin.[1][2] He grew up in the village of Mériel in the Seine-et-Oise (now Val-d'Oise) département, about 22 mi (35 km) north of Paris. The son of cabaret entertainers, he attended the Lycée Janson de Sailly. Leaving school early, he worked as a laborer until the age of 19 when he entered show business with a bit part in a Folies Bergères production. He continued performing in a variety of minor roles before going into the military.

Career[edit]

After completing his military service, Gabin returned to the entertainment business, working under the stage name of Jean Gabin at whatever was offered in the Parisian music halls and operettas, imitating the singing style of Maurice Chevalier, which was the rage at the time. He was part of a troupe that toured South America, and upon returning to France found work at the Moulin Rouge. His performances started getting noticed, and better stage roles came along that led to parts in two silent films in 1928.

Two years later, he easily made the transition to talkies in a 1930 Pathé Frères production titled Chacun sa Chance. Playing secondary roles, Gabin made more than a dozen films over the next four years, including films directed by Maurice and Jacques Tourneur. However, he only gained real recognition for his performance in Maria Chapdelaine, a 1934 production directed by Julien Duvivier. Cast as a romantic hero in a 1936 war drama titled La Bandera, this second Duvivier-directed film established Gabin as a major star. The following year, he teamed up with Duvivier again, this time in the highly successful Pépé le Moko; its popularity brought Gabin international recognition. That same year, he starred in the Jean Renoir film La Grande Illusion, an anti-war film that ran at a New York City theatre for an unprecedented six months. This was followed by another one of Renoir's major works: La Bête Humaine (The Human Beast), a film noir tragedy based on the novel by Émile Zola and starring Gabin and Simone Simon, as well as Le Quai Des Brumes (Port of Shadows), one of director Marcel Carné's classics of poetic realism.

Flooded with offers from Hollywood, for a time Gabin turned them all down until the outbreak of World War II. Following the German occupation of France, he joined Jean Renoir and Julien Duvivier in the United States. Divorced from his second wife in 1939, during his time in Hollywood, Gabin began a torrid romance with actress Marlene Dietrich. However, his films in America - Moontide (1942) and The Impostor (1944), the later reuniting him with Duvivier - were not successful.

A difficult personality, he did serious damage to his Hollywood career while working for RKO Pictures. Scheduled to star in an RKO film, at the last minute he demanded Dietrich be given the co-starring role. The studio refused. After Gabin remained steadfast in his demand, he was fired, and the film project was shelved.

Undaunted, Jean Gabin joined General Charles de Gaulle's Free French Forces and earned the Médaille militaire and a Croix de guerre for his wartime valor fighting with the Allies in North Africa. Following D-Day, Gabin was part of the military contingent that entered a liberated Paris.

In 1946, Gabin was hired by Marcel Carné to star in the film, Les Portes de la Nuit, but his conduct got him fired again. He then found a French producer and director willing to cast him and Marlene Dietrich together, but their film Martin Roumagnac was not a success and their personal relationship soon ended. Following another box office failure in 1947, Gabin returned to the stage, but there too, the production was another financial disaster. Nevertheless, he was cast in the lead role of the 1949 René Clément film Au-Delà Des Grilles that won the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. Despite this recognition, the film did not do well at the French box office, and the next five years brought little more than repeated box office failures.

Gabin and Jacques Prévert in 1961.

Gabin's career seemed headed for oblivion. However, he made a comeback in the 1954 film, Touchez pas au grisbi (Don't Touch the Loot). Directed by Jacques Becker, his performance earned him critical acclaim, and the film was a very profitable international success. Later, he worked once again with Jean Renoir in French Cancan, with María Félix and Françoise Arnoul. Over the next twenty years, Gabin made close to 50 more films, most of them very successful commercially and critically, including many for Gafer Films, his production partnership with fellow actor Fernandel.

His co-stars included leading figures of post-war cinema such as Brigitte Bardot (En cas de malheur), Alain Delon (Le Clan des Siciliens, Mélodie en sous-sol and Deux hommes dans la ville), Jean-Paul Belmondo (Un singe en hiver) and Louis de Funès (Le Tatoué).

Death and legacy[edit]

Gabin died of leukaemia at the American Hospital of Paris, in the Parisian suburb of Neuilly-sur-Seine. His body was cremated and with full military honours, his ashes were dispersed into the sea from a military ship.

Considered one of the great stars of French cinema, he was made a member of the Légion d'honneur. The Musée Jean Gabin in his native town, Mériel, contains his story and features, his war and film memorabilia.

Selected Filmography[edit]

