List of colonial governors of New Jersey
The territory which would later become the state of New Jersey was settled by Dutch and Swedish colonists in the 17th century. In 1664, at the onset of the Second Anglo-Dutch War, English forces under Richard Nicolls ousted the Dutch from control of New Netherland (present-day New York, New Jersey, and Delaware), and the territory became part of several different English colonies. Despite one brief year when the Dutch retook the colony (1673–1674), New Jersey would remain an English possession until the American colonies declared independence in 1776.
In 1664, James, Duke of York (later King James II) divided New Jersey among two men, Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton, who supported the monarchy's cause during the English Civil War (1642–1649) and Interregnum (1649–1660). Carteret and Lord Berkeley subsequently sold their interests to two groups of proprietors, thus creating two provinces: East Jersey and the West Jersey. The exact location of the border between West Jersey and East Jersey was often a matter of dispute. The two provinces would be distinct political divisions from 1674 to 1702.
West Jersey was largely a Quaker colony due to the influence of Pennsylvania founder William Penn and its prominent Quaker investors. Many of its early settlers were Quakers who came directly from England, Scotland and Ireland to escape religious persecution. Although a number of the East Jersey proprietors in England were Quakers and Governor Robert Barclay was a leading Quaker theologian, the Quaker influence on the East Jersey government was insignificant. Many of East Jersey's early settlers came from other colonies in the Western Hemisphere, especially New England, Long Island, and the West Indies. Elizabethtown and Newark in particular had a strong Puritan character. The Monmouth Tract, south of the Raritan River, was developed primarily by Quakers from Long Island.
In 1702, both divisions of New Jersey were reunited as one royal colony by Queen Anne with a royal governor appointed by the Crown. Until 1738, the Province of New Jersey shared its royal governor with the neighboring Province of New York. The Province of New Jersey was governed by appointed governors until 1776. William Franklin, the province's last royal governor before the American Revolution (1775–1783), was marginalized in the last year of his tenure, as the province was run de facto by the Provincial Congress of New Jersey. In June 1776, the Provincial Congress formally deposed Franklin and had him arrested, adopted a state constitution, and reorganize the province into an independent state. The newly formed State of New Jersey elected William Livingston as its first governor on 31 August 1776. New Jersey was one of the original Thirteen Colonies, and was the third colony to ratify the constitution forming the United States of America. It was admitted into the new federation as a state on December 18, 1787.
Before English control 
Directors of New Netherland (1624–1664) 
New Netherland (Dutch: Nieuw-Nederland) was the 17th-century colonial province of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands and the Dutch West India Company. It claimed territories along the eastern coast of North America from the Delmarva Peninsula to southwestern Cape Cod. Settled areas of New Netherland are now constitute the states of New York, New Jersey, Delaware, and Connecticut, and parts of Pennsylvania and Rhode Island. The provincial capital New Amsterdam was located at the southern tip of the island of Manhattan at Upper New York Bay.
New Netherland was conceived as a private business venture to exploit the North American fur trade. By the 1650s, the colony experienced dramatic growth and became a major port for trade in the North Atlantic. The leader of the Dutch colony was known by the title Director or Director-General. On August 27, 1664, four English frigates commanded by Richard Nicolls sailed into New Amsterdam's harbor and demanded the surrender of New Netherland. This event sparked the Second Anglo-Dutch War, which led to the transfer of the territory to England per the Treaty of Breda.
|Took office||Left office||Notes|
|Cornelius Jacobsen May
|Sebastiaen Jansen Krol
|Wouter van Twiller
Governors of New Sweden (1638–1655) 
New Sweden (Swedish: Nya Sverige, Finnish: Uusi-Ruotsi) was a Swedish colony along the Delaware River from 1638 to 1655 that included territory in present-day Delaware, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. After being dismissed as Director of New Netherland by the Dutch West India Company (WIC), Peter Minuit was recruited by Willem Usselincx, Samuel Blommaert and the Swedish government to create the first Swedish colony in the New World. The Swedes sought to expand their influence by creating an agricultural (tobacco) and fur-trading colony and bypass French and English merchants.:43,66.
