Knowledge Is Power Program
Mike Feinberg, Co-FounderDave Levin, Co-Founder, Richard Barth, CEO
|Focus(es)||Preparing students in underserved communities for success in college and in life.|
|Motto||Work hard. Be nice.|
KIPP, the Knowledge Is Power Program, is a nationwide network of free open-enrollment college-preparatory schools in under-resourced communities throughout the United States. KIPP schools are usually established under state charter school laws and KIPP is America’s largest network of charter schools. Its headquarters are in San Francisco.
KIPP was one of the charter school organizations to help establish the Relay Graduate School of Education for teacher training.
KIPP began in 1994 after founders Dave Levin and Mike Feinberg completed their two-year commitment to Teach For America and launched a program for fifth graders in a public school in inner-city Houston, Texas. Feinberg developed KIPP Academy Houston into a charter school, while Levin went on to establish KIPP Academy New York in the South Bronx. The original KIPP Academies have a sustained record of high student achievement.
The schools operate on the principle that there are no shortcuts: outstanding educators, more time in school, a rigorous college-preparatory curriculum, and a strong culture of achievement and support will help educationally underserved students develop the knowledge, skills, and character needed to succeed in top quality high schools, colleges, and in the competitive world beyond.
More than 95% of KIPP students are African American or Latino / Hispanic; more than 86% are eligible for the federally-subsidized meal program. Students are accepted regardless of prior academic record, conduct, or socioeconomic background. However KIPP schools typically have lower concentrations of special education and limited English proficiency (LEP) students, than the public schools from which they draw.
Doris and Donald Fisher, co-founders of Gap Inc., formed a unique partnership with Feinberg and Levin to replicate KIPP’s success nationwide. Established in 2000 with a $15 million grant from the Fishers, the nonprofit KIPP Foundation recruits, trains, and supports outstanding teachers in opening and leading high-performing college-preparatory public schools in educationally underserved communities. The foundation helps secure facilities and operating contracts while training school leaders through a yearlong KIPP School Leadership Program (KSLP) that includes an intensive program of coursework held at New York University, residencies at other KIPP Schools, and support from KIPP staff.
KIPP students are admitted through a lottery system. When a student decides that he or she would like to attend a KIPP school, a home visit is set up with a teacher or the principal of the school, who meets with the family and student(s) to discuss expectations of all students, teachers and the parents in KIPP. Students, parents, and teachers are then all required to sign a KIPP contract agreeing to fulfill specific responsibilities, promising that they will do everything in their power to help the student succeed and go to college.
The smaller, more intimate environment of the academy helps students feel more comfortable, and teachers keep better track of student progress. Interdisciplinary teams of two or more teachers work with the same group of students for a minimum of one year. The purpose of KIPP is for students to gain a college education; so even after they have finished KIPP, students maintain contact with their college counselor at KIPP. KIPP helps them go to private or boarding schools on full or mostly full scholarship, aids them in finding internships and/or summer programs, and even helps students prepare resumes, seek jobs and choose careers. The KIPP program focuses on character building more than intellectual abilities. There are KIPP public schools in many states. They consist of KIPP: ELA, KIPP: College Preparatory, and KIPP: Collegiate Academy.
Nationally, more than 90 percent of KIPP Middle school students have gone on to college-preparatory high schools and more than 80 percent of KIPP alumni have gone on to college. Only one third of 8th graders enrolled at KIPP graduated from college ten years later, according to reports—a figure which is much lower than the 75% rate that KIPP founders have sought for students at their college prep schools. While the college graduation rate is slightly higher than the 30.6 national average, a KIPP school typically provides 60 percent more time in school than a regular public school. By extending school days, requiring attendance on Saturdays, offering extra curricular activities, and adding three extra weeks of school in July, students have more educational opportunities. Most KIPP schools run from 7:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Monday through Friday and 8:30 a.m. to 1:30 p.m. on select Saturdays (usually twice a month). KIPP has built parnerships with other organizations, such as the United Negro College Fund, to address financial issues that might be related to the high rate of college attrition for their alumni.
Each middle school student receives a paycheck at the end of the week of KIPP dollars they have earned based on academic merit, conduct, and overall behavior.
