Kurilsk

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Kurilsk (English)
Курильск (Russian)
-  Town[1]  -
Map of Russia - Sakhalin Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location of Sakhalin Oblast in Russia
Kurilsk is located in Sakhalin Oblast
Kurilsk
Kurilsk
Location of Kurilsk in Sakhalin Oblast
Coordinates: 45°13′N 147°53′E / 45.217°N 147.883°E / 45.217; 147.883Coordinates: 45°13′N 147°53′E / 45.217°N 147.883°E / 45.217; 147.883
Coat of Arms of Kurilsk (Sakhalin oblast).png
Flag of Kurilsk (Sakhalin oblast).png
Coat of arms
Flag
Administrative status (as of December 2011)
Country Russia
Federal subject Sakhalin Oblast[1]
Administrative district Kurilsky District[1]
Administrative center of Kurilsky District[1]
Municipal status (as of July 2012)
Urban okrug Kurilsky Urban Okrug[2]
Administrative center of Kurilsky Urban Okrug[2]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census) 2,070 inhabitants[3]
Time zone VLAT (UTC+10:00)[4]
Founded 18th century[citation needed]
Dialing code(s) +7 42454[citation needed]
Kurilsk on WikiCommons

Kurilsk (Russian: Кури́льск); Japanese: 紗那村, Shana) is a town and the administrative center of Kurilsky District of Sakhalin Oblast, Russia, located on the island of Iturup. Population: 2,070 (2010 Census);[3] 2,233 (2002 Census);[5] 2,699 (1989 Census).[6]

History[edit]

Ainu have been known to inhabit the present site of Kurilsk since the 2nd millennium BCE, with their settlement known as Shana, and under the Russian rule as Syana (Сяна). Russian colonists first appeared on Iturup in the late 18th century, with the Japanese erecting a military post in 1800. Tensions between Russian and Japanese colonists in the area lead to the Treaty of Shimoda, which saw the southern Kuril Islands officially placed under Japanese rule in 1855, remaining so until the end of World War II.

Under Japanese administration that ended in 1945, the village of Shana was the central settlement of the island. As of August 15, 1945, the population of the village was 1,001.[7]

In 1947, the village was given its present name and granted town status by the Soviets. All Japanese villagers were exiled; however, the Japanese do not recognize it to have been legally dissolved and the city office of Nemuro in Hokkaido takes care of its family registry.

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Within the framework of administrative divisions, Kurilsk serves as the administrative center of Kurilsky District and is subordinated to it.[1] As a municipal division, the town of Kurilsk and six rural localities of Kurilsky District are incorporated as Kurilsky Urban Okrug.[2]

Economy[edit]

Kurilsk is a center for fishing and fish farming, particularly salmon. A tsunami warning station is also located in the town.

Climate[edit]

Remarkably for its relatively southerly latitude, Kurilsk has a subarctic climate (Köppen Dfc) owing to the powerful influence of the cold Oyashio Current which makes summers exceptionally cool. Unlike most subarctic climates, however, the winters are fairly mild and there is no permafrost. Precipitation, as with all the Kuril Islands, is very heavy owing to the influence of the Aleutian Low, though Kurilsk is a little less wet than Yuzhno-Kurilsk because of its westerly aspect which tends to shelter it from cyclonic storms originating over the Pacific. The climate actually resembles the subpolar oceanic climate of the Aleutian Islands more than the climate of interior Siberia, but the mean February temperature of −7 °C (19 °F) is well beyond the −3 °C (27 °F) threshold of subpolar oceanic climates.

Climate data for Syana/Kurilsk (1903-1944)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Daily mean °C (°F) −5.6
(21.9)
−7
(19)
−4.3
(24.3)
1.3
(34.3)
5.2
(41.4)
9.2
(48.6)
13.7
(56.7)
16.0
(60.8)
13.4
(56.1)
8.9
(48)
3.2
(37.8)
−2.3
(27.9)
4.3
(39.7)
Precipitation mm (inches) 90.7
(3.571)
52.8
(2.079)
62.4
(2.457)
69.7
(2.744)
80.0
(3.15)
64.3
(2.531)
77.5
(3.051)
107.9
(4.248)
102.8
(4.047)
120.3
(4.736)
135.6
(5.339)
108.7
(4.28)
1,072.7
(42.233)
Source: Sistema de Clasificación Bioclimática Mundial[8]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Law #25-ZO
  2. ^ a b c Law #524
  3. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  4. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №248-ФЗ от 21 июля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #248-FZ of July 21, 2014 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  5. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  6. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года[All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  7. ^ Northern Territories Association. 北方領土の人口 (in Japanese). Retrieved 2007-04-07. 
  8. ^ "RUSSIA - SYANA". Centro de Investigaciones Fitosociológicas. Retrieved 2011-11-04. 

Sources[edit]

  • Сахалинская областная Дума. Закон №25-ЗО от 23 марта 2011 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Сахалинской области», в ред. Закона №62-ЗО от 27 июня 2013 г. «О внесении изменения в статью 10 Закона Сахалинской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Сахалинской области"». Вступил в силу 9 апреля 2011 г.. Опубликован: "Губернские ведомости", №55(3742), 29 марта 2011 г. (Sakhalin Oblast Duma. Law #25-ZO of March 23, 2011 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Sakhalin Oblast, as amended by the Law #62-ZO of June 27, 2013 On Amending Article 10 of the Law of Sakhalin Oblast "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Sakhalin Oblast". Effective as of April 9, 2011.).
  • Сахалинская областная Дума. Закон №524 от 21 июля 2004 г. «О границах и статусе муниципальных образований в Сахалинской области», в ред. Закона №45-ЗО от 27 мая 2013 г. «О внесении изменения в Закон Сахалинской области "О границах и статусе муниципальных образований в Сахалинской области"». Вступил в силу 1 января 2005 г. Опубликован: "Губернские ведомости", №175–176(2111–2112), 31 июля 2004 г. (Sakhalin Oblast Duma. Law #524 of July 21, 2004 On the Borders and Status of the Municipal Formations in Sakhalin Oblast, as amended by the Law #45-ZO of May 27, 2013 On Amending the Law of Sakhalin Oblast "On the Borders and Status of the Municipal Formations in Sakhalin Oblast". Effective as of January 1, 2005.).