List of birds of Hawaii
This list of birds of Hawaii is a comprehensive listing of all the bird species seen naturally in the U.S. state of Hawaii as determined by the Hawaiian Audubon Society. This list is based on Robert Pyle's revision dated March 31, 2005. The scope of this list encompasses the entire Hawaiian Islands chain, from Kure Atoll in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands to the north, to the "Big Island" of Hawaii to the south. The following codes define the distribution and relative abundance of species on this list:
- (A) Accidental - occurrence based on a few records, and unlikely to occur regularly
- (*) Endemic - a species either entirely confined to the Hawaiian Islands in its natural distribution, or a species whose breeding range is entirely confined to the Hawaiian Islands
- (ex) Extirpated - a species that no longer occurs in Hawaii, but other populations still exist elsewhere
- (I) Introduced - population established solely as result of direct or indirect human intervention; synonymous with non-native and non-indigenous
This list is presented in taxonomic order. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account.
Ducks, geese and swans
The family Anatidae includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swans. These birds are adapted to an aquatic existence with webbed feet, bills which are flattened to a greater or lesser extent, and feathers that are excellent at shedding water due to special oils.
- Fulvous whistling duck, Dendrocygna bicolor (ex) LC
- Greater white-fronted goose, Anser albifrons (A) LC
- Emperor goose, Chen canagica (A) NT
- Snow goose, Chen caerulescens (A) LC
- Canada goose, Branta canadensis LC
- Cackling goose, Branta hutchinsii LC
- Nene, Branta sandvicensis (*) VU
- Brant, Branta bernicla LC
- Tundra swan, Cygnus columbianus (A) LC
- Gadwall, Anas strepera (A) LC
- Falcated duck, Anas falcata (A) NT
- Eurasian wigeon, Anas penelope LC
- American wigeon, Anas americana LC
- Mallard, Anas platyrhynchos (I) LC
- Hawaiian duck, Anas wyvilliana (*) EN
- Laysan duck, Anas laysanensis (*) CR
- Baikal teal, Anas formosa (A) LC
- Blue-winged teal, Anas discors LC
- Cinnamon teal, Anas cyanoptera (A) LC
- Northern shoveler, Anas clypeata LC
- Northern pintail, Anas acuta LC
- Garganey, Anas querquedula LC
- Green-winged teal, Anas crecca LC
- Canvasback, Aythya valisineria (A) LC
- Redhead, Aythya americana (A) LC
- Common pochard, Aythya ferina (A) LC
- Ring-necked duck, Aythya collaris LC
- Tufted duck, Aythya fuligula (A) LC
- Greater scaup, Aythya marila LC
- Lesser scaup, Aythya affinis LC
- Harlequin duck, Histrionicus histrionicus (A) LC
- Surf scoter, Melanitta perspicillata (A) LC
- Black scoter, Melanitta americana (A) NT
- Long-tailed duck, Clangula hyemalis (A) VU
- Bufflehead, Bucephala albeola LC
- Common goldeneye, Bucephala clangula (A) LC
- Barrow's goldeneye, Bucephala islandica (A) LC
- Hooded merganser, Lophodytes cucullatus (A) LC
- Common merganser, Mergus merganser (A) LC
- Red-breasted merganser, Mergus serrator (A) LC
- Ruddy duck, Oxyura jamaicensis (A) LC
- Black swan, Cygnus atratus (I) LC
Partridges, grouse, turkeys and Old World quail
Phasianidae consists of the pheasants and their allies. These are terrestrial species, variable in size but generally plump with broad relatively short wings. Many species are gamebirds or have been domesticated as a food source for humans.
- Chukar, Alectoris chukar (I) LC
- Gray francolin, Francolinus pondicerianus (I) LC
- Black francolin, Francolinus francolinus (I) LC
- Erckel's francolin, Francolinus erckelii (I) LC
- Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica (I) NT
- Red junglefowl, Gallus gallus (I) LC
- Kalij pheasant, Lophura leucomelanos (I) LC
- Ring-necked pheasant, Phasianus colchicus (I) LC
- Common peafowl, Pavo cristatus (I) LC
- Wild turkey, Meleagris gallopavo (I) LC
New World quail
The New World quails are small, plump terrestrial birds only distantly related to the quails of the Old World, but named for their similar appearance and habits.