At the end of the school year, KIPP students have the privilege of attending a week long field trip. By providing students with an end of year trip KIPP allows low-income students to be exposed to new opportunities. Trips vary by school as well as grade and class. KIPP Academy Middle School in Houston, Texas, for example, sends fifth graders to Washington, D.C., sixth graders to Utah, seventh graders to the East coast (New York, Connecticut, New Jersey, and Massachusetts) to see a Broadway play, go sightseeing or visit colleges, and eighth graders go to the west coast (California) to visit attractions like Yosemite National Park, Disneyland, and other tourist attractions, as well as colleges.
Using a matched comparison group design, results show that for the vast majority of KIPP schools in the evaluation, impacts on students’ state assessment scores in math and reading are positive, statistically significant, and educationally substantial.
At the vanguard of experimentation with educational methods and techniques are charter schools: public schools that operate outside the normal governance structure of the public school system. In recent years, charter schools such as the Knowledge Is Power Program (KIPP) and Achievement First have upended the way Americans think about educating disadvantaged children, eliminating the sense of impossibility and hopelessness and suggesting a set of highly promising methods.
A research report published in March 2005 by the Economic Policy Institute in book form as "The Charter School Dust-Up: Examining the Evidence on Enrollment and Achievement," however, described the degree to which KIPP's admission process selects for likely high achievers:
KIPP students, as a group, enter KIPP with substantially higher achievement than the typical achievement of schools from which they came. ...[T]eachers told us either that they referred students who were more able than their peers, or that the most motivated and educationally sophisticated parents were those likely to take the initiative to pull children out of the public school and enroll in KIPP at the end of fourth grade. Today, KIPP Schools have added Pre-K through 12th grade schools. A clear pattern to emerge from these interviews was that almost always it was students with unusually supportive parents or intact families who were referred to KIPP and completed the enrollment process.
Criticism and commentary
Some observers, such as the authors of The Charter School Dust-Up, say that KIPP's admission process self-screens for students who are motivated and compliant and come from similarly motivated, compliant as well as supportive families. The 2010 Mathematica Policy Research study found that KIPP schools had a "lower concentration of special education and limited English proficiency students than the public schools from which they draw."
In addition, some KIPP schools show high rates of attrition, especially for those students entering the schools with the lowest test scores. A 2008 study by SRI International found that while KIPP fifth-grade students who enter with below-average scores significantly outperform peers in public schools by the end of year one, "... 60 percent of students who entered fifth grade at four Bay Area KIPP schools in 2003-04 left before completing eighth grade", although research on attrition at one KIPP school in Massachusetts differs. The SRI report also discusses student mobility due to changing economic situations for student's families, but does not directly link this factor into student attrition. Figures for schools in all states are not readily available.
While KIPP's goal is that 75% of KIPP students graduate from college a report they released in April 2011 stated that the college graduation rate for students who completed the first middle school program in 1999 and 2000 was about 33%.
The report states that 95% of the students completed high school, 89% of the students went to college, and 33% of the students earned a degree. This is in contrast to only 70% completing high school, 41% going to college, and 8% earning a four-year degree for students in a similar economic background to that which KIPP draws from.
Overall in the United States 83% of students complete high school, 62% enroll in college, and 31% complete a four-year degree.
For the overall graduation rate for students entering college in the United States one study found a value of 56% (Pathways to Prosperity Study), and another study found a value of 54% (American Dream 2.0 Report).
KIPP's goal of a 75% college graduation rate is close to the 82% college graduation rate for students coming from the highest income quartile.
Jay Matthews, writing for The Washington Post, was encouraging about the results from the KIPP report, although he pointed out that the sample size was only 200 students, and that after graduating from the KIPP middle school the students were no longer attending a KIPP school. Both Matthews and Kay S. Hymowitz writing for City Journal find the 75% goal to be ambitious.
The report published in April 2011 projects that KIPP students who graduate from college will increase from over 6,000 in 2014, to over 7,500 in 2015, to about 10,500 in 2016.
KIPP posts their national report card online: http://www.kipp.org/reportcard/
- "Do charter schools work? Time for a test.". The Economist. June 11, 2009. Retrieved 2009-06-21.
- "KIPP Foundation Offices." KIPP Foundation. Retrieved on July 17, 2011. "San Francisco, CA (Head office) KIPP Foundation 135 Main Street, Suite 1700 San Francisco, CA 94105"
- Mathews, Jay. Work hard. Be nice. Algonquin Books. 2009.
- KIPP Results 2011-12
- "Student Characteristics and Achievement in 22 KIPP Middle Schools", Mathematica Policy Research, June 2010
- The History of KIPP
- KIPP School Leader Fellowships.
- Lavon, Roy. “Real Justice in the Age of Obama”. Princeton University Press. NJ. 2009.
- Ravitch, Diane “The death and life of the great American School system” NY New York. 2010
- Smerdon,Becky. “Pressing Forward Increasing and Expanding Rigor and Relevance In Americas High Schools.” Library of Congress. 2012
- "KIPP college grad rates draw both praise and concern". Houston Chronicle. April 28, 2011. Retrieved 2012-11-19.
- Lavon, Roy. “Real Justice in the Age of Obama”. Princeton University Press. NJ. 2009.
- "The underworked American: Children are exceptions to the country’s work ethic". The Economist. June 11, 2009. Retrieved 2009-06-21.
- "New College Completion Initiative Targets College Success of KIPP Charter School Alumni". Diverse Issues in Higher Education. July 13, 2011. Retrieved 2012-11-24.
- US and World Report. Volume 140 Issue 1-7. March 17, 2010.
- An Education Strategy to Promote Opportunity, Prosperity, and Growth, Brookings Institution, February 2007
- The Charter School Dust-Up: Examining the evidence on enrollment and achievement, Teachers College Press, March 2005
- "Student Characteristics and Achievement in 22 KIPP Middle Schools", Mathematica Policy Research
- "New Study Finds San Francisco Bay Area KIPP Students Outperform Peers" (Press release). SRI International. 2008-09-16. Retrieved 2013-07-10.
- Jay Matthews (29 April 2011). "KIPP criticizes its college graduation record". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2013-03-19.
- "College Completion Report". KIPP Public Charter Schools | Knowledge Is Power Program. KIPP: Knowledge is Power Program. Retrieved 2013-03-18. April 2011
- Kay S. Hymowitz (June 28, 2011). "Still No Sign of Superman". Retrieved 2013-03-19.
- "College Completion Report". KIPP Public Charter Schools | Knowledge Is Power Program. KIPP: Knowledge is Power Program. Retrieved 2013-03-18. April 2011, (see page 9 of the report (page 11 of the issuu document))
- Carlozo, Lou (27 March 2012). "Why college students stop short of a degree". Reuters. Retrieved 2013-03-18.
- Joy Resmovits (24 January 2013). "College Dropout Crisis Revealed In 'American Dream 2.0' Report". Huffington Post. Retrieved 2013-03-18.
- "College Completion Report". KIPP Public Charter Schools | Knowledge Is Power Program. KIPP: Knowledge is Power Program. Retrieved 2013-03-19. April 2011, (see page 7 of the report (page 9 of the issuu document))
- "College Completion Report". KIPP Public Charter Schools | Knowledge Is Power Program. KIPP: Knowledge is Power Program. Retrieved 2013-03-19. April 2011, (see page 19 of the report (page 21 of the issuu document))
- KIPP, the Knowledge Is Power Program: the KIPP Foundation website.
- KIPP Academy Houston: The first KIPP school.
- KIPP NYC: Home to 10 KIPP schools, including KIPP Academy NY, the second KIPP school.
- KIPP Gaston College Preparatory: The third KIPP school, founded in 2001, one of two rural KIPP schools.
- Other KIPP schools: 125 schools in 20 states and Washington, DC
- Recent US national press articles on KIPP: Newsweek, Washington Post, NY Times, Reader's Digest, etc.
- US Charter Schools
- Teach For America
- KIPP in the news: Google news search for 'KIPP school'.
- The Educational Experiment We Really Need - Slate
- KIPP Adelante Preparatory Academy
- KIPP Chicago Schools
- Work hard. Be nice. (2009), by Washington Post education columnist Jay Mathews, tells the story of KIPP and its founders.
- Chong-Hao Fu, Principal, Knowledge is Power (KIPP)at British Council for School Environments Conference 2009 (panel discussion)(Video)
- C-SPAN Q&A interview with David Levin about the Knowledge Is Power Program, December 12, 2004