Year Title Role Director Notes
1931 The Darling of Paris Bob Augusto Genina
1932 Fun in the Barracks Fricot Maurice Tourneur
1934 Maria Chapdelaine[3] François Paradis Julien Duvivier NBR Award 1935
1934 Zouzou Jean, an orphan Julien Duvivier Featuring Josephine Baker
1935 La Bandera Pierre Gilleth Julien Duvivier Adaptation of Pierre Mac Orlan's novel La Bandera.
1936 Les Bas-fonds Wasska Pepel Jean Renoir Louis Delluc Prize 1937. Adaptation of Maxim Gorky's The Lower Depths.
La belle équipe Jeannot Julien Duvivier With Charles Vanel and Viviane Romance.
1937 Pépé le Moko Pépé Julien Duvivier Remade twice: Algiers (1938) and Casbah (1948).
La Grande illusion (The Grand Illusion) Lieutenant Maréchal Jean Renoir NBR Award 1938
Gueule d'amour (Lady Killer) Lucien Bourrache Jean Grémillon Adaptation of a novel by André Beucler.
1938 Le Récif de corail Trott Lennart Maurice Gleize With Michèle Morgan. Adaptation of a novel by Jean Martet.
Le Quai des brumes (Port of Shadows) Jean Marcel Carné With Michèle Morgan and Claude Brasseur. Louis Delluc Prize 1939
La Bête humaine (The Human Beast) Jacques Lantier Jean Renoir Adaption of Émile Zola's novel La Bête humaine.
1939 Le Jour se lève (Daybreak) François Marcel Carné Remade as The Long Night, starring Henry Fonda.
1941 Remorques Captain André Laurent Jean Grémillon With Madeleine Renaud. Adaptation of a novel by Roger Vercel.
1942 Moontide Bobo Archie Mayo With Ida Lupino. Adaptation of a novel by Willard Robertson.
1944 The Impostor Clement Julien Duvivier
1946 Martin Roumagnac (The Room Upstairs) Martin Roumagnac Georges Lacombe With Marlene Dietrich. Adaptation of a novel by Pierre-René Wolf.
1949 Au-delà des grilles (The Walls of Malapaga) Pierre Arrignon René Clément Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film 1949
1951 È più facile che un cammello... (His Last Twelve Hours) Carlo Bacchi Luigi Zampa French title: Pour l'amour du ciel
1952 La Vérité sur Bébé Donge (The Truth About Bebe Donge) François Donge Henri Decoin With Danielle Darrieux. Adaptation of a novel by Georges Simenon.
Le Plaisir (House of Pleasure) Joseph Rivet Max Ophüls An anthology film based on three stories by Guy de Maupassant.
La Minute de vérité (La Minute de vérité) Pierre Richard Jean Delannoy French-Italian-Austrian coproduction
1954 Touchez pas au grisbi (Don't Touch the Loot) Max Jacques Becker With Jeanne Moreau and Lino Ventura. Adaptation of a novel by Albert Simonin.
Razzia sur la chnouf (Raid on the Drug Ring) Henri Ferré Henri Decoin Based on a novel by Auguste Le Breton.
1955 Napoléon Jean Lannes Sacha Guitry Cameo appearance
French Cancan Henri Danglard Jean Renoir Musical film
1956 Voici le temps des assassins (Deadlier Than the Male) André Chatelin Julien Duvivier Produced by Raymond Borderie (and others).
La Traversée de Paris (The Trip Across Paris) Grandgil Claude Autant-Lara With Louis de Funès and Bourvil
1958 Maigret tend un piège (Maigret Sets a Trap) Jules Maigret Jean Delannoy With Annie Girardot. Adaptation of an original Maigret story by Georges Simenon.
Les Misérables Jean Valjean Jean-Paul Le Chanois Franco-Italian-German adaption of Victor Hugo's novel.
1959 Archimède le clochard (The Magnificent Tramp) Archimède Gilles Grangier Silver Bear for Best Actor at the 9th Berlin International Film Festival[4]
Rue des prairies
1961 The President Émile Beaufort Henri Verneuil Adaption of a novel by Georges Simenon.
The Counterfeiters of Paris Ferdinand Maréchal Gilles Grangier Adaption of a novel by Albert Simonin.
1962 Le Gentleman d'Epsom (The Gentleman from Epsom) Richard Briand-Charmery Gilles Grangier Raymond Oliver as himself.
Mélodie en sous-sol (Any Number Can Win) Mister Charles Henri Verneuil With Alain Delon. Adaption of Zekial Marko's novel "The Big Grab".
Un singe en hiver (A Monkey in Winter) Albert Quentin Henri Verneuil With Jean-Paul Belmondo. Adaption of Antoine Blondin's novel of the same name.
1965 Le Tonnerre de Dieu (God's Thunder) Léandre Brassac Denys de La Patellière With Michèle Mercier and Robert Hossein.
1968 Le tatoué Comte Enguerand Denys de La Patellière Co-starring Louis de Funès
1969 Le Clan des Siciliens (The Sicilian Clan) Vittorio Manalese Henri Verneuil With Alain Delon and Lino Ventura. Score by Ennio Morricone.
1971 Le Chat Julien Bouin Pierre Granier-Deferre Silver Bear for Best Actor at the 21st Berlin International Film Festival[5]
1973 Deux hommes dans la ville (Two Against the Law) Germain Cazeneuve José Giovanni With Alain Delon, Mimsy Farmer and Gérard Depardieu.
1974 Verdict Judge Leguen André Cayatte With Sophia Loren. Produced by Carlo Ponti.
1976 L'année sainte (Holy Year) Max Lambert Jean Girault His last film, with Jean-Claude Brialy, Henri Virlojeux, and Danielle Darrieux

References[edit]

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ http://www.filmreference.com/Actors-and-Actresses-El-Ga/Gabin-Jean.html
  3. ^ "Maria Chapdelaine". Retrieved 2012-12-09. 
  4. ^ "Berlinale 1959: Prize Winners". berlinale.de. Retrieved 2010-01-05. 
  5. ^ "Berlinale 1971: Prize Winners". berlinale.de. Retrieved 2010-03-14. 

External links[edit]