Loons are aquatic birds, the size of a large duck, to which they are unrelated. Their plumage is largely gray or black, and they have spear-shaped bills. Loons swim well and fly adequately, but are almost hopeless on land, because their legs are placed towards the rear of the body.
- Pacific loon, Gavia pacifica (A) LC
Grebes are small to medium-large freshwater diving birds. They have lobed toes and are excellent swimmers and divers. However, they have their feet placed far back on the body, making them quite ungainly on land.
- Pied-billed grebe, Podilymbus podiceps (ex) LC
- Horned grebe, Podiceps auritus (A) LC
- Red-necked grebe, Podiceps grisegena (A) LC
- Eared grebe, Podiceps nigricollis (A) LC
The albatrosses are amongst the largest of flying birds, and the great albatrosses from the genus Diomedea have the largest wingspans of any extant birds.
- Laysan albatross, Phoebastria immutabilis (*) NT 99.7% of the total population breeds on the Hawaiian Islands
- Black-footed albatross, Phoebastria nigripes (*) NT 97.5% of the total population breeds on the Hawaiian Islands
- Short-tailed albatross, Phoebastria albatrus VU
Shearwaters and petrels
The procellariids are the main group of medium-sized "true petrels", characterized by united nostrils with medium septum and a long outer functional primary.
- Northern fulmar, Fulmarus glacialis (A) LC
- Tahiti petrel, Pterodroma rostrata (A) NT
- Kermadec petrel, Pterodroma neglecta (A) LC
- Herald petrel, Pterodroma heraldica (A) VU
- Murphy's petrel, Pterodroma ultima (A) NT
- Mottled petrel, Pterodroma inexpectata NT
- Juan Fernandez petrel, Pterodroma externa VU
- Hawaiian petrel Pterodroma sandwichensis (*) VU
- White-necked petrel, Pterodroma cervicalis (A) VU
- Bonin petrel, Pterodroma hypoleuca (*) LC 99% of the total population breeds on the Hawaiian Islands
- Black-winged petrel, Pterodroma nigripennis LC
- Cook's petrel, Pterodroma cookii (A) VU
- Pycroft's petrel, Pterodroma pycrofti (A) VU
- Stejneger's petrel, Pterodroma longirostris (A) VU
- Bulwer's petrel, Bulweria bulwerii LC
- Jouanin's petrel, Bulweria fallax (A) NT
- Streaked shearwater, Calonectris leucomelas (A) LC
- Flesh-footed shearwater, Puffinus carneipes (A) LC
- Wedge-tailed shearwater, Puffinus pacificus LC
- Buller's shearwater, Puffinus bulleri (A) VU
- Sooty shearwater, Puffinus griseus NT
- Short-tailed shearwater, Puffinus tenuirostris (A) LC
- Christmas shearwater, Puffinus nativitatis LC
- Newell's shearwater, Puffinus newelli (*) EN
- Little shearwater, Puffinus assimilis (A) LC
- Bryan's shearwater, Puffinus bryani (P. assimilis: LC)
The storm petrels are the smallest seabirds, relatives of the petrels, feeding on planktonic crustaceans and small fish picked from the surface, typically while hovering. The flight is fluttering and sometimes bat-like.
- Wilson's storm petrel, Oceanites oceanicus (A) LC
- Fork-tailed storm petrel, Oceanodroma furcata (A) LC
- Leach's storm petrel, Oceanodroma leucorhoa LC
- Band-rumped storm petrel, Oceanodroma castro LC
- Tristram's storm petrel, Oceanodroma tristrami NT
Tropicbirds are slender white birds of tropical oceans, with exceptionally long central tail feathers. Their long wings have black markings, as does the head.
- White-tailed tropicbird, Phaethon lepturus LC
- Red-billed tropicbird, Phaethon aethereus (A) LC
- Red-tailed tropicbird, Phaethon rubricauda LC
Frigatebirds are large seabirds usually found over tropical oceans. They are large, black or black and white, with long wings and deeply forked tails. The males have colored inflatable throat pouches. They do not swim or walk and cannot take off from a flat surface. Having the largest wingspan-to-body-weight ratio of any bird, they are essentially aerial, able to stay aloft for more than a week.