The New Sweden Company was chartered and included Swedish, Finnish, Dutch, and German stockholders. Minuit and his company arrived on the Fogel Grip and Kalmar Nyckel at Swedes' Landing (now Wilmington, Delaware) in the spring of 1638. Willem Kieft, Director of New Netherland, objected to the Swedish presence, but Minuit ignored his protests knowing that the Dutch were militarily impotent. The colony would establish Fort Nya Elfsborg, near present-day Salem, New Jersey, in 1643.:70-73.
In May 1654, Swedish militia captured the Fort Casimir, a Dutch defense located near present-day New Castle, Delaware. As a reprisal, the Dutch Director-General Peter Stuyvesant sent an army to the Delaware River, which compelled the surrender of the Swedish forts and settlements in 1655.:pp.155ff The settlers continued to enjoy local autonomy, retaining their own militia, religion, court, and lands, until the English conquest of the New Netherland colony on June 24, 1664.:pp.155ff
|Portrait||Governor||Took office||Left office||Notes|
|Måns Nilsson Kling
|Peter Hollander Ridder
|Johan Björnsson Printz
|Johan Classon Risingh
The New Albion Colony (1634–1649) 
In 1634, Charles I of England granted a charter to Sir Edmund Plowden, to establish a colony in North America north of lands granted to Lord Baltimore for the Maryland colony in 1633. The charter empowered Plowden to assume the title Lord Earl Palatinate, Governor and Captain-General of the Province of New Albion in North America, and poorly defined the boundaries of the New Albion colony. It is believed that the colony would have covered territory within present-day New Jersey, New York, Delaware and Maryland.
Captain Thomas Young and his nephew, Robert Evelyn, explored and charted the valley of the Delaware River (which they called the Charles River) in the 1630s. Plowden took several years to raise funds, and recruit settlers and "adventurers." In 1642, Plowden and several men sailed from England with aim to settle the colony. This attempt ended in an unsuccessful mutiny, and for the next seven years Plowden remained in Virginia managing the affairs of the colony, and selling land rights to adventurers and speculators.
Plowden returned to England in 1649 to raise funds, and promote the colony as a refuge for Roman Catholic's exiled during the English Civil War. Despite further attempts to return to his colony, Plowden was confined in a debtors prison and died a pauper in 1659. A notation on John Farrar’s 1651 map of Virginia references Plowden's patent for the colony, and labels the Delaware River as "this river the Lord Ployden hath a patten of and calls it New Albion but the Swedes are planted in it and have a great trade of Furrs."
As an English proprietary colony (1664–1702) 
Governors under the Lords Proprietor (1664–1673) 
With the surrender of New Netherland by Peter Stuyvesant, and under the authority and instruction James, Duke of York, Richard Nicolls assumed the position as Deputy-Governor of New Netherland (including Dutch settlements in New Jersey).:p.46 His first acts were to guarantee the Dutch colonists their property rights and religious freedom. Nicolls implemented the English law and a legal code.:p.43-44 Nicholls would remain Governor until 1668, but the Duke of York granted part of the New Netherland territory (that between the Hudson and Delaware rivers) to Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley for their devoted service to the Duke of York and his brother Charles II during the English Civil War.
This territory would be called the Province of New Caesaria, or New Jersey after Jersey in the English Channel—one of the last strongholds of the Royalist forces in the English Civil War.:p.60 (see Name of Jersey) As a result of this grant, Carteret and Berkeley became the two English Lords Proprietor of New Jersey. By the 1665 Concession and Agreement, the Lords Proprietor outlined the distribution of power in the province, offered religious freedom to all inhabitants, and established a system of quit-rents, annual fees paid by settlers in return for land. The two Lords Proprietor selected Carteret's brother Philip as the province's first governor.
|Portrait||Governor||Took office||Left office||Notes|
Restoration of New Netherland (1673–1674) 
In 1673, during the Third Anglo-Dutch War, the Dutch were able to recapture New Amsterdam (renamed "New York" by the British) under Admiral Cornelis Evertsen the Youngest and Captain Anthony Colve. Evertsen renamed the city "New Orange." Evertsen returned to the Netherlands in July 1674, and was accused of disobeying his orders. Evertsen had been instructed not to retake New Amsterdam but to conquer the British colonies of Saint Helena and Cayenne (now French Guiana). In 1674, the Dutch were compelled to relinquish New Amