Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk

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Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk (English)
Южно-Сахалинск (Russian)
-  City[1]  -
Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk overview.jpg
View over a residential area of Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk
Map of Russia - Sakhalin Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location of Sakhalin Oblast in Russia
Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk is located in Sakhalin Oblast
Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk
Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk
Location of Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk in Sakhalin Oblast
Coordinates: 46°58′N 142°44′E / 46.967°N 142.733°E / 46.967; 142.733Coordinates: 46°58′N 142°44′E / 46.967°N 142.733°E / 46.967; 142.733
Coat of Arms of Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk.png
Coat of arms
Administrative status (as of December 2011)
Country Russia
Federal subject Sakhalin Oblast[1]
Administratively subordinated to city of oblast significance of Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk[1]
Administrative center of Sakhalin Oblast,[1] city of oblast significance of Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk[1]
Municipal status (as of May 2010)
Urban okrug Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Urban Okrug[2]
Administrative center of Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Urban Okrug[2]
Head[citation needed] Andrey Lobkin[citation needed]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census) 181,728 inhabitants[3]
Rank in 2010 99th
Time zone [4]
Founded 1882[citation needed]
City status since 1946[citation needed]
Previous names Vladimirovka (until 1882),[citation needed]
Toyohara (until 1946)[citation needed]
Postal code(s)[5] 693000
Dialing code(s) +7 4242[citation needed]
Official website
Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk on WikiCommons

Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk (Russian: Ю́жно-Сахали́нск) is a city and the administrative center of Sakhalin Oblast, Russia. It was called Vladimirovka (Влади́мировка) from 1882 to 1905, then Toyohara (Japanese: 豊原市 Hepburn: Toyohara-shi?)) from 1905 to 1946. Population: 181,728 (2010 Census);[3] 175,085 (2002 Census);[6] 159,299 (1989 Census).[7]

History[edit]

Early days of Vladimirovka
This Japanese D51 steam locomotive stands outside the Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Railway Station

Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk began as a small Russian settlement called Vladimirovka, founded by convicts in 1882.[citation needed] The Treaty of Portsmouth in 1905, which brought an end to the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905, awarded the southern half of the Sakhalin Island to Japan. Vladimirovka was renamed Toyohara (meaning "bountiful plain"), and was the prefect capital of Japanese Karafuto Prefecture.[citation needed]

After the end of World War II, the Japanese portion of Sakhalin island was occupied by Soviet troops. Ownership of the city transferred back to the Soviet Union and it was renamed Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk ("Southern Sakhalin"). Town status was granted to it in 1946.[citation needed]

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk is the administrative center of the oblast.[1] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with ten rural localities, incorporated as the city of oblast significance of Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the city of oblast significance of Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk is incorporated as Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Urban Okrug.[2]

Economy and infrastructure[edit]

Central part of Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk
Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk museum in Japanese days
Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk museum in 2008

Due to significant investment from oil companies like ExxonMobil and Shell, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk has experienced substantial economic growth. Although this growth has primarily occurred in the northern part of the island, both companies maintain headquarters and residential complexes in the city of Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk itself. The demand for natural resources by the Japanese, Chinese, and South Koreans has ensured continued prosperity in the foreseeable future for the entire island.

There has been significant criticism, including from Presidential Envoy Kamil Iskhakov, that Sakhalin is not caring for its citizens. Despite sizable gas deposits and incoming investments from gas companies, the regional administration does not yet have plans for the installation of gas services on the island. The oblast also continues to have the highest rate of juvenile crime in all of Russia, and more than 40% of its businesses are unprofitable.[citation needed]

Out of very few remaining Japanese buildings in Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, one now functions as the local museum.

Transportation[edit]

The city is served by the Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Airport. The city is also the hub for the island's narrow gauge railway network, the Sakhalin Railway, built under the Japanese administration in the early 20th century.

Education[edit]

Institutes of higher education in the city include Sakhalin State University and Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk institute of economics, law and informatics. Also there are some branches of other high schools:

  • Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk institute (branch) of Russian State trade-economics university
  • Branch of Far East State university of railways
  • Branch of Modern Academy of the humanities
  • Branch of The Pacific State economics university
  • Branch of Russian economics academy named after G.V. Plekhanov
  • Branch of Far East law institute

Demographics[edit]

Most residents are ethnic Russians, but there also exists a sizable population of Koreans. Of the 43,000 Sakhalin Koreans, half are estimated to live in Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, comprising roughly 12% of the city's population. Also smaller numbers of indigenous minorities, such as Ainu, Nivkhs, and Oroks can be found.

Geography and climate[edit]

The city is located on the Susuya River. It is the largest city on the island, and the only one with more than 100,000 inhabitants. The straight-line distance to Moscow is 10,417 kilometers (6,473 mi).

Due to restrictions, foreigners wishing to leave Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk in order to travel to any other part of the Sakhalin Oblast and its internal and territorial waters are required to seek permission from the Federal Security Service (FSB) and the Border Guard. Scuba diving and recreating on the seacoast is permitted only in places defined by the Border Guard.[8]

The climate is humid continental (Köppen Dfb) with mild summers and cold winters. Maritime influences can be seen in that precipitation is much higher than in interior Russia and that summers are distinctly cooler than in Khabarovsk or Irkutsk, while winters are much milder. Summers are frequently foggy, reducing the amount of sunshine.