Boobies and gannets
Cormorants are medium-to-large aquatic birds, usually with mainly dark plumage and areas of colored skin on the face. The bill is long, thin and sharply hooked. Their feet are four-toed and webbed, a distinguishing feature among the Pelecaniformes order.
- Pelagic cormorant, Phalacrocorax pelagicus (A) LC
Bitterns, herons and egrets
The Ardeidae family contains the herons, egrets and bitterns. Herons and egrets are medium to large wading birds with long necks and legs. Bitterns tend to be shorter necked and more secretive. Members of Ardeidae fly with their necks retracted, unlike other long-necked birds such as storks, ibises and spoonbills.
- Great blue heron, Ardea herodias LC
- Great egret, Ardea alba (A) LC
- Snowy egret, Egretta thula (A) LC
- Little blue heron, Egretta caerulea (A) LC
- Cattle egret, Bubulcus ibis (I) LC
- Green heron, Butorides virescens (A) LC
- Black-crowned night heron, Nycticorax nycticorax LC
Ibises and spoonbills
- White-faced ibis, Plegadis chihi (A) LC
Pandionidae is the fish-eating bird of prey, the osprey. The family is monotypic.
- Osprey, Pandion haliaetus LC
Hawks, kites and eagles
Accipitridae is a family of birds of prey, which includes hawks, eagles, kites, harriers and Old World vultures. These birds have very large powerful hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, powerful talons and keen eyesight.
- Black kite, Milvus migrans (A) LC
- White-tailed eagle, Haliaeetus albicilla (A) LC
- Steller's sea eagle, Haliaeetus pelagicus (A) VU
- Northern harrier, Circus cyaneus (A) LC
- Chinese goshawk, Accipiter soloensis (A) LC
- Hawaiian hawk, Buteo solitarius (*) NT
- Rough-legged hawk, Buteo lagopus (A) LC
- Golden eagle, Aquila chrysaetos (A) LC
Caracaras and falcons
Falconidae is a family of diurnal birds of prey, notably the falcons and caracaras. They differ from hawks, eagles and kites in that they kill with their beaks instead of their talons.
Rails, gallinules and coots
Rallidae is a large family of small to medium-sized birds which includes the rails, crakes, coots and gallinules. The most typical family members occupy dense vegetation in damp environments near lakes, swamps or rivers. In general they are shy and secretive birds, making them difficult to observe. Most species have strong legs and long toes which are well adapted to soft uneven surfaces. They tend to have short, rounded wings and to be weak fliers.
- Laysan rail, Porzana palmeri (*) EX
- Sora, Porzana Carolina (A) LC
- Hawaiian rail, Porzana sandwichensis (*) EX
- Hawaiian gallinule, Gallinula galeata sandvicensis (*)
- Hawaiian coot, Fulica alai (*) VU
- American coot, Fulica americana (A) LC
Cranes are large, long-legged and long-necked birds. Unlike the similar-looking but unrelated herons, cranes fly with necks outstretched, not pulled back. Most have elaborate and noisy courting displays or "dances".
- Sandhill crane, Grus canadensis (A) LC
Lapwings and plovers
The family Charadriidae includes the plovers, dotterels and lapwings. They are small to medium-sized birds with compact bodies, short, thick necks and long, usually pointed, wings. They are found in open country worldwide, mostly in habitats near water.
- Black-bellied plover, Pluvialis squatarola LC
- Pacific golden plover, Pluvialis fulva LC
- Lesser sand plover, Charadrius mongolus LC
- Common ringed plover, Charadrius hiaticula (A) LC
- Semipalmated plover, Charadrius semipalmatus LC
- Killdeer, Charadrius vociferus (A) LC
- Eurasian dotterel, Charadrius morinellus (A) LC
Stilts and avocets
Recurvirostridae is a family of large wading birds, which includes the avocets and stilts. The avocets have long legs and long up-curved bills. The stilts have extremely long legs and long, thin, straight bills.
- Hawaiian stilt, Himantopus mexicanus knudseni (H. mexicanus: LC)
- Black-winged stilt, Himantopus himantopus (A) LC
- American avocet, Recurvirostra americana (A) LC
Sandpipers, curlews, godwits, snipes and phalaropes
Scolopacidae is a large diverse family of small to medium-sized shorebirds including the sandpipers, curlews, godwits, shanks, tattlers, woodcocks, snipes, dowitchers and phalaropes. The majority of these species eat small invertebrates picked out of the mud or soil. Different lengths of legs and bills enable multiple species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without direct competition for food.
- Greater yellowlegs, Tringa melanoleuca (A) LC
- Lesser yellowlegs, Tringa flavipes LC
- Marsh sandpiper, Tringa stagnatilis (A) LC
- Wood sandpiper, Tringa glareola (A) LC
- Solitary sandpiper, Tringa solitaria (A) LC
- Willet, Tringa semipalmata (A) LC
- Wandering tattler, Tringa incana LC
- Gray-tailed tattler, Tringa brevipes (A) LC
- Common sandpiper, Actitis hypoleucos (A) LC
- Spotted sandpiper, Actitis macularia (A) LC
- Whimbrel, Numenius phaeopus (A) LC
- Bristle-thighed curlew, Numenius tahitiensis VU
- Far Eastern curlew, Numenius madagascariensis (A) VU
- Black-tailed godwit, Limosa limosa (A) NT
- Hudsonian godwit, Limosa haemastica (A) LC
- Bar-tailed godwit, Limosa lapponica LC
- Marbled godwit, Limosa fedoa (A) LC
- Ruddy turnstone, Arenaria interpres LC
- Surfbird, Aphriza virgata (A) LC
- Red knot, Calidris canutus (A) LC
- Sanderling, Calidris alba LC
- Semipalmated sandpiper, Calidris pusilla (A) NT
- Western sandpiper, Calidris mauri LC
- Red-necked stint, Calidris ruficollis (A) LC
- Little stint, Calidris minuta (A) LC
- Long-toed stint, Calidris subminuta (A) LC
- Least sandpiper, Calidris minutilla LC
- Baird's sandpiper, Calidris bairdii (A) LC
- Pectoral sandpiper, Calidris melanotos LC
- Sharp-tailed sandpiper, Calidris acuminata LC
- Dunlin, Calidris alpina LC
- Curlew sandpiper, Calidris ferruginea (A) LC
- Stilt sandpiper, Calidris himantopus (A) LC
- Buff-breasted sandpiper, Tryngites subruficollis (A) NT
- Ruff, Philomachus pugnax LC
- Short-billed dowitcher, Limnodromus griseus LC
- Long-billed dowitcher, Limnodromus scolopaceus LC
- Wilson's snipe, Gallinago delicata (G. gallinago: LC)
- Common snipe, Gallinago gallinago (A) LC
- Pin-tailed snipe, Gallinago stenura (A) LC
- Wilson's phalarope, Phalaropus tricolor LC
- Red-necked phalarope, Phalaropus lobatus (A) LC
- Red phalarope, Phalaropus fulicarius LC
Gulls, terns and skimmers
Laridae is a family of medium to large seabirds and includes gulls, terns, kittiwakes and skimmers. They are typically gray or white, often with black markings on the head or wings. They have stout, longish bills and webbed feet.
- Black-legged kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla (A) LC
- Bonaparte's gull, Chroicocephalus philadelphia (A) LC
- Black-headed gull, Chroicocephalus ridibundus (A) LC
- Laughing gull, Leucophaeus atricilla LC
- Franklin's gull, Leucophaeus pipixcan LC
- Mew gull, Larus canus (A) LC
- Ring-billed gull, Larus delawarensis LC
- Western gull, Larus occidentalis (A) LC
- California gull, Larus californicus (A) LC
- Herring gull, Larus argentatus smithsonianus (L. argentatus: )
- Slaty-backed gull, Larus schistisagus (A) LC
- Glaucous-winged gull, Larus glaucescens LC
- Glaucous gull, Larus hyperboreus (A) LC
- Gull-billed tern, Gelochelidon nilotica (A) LC
- Caspian tern, Hydroprogne caspia (A) LC
- Great crested tern, Thalasseus bergii (A) LC
- Sandwich tern, Thalasseus sandvicensis (A) LC
- Common tern, Sterna hirundo (A) LC
- Arctic tern, Sterna paradisaea LC
- Little tern, Sternula albifrons (without S. antillarum: LC)
- Least tern, Sternula antillarum LC
- Spectacled tern, Onychoprion lunata LC
- Sooty tern, Onychoprion fuscatus LC
- Whiskered tern, Chlidonias hybrida (A) LC
- Black tern, Chlidonias niger (A) LC
- White-winged tern, Chlidonias leucopterus (A) LC
- Brown noddy, Anous stolidus LC
- Hawaiian noddy (black noddy), Anous minutus melanogenys (A. minutus: LC)
- Blue noddy, Procelsterna cerulea LC
- White tern, Gygis alba LC
Skuas are in general medium to large birds, typically with gray or brown plumage, often with white markings on the wings. They have longish bills with hooked tips and webbed feet with sharp claws. They look like large dark gulls, but have a fleshy cere above the upper mandible. They are strong, acrobatic fliers.
- South polar skua, Stercorarius maccormicki (A) LC
- Pomarine jaeger, Stercorarius pomarinus LC
- Parasitic jaeger, Stercorarius parasiticus (A) LC
- Long-tailed jaeger, Stercorarius longicaudus (A) LC
Auks, murres and puffins
Alcids are superficially similar to penguins due to their black-and-white colors, their upright posture and some of their habits, however they are only distantly related to the penguins and are able to fly. Auks live on the open sea, only deliberately coming ashore to nest.
- Ancient murrelet, Synthliboramphus antiquus (A) LC
- Cassin's auklet, Ptychoramphus aleuticus (A) LC
- Parakeet auklet, Aethia psittacula (A) LC
- Horned puffin, Fratercula corniculata (A) LC
- Tufted puffin, Fratercula cirrhata (A) LC
Sandgrouse have small, pigeon like heads and necks, but sturdy compact bodies. They have long pointed wings and sometimes tails and a fast direct flight. Their legs are feathered down to the toes. 1 species has been introduced to Hawaii.
- Chestnut-bellied sandgrouse, Pterocles exustus (I) LC
Pigeons and doves
Pigeons and doves are stout-bodied birds with short necks and short slender bills with a fleshy cere. All of the species listed have been introduced.
- Rock dove, Columba livia (I) LC
- Spotted dove, Streptopelia chinensis (I) LC
- Zebra dove, Geopelia striata (I) LC
- Mourning dove, Zenaida macroura (I) LC
Lories, parakeets, macaws and parrots
Parrots are small to large birds with a characteristic curved beak. Their upper mandibles have slight mobility in the joint with the skull and they have a generally erect stance. All parrots are zygodactyl, having the four toes on each foot placed two at the front and two to the back. Although many different species of parrots have been released in Hawaii, particularly in larger cities, the four species below have been accepted by Hawaii Audubon as currently having or having had established populations. Hawaii has no native parrot species, all have been introduced.
- Pale-headed rosella, Platycercus adscitus (I-ex) LC
- Rose-ringed parakeet, Psittacula krameri (I) LC
- Mitred parakeet, Aratinga mitrata (I) LC
- Red-masked parakeet, Aratinga erythrogenys (I) NT
- Red-crowned amazon, Amazona viridigenalis (I) EN
Cuckoos, roadrunners and anis
The family Cuculidae includes cuckoos, roadrunners and anis. These birds are of variable size with slender bodies, long tails and strong legs.
- Common cuckoo, Cuculus canorus (A) LC
- Oriental cuckoo, Cuculus saturatus (A) LC
- Yellow-billed cuckoo, Coccyzus americanus (A) LC
Barn owls are medium to large owls with large heads and characteristic heart-shaped faces. They have long strong legs with powerful talons. The ban owl is introduced to Hawaii.
- Barn owl, Tyto alba (I) LC
Typical owls are small to large solitary nocturnal birds of prey. They have large forward-facing eyes and ears, a hawk-like beak and a conspicuous circle of feathers around each eye called a facial disk. Hawaii has one native species of owl, which is a distinct subspecies.
Nightjars are medium-sized nocturnal birds that usually nest on the ground. They have long wings, short legs and very short bills. Most have small feet, of little use for walking, and long pointed wings. Their soft plumage is cryptically colored to resemble bark or leaves.
- Common nighthawk, Chordeiles minor (A) LC
The swifts are small birds which spend the majority of their lives flying. These birds have very short legs and never settle voluntarily on the ground, perching instead only on vertical surfaces. Many swifts have long swept-back wings which resemble a crescent or boomerang.
Kingfishers are medium sized birds with large heads, long pointed bills, short legs and stubby tails.
- Belted kingfisher, Megaceryle alcyon (A) LC
Jays, crows, magpies and ravens
The Corvidae family includes crows, ravens, jays, choughs, magpies, treepies, nutcrackers and ground jays. Corvids are above average in size among the Passeriformes, and some of the larger species show high levels of intelligence.
- Hawaiian crow, Corvus hawaiiensis (*EW) EW
The Monarchinae are a relatively recent grouping of a number of seemingly very different birds, mostly from the Southern Hemisphere, which are more closely related than they at first appear. Many of the approximately 140 species making up the family were previously assigned to other groups, largely on the basis of general morphology or behavior. With the new insights generated by the DNA-DNA hybridisation studies of Sibley and his co-workers toward the end of the 20th century, however, it became clear that these apparently unrelated birds were all descended from a common ancestor. The Monarchinae are small to medium-sized insectivorous passerines, many of which hunt by flycatching. The AOU split the complex into 3 separate species in 2010. All are endemic to Hawaii.
- Kauai elepaio, Chasiempis sclateri (*) VU
- Oahu elepaio, Chasiempis ibidis (*) EN
- Hawaii elepaio, Chasiempis sandwichensis (*) VU
Larks are small terrestrial birds with often extravagant songs and display flights. Most larks are fairly dull in appearance. Their food is insects and seeds.
- Eurasian skylark, Alauda arvensis (I) LC
Swallows and martins
The Hirundinidae family is adapted to aerial feeding. They have a slender streamlined body, long pointed wings and a short bill with a wide gape. The feet are adapted to perching rather than walking, and the front toes are partially joined at the base.
- Barn swallow, Hirundo rustica (A) LC
Chickadees and titmice
The Paridae are mainly small stocky woodland species with short stout bills. Some have crests. They are adaptable birds, with a mixed diet including seeds and insects. 1 species has been introduced, but is no longer established.
- Varied tit, Parus varius (I-ex) LC
Mockingbirds and thrashers
The mimids are a family of passerine birds which includes thrashers, mockingbirds, tremblers and the New World catbirds. These birds are notable for their vocalization, especially their remarkable ability to mimic a wide variety of birds and other sounds heard outdoors. The species tend towards dull grays and browns in their appearance. 1 species has been introduced to Hawaii.
- Northern mockingbird, Mimus polyglottos (I) LC
Starlings and mynas
Starlings are small to medium-sized Old World passerine birds with strong feet. Their flight is strong and direct and most are very gregarious. Their preferred habitat is fairly open country, and they eat insects and fruit. The plumage of several species is dark with a metallic sheen. 3 species have been introduced to Hawaii.
- Common myna, Acridotheres tristis (I) LC
- European starling, Sturnus vulgaris (I) LC
- Common hill myna, Gracula religiosa (I) LC
Wagtails and pipits
Motacillidae is a family of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. They include the wagtails, longclaws and pipits. They are slender, ground feeding insectivores of open country.
- Olive-backed pipit, Anthus hodgsoni (A) LC
- Red-throated pipit, Anthus cervinus (A) LC
- American pipit, Anthus rubescens (A) LC
The thrushes are a group of passerine birds that occur mainly but not exclusively in the Old World. They are plump, soft plumaged, small to medium-sized insectivores or sometimes omnivores, often feeding on the ground. Many have attractive songs. 5 species are endemic to Hawaii and 1 species is accidental.
- Kāmaʻo, Myadestes myadestinus (*E) EX
- Olomaʻo, Myadestes lanaiensis (*E?) CR
- ‘Ōma’o, Myadestes obscurus (*) VU
- ʻĀmaui, Myadestes woahensis (*E) EX
- Puaiohi, Myadestes palmeri (*) CR
- Eyebrowed thrush, Turdus obscurus (A) LC
Bulbuls are a family of medium-sized passerine songbirds resident in Africa and tropical Asia. These are mostly frugivorous birds. 2 species have been intrroduced to Hawaii.
- Japanese bush warbler, Cettia diphone (I) LC
- Millerbird, Acrocephalus familiaris CR
Old World flycatchers
The Old World flycatchers are a large family of small passerine birds restricted to the Old World. These are mainly small arboreal insectivores, many of which, as the name implies, take their prey on the wing. The appearance of these birds is highly varied, but they mostly have weak songs and harsh calls. The nest of most is a well-constructed cup in a tree or hedge. 1 species has been introduced to Hawaii.
- White-rumped shama, Copsychus malabaricus (I) LC
Old World babblers
The Old World babblers are a large family of mostly Old World passerine birds. They are rather diverse in size and coloration, but are characterized by soft fluffy plumage. These are birds of tropical areas, with the greatest variety in southeast Asia. These birds have strong legs and many are quite terrestrial. This group is not strongly migratory, and most species have short rounded wings and a weak flight. Morphological diversity is rather high; most species resemble "warblers", jays or thrushes. All of the following species have been introduced to Hawaii.
- Greater necklaced laughingthrush, Garrulax pectoralis (I) LC
- Gray-sided laughingthrush, Garrulax caerulatus (I) LC
- Hwamei, Garrulax canorus (I) LC
- Red-billed leiothrix, Leiothrix lutea (I) LC
The white-eyes are small passerine birds native to tropical and sub-tropical Africa, southern Asia and Australasia. The birds of this group are mostly of undistinguished appearance, their plumage above being generally some dull color like greenish-olive, but some species have a white or bright yellow throat, breast or lower parts, and several have buff flanks. But as indicated by their scientific name, derived from the Ancient Greek for girdle-eye, there is a conspicuous ring around the eyes of many species. They have rounded wings and strong legs. The size ranges up to 15 cm (6 inches) in length. All the species of white-eyes are sociable, forming large flocks which only separate on the approach of the breeding season. Though mainly insectivorous, they eat nectar and fruits of various kinds. 1 species has been introduced to Hawaii.
- Japanese white-eye, Zosterops japonicus (I) LC
Honeyeaters prefer to flit quickly from perch to perch in the outer foliage, stretching up or sideways or hanging upside down at need. They have a highly developed brush-tipped tongue, which is frayed and fringed with bristles which soak up liquids readily. The tongue is flicked rapidly and repeatedly into a flower, the upper mandible then compressing any liquid out when the bill is closed. All species of honeyeaters below were endemic to Hawaii, but are now extinct. The Kauaʻi ʻōʻō was the last species to survive. It was last seen in 1987.
- Kauaʻi ʻōʻō, Moho braccatus (*) EX
- Oʻahu ʻōʻō, Moho apicalis (*) EX
- Bishop's ʻōʻō, Moho bishopi (*) EX
- Hawaiʻi ʻōʻō, Moho nobilis (*) EX
- Kioea, Chaetoptila angustipluma (*) EX
- Snow bunting, Plectrophenax nivalis (A) LC
- Saffron finch, Sicalis flaveola (I) LC
- Red-crested cardinal, Paroaria coronata (I) LC
- Yellow-billed cardinal, Paroaria capitata (I) LC
Grassquits and American sparrows
Emberizidae is a large family of passerine birds. They are seed-eating birds with distinctively shaped bills. In Europe, most species are called buntings. In North America, most of the species in this family are known as sparrows, but these birds are not closely related to the Old World sparrows which are in the family Passeridae.
Cardinals and saltators
The cardinals are a family of robust, seed-eating birds with strong bills. They are typically associated with open woodland. The sexes usually have distinct plumages. One species has been introduced to Hawaii.
- Northern cardinal, Cardinalis cardinalis (I) LC
Meadowlarks and grackles
The icterids are a group of small- to medium-sized, often colorful passerine birds. Most species have black as a predominant plumage color, often enlivened by yellow, orange or red.
Finches and siskins
Finches are seed-eating passerine birds, that are small to moderately large and have a strong beak, usually conical and in some species very large. All have twelve tail feathers and nine primaries. These birds have a bouncing flight with alternating bouts of flapping and gliding on closed wings, and most sing well.
- House finch, Haemorhous mexicanus (I) LC
- Common redpoll, Acanthis flammea (A) LC
- Island canary, Serinus canaria (I) LC
- Yellow-fronted canary, Serinus mozambicus (I) LC
Hawaiian honeycreepers are small passerine birds endemic to Hawaii. Most authorities categorize this group as a family Drepanididae, but some biologists still place them as a subfamily, Drepanidinae, of the finch family, Fringillidae. The wide range of bills in this group, from thick finch-like bills to slender downcurved bills for probing flowers have arisen through adaptive radiation, where an ancestral finch has evolved to fill a large number of ecological niches.
- Laysan finch, Telespiza cantans (*) VU
- Nihoa finch, Telespiza ultima (*) CR
- ʻŌʻū, Psittirostra psittacea (*E?) CR
- Lāna'i hookbill, Dysmorodrepanis munroi (*E) EX
- Palila, Loxioides bailleui (*) CR
- Kauai palila, Loxioides kikuchi (*E)
- Lesser koa finch, Rhodacanthis flaviceps (*E) EX
- Greater koa finch, Rhodacanthis palmeri (*E) EX
- Kona grosbeak, Chloridops kona (*E) EX
- Maui parrotbill, Pseudonestor xanthophrys (*) CR
- Hawaiʻi ʻamakihi, Hemignathus virens (*) LC
- Oʻahu ʻamakihi, Hemignathus flavus (*) VU
- Kauaʻi ʻamakihi, Hemignathus kauaiensis (*) VU
- Greater ʻamakihi, Hemignathus sagittirostris (*E) EX
- Lesser ʻakialoa, Hemignathus obscurus (*E) EX
- Kauaʻi ʻakialoa, Hemignathus ellisianus (*E) EX
- Nukupu‘u, Hemignathus lucidus (*E?) CR
- Giant nukupu'u, Hemignathus vorpalis (E*)
- ʻAkiapolaʻau, Hemignathus munroi (*) EN
- ʻAnianiau, Magumma parva (*) VU
- ʻAkikiki, Oreomystis bairdi (*) CR
- Hawaiʻi creeper, Oreomystis mana (*) EN
- Oʻahu ʻalauahio, Paroreomyza maculata (*E?) CR
- Kākāwahie, Paroreomyza flammea (*E) EX
- Maui 'alauahio, Paroreomyza montana (*) EN
- ‘Akeke‘e, Loxops caeruleirostris (*) CR
- ʻAkepa, Loxops coccineus (*) EN
- ʻUla-ʻai-hawane, Ciridops anna (*E) EX
- ʻIʻiwi, Vestiaria coccinea (*) VU
- Hawaii mamo, Drepanis pacifica (*E) EX
- Black mamo, Drepanis funerea (*E) EX
- ʻAkohekohe, Palmeria dolei (*) CR
- ʻApapane, Himatione sanguinea (*) LC
- Poʻouli, Melamprosops phaeosoma (*E?) CR
Old World sparrows
Old World sparrows are small passerine birds. In general, sparrows tend to be small plump brownish or grayish birds with short tails and short powerful beaks. Sparrows are seed eaters, but they also consume small insects. 1 species has been introduced to Hawaii.
- House sparrow, Passer domesticus (I) LC
The estrildid finches are small passerine birds of the Old World tropics and Australasia. They are gregarious and often colonial seed eaters with short, thick, but pointed bills. They are all similar in structure and habits, but vary widely in plumage colors and patterns. All the estrildids build large domed nests. Most are sensitive to cold and require a warm, usually tropical, habitat. All of the following species have been introduced to Hawaii.
- Red-cheeked cordon-bleu, Uraeginthus bengalus (I) LC
- Lavender waxbill, Estrilda caerulescens (I) LC
- Orange-cheeked waxbill, Estrilda melpoda (I) LC
- Black-rumped waxbill, Estrilda troglodytes (I) LC
- Common waxbill, Estrilda astrild (I) LC
- Red avadavat, Amandava amandava (I) LC
- African silverbill, Lonchura cantans (I) LC
- Warbling silverbill, Lonchura malabarica (I) LC
- Scaly-breasted munia, Lonchura punctulata (I) LC
- Tricolored munia, Lonchura malacca (I) LC
- Black-headed munia, Lonchura atricapilla (I) LC
- Java sparrow, Padda oryzivora (I) VU
- List of birds
- Lists of birds by region
- Endemic birds of Hawaii
- List of bird species introduced to the Hawaiian Islands
- Hawaii Audubon Society
- The Check-list of North American Birds, 7th edition, 1998, published by the American Ornithologists' Union (a recognized source on the taxonomy of birds found in North America)