Climate data for Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 4.3
(39.7)
6.2
(43.2)
12.5
(54.5)
22.9
(73.2)
27.8
(82)
30.8
(87.4)
30.8
(87.4)
34.7
(94.5)
29.0
(84.2)
22.8
(73)
18.1
(64.6)
7.4
(45.3)
34.7
(94.5)
Average high °C (°F) −6.7
(19.9)
−5.3
(22.5)
−0.3
(31.5)
6.9
(44.4)
13.4
(56.1)
17.7
(63.9)
20.8
(69.4)
22.4
(72.3)
18.9
(66)
12.2
(54)
3.2
(37.8)
−3.7
(25.3)
8.3
(46.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) −12.2
(10)
−11.6
(11.1)
−5.6
(21.9)
1.7
(35.1)
6.9
(44.4)
11.7
(53.1)
15.5
(59.9)
17.3
(63.1)
13.2
(55.8)
6.5
(43.7)
−1.6
(29.1)
−8.6
(16.5)
2.8
(37)
Average low °C (°F) −17.0
(1.4)
−17.3
(0.9)
−10.7
(12.7)
−2.4
(27.7)
2.5
(36.5)
7.5
(45.5)
12.0
(53.6)
13.6
(56.5)
8.5
(47.3)
1.8
(35.2)
−5.4
(22.3)
−13.1
(8.4)
−1.7
(28.9)
Record low °C (°F) −31.6
(−24.9)
−34.8
(−30.6)
−31.1
(−24)
−17.3
(0.9)
−10.0
(14)
−2.0
(28.4)
1.5
(34.7)
1.0
(33.8)
−4.2
(24.4)
−9.0
(15.8)
−22.6
(−8.7)
−29.0
(−20.2)
−34.8
(−30.6)
Precipitation mm (inches) 49
(1.93)
37
(1.46)
49
(1.93)
59
(2.32)
67
(2.64)
51
(2.01)
83
(3.27)
110
(4.33)
114
(4.49)
99
(3.9)
81
(3.19)
62
(2.44)
861
(33.9)
Snowfall cm (inches) 49
(19.3)
58
(22.8)
55
(21.7)
30
(11.8)
7
(2.8)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
5
(2)
12
(4.7)
22
(8.7)
238
(93.8)
Avg. rainy days 0.3 0.4 2 9 17 17 20 19 19 18 9 2 132.7
Avg. snowy days 25 24 24 13 3 0.1 0 0 0 4 20 26 139.1
 % humidity 83 81 78 76 77 83 86 86 83 80 81 83 82
Mean monthly sunshine hours 133.9 142.3 186.0 194.4 200.9 208.3 171.1 156.2 187.2 163.7 115.2 100.8 1,960
Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net[9]
Source #2: [10]

International relations[edit]

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk is twinned with:

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Law #25-ZO
  2. ^ a b c Law #524
  3. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  4. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  5. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (Russian)
  6. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  7. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года[All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  8. ^ Freedom of movement for foreigners on Sakhalin restricted
  9. ^ "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). Retrieved September 8, 2007. 
  10. ^ http://www.wunderground.com/NORMS/DisplayIntlNORMS.asp?CityCode=32150&Units=metric Seasonal Weather Averages

Sources[edit]

  • Сахалинская областная Дума. Закон №25-ЗО от 23 марта 2011 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Сахалинской области», в ред. Закона №62-ЗО от 27 июня 2013 г. «О внесении изменения в статью 10 Закона Сахалинской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Сахалинской области"». Вступил в силу 9 апреля 2011 г.. Опубликован: "Губернские ведомости", №55(3742), 29 марта 2011 г. (Sakhalin Oblast Duma. Law #25-ZO of March 23, 2011 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Sakhalin Oblast, as amended by the Law #62-ZO of June 27, 2013 On Amending Article 10 of the Law of Sakhalin Oblast "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Sakhalin Oblast". Effective as of April 9, 2011.).
  • Сахалинская областная Дума. Закон №524 от 21 июля 2004 г. «О границах и статусе муниципальных образований в Сахалинской области», в ред. Закона №45-ЗО от 27 мая 2013 г. «О внесении изменения в Закон Сахалинской области "О границах и статусе муниципальных образований в Сахалинской области"». Вступил в силу 1 января 2005 г. Опубликован: "Губернские ведомости", №175–176(2111–2112), 31 июля 2004 г. (Sakhalin Oblast Duma. Law #524 of July 21, 2004 On the Borders and Status of the Municipal Formations in Sakhalin Oblast, as amended by the Law #45-ZO of May 27, 2013 On Amending the Law of Sakhalin Oblast "On the Borders and Status of the Municipal Formations in Sakhalin Oblast". Effective as of January 1, 2005.).

External links[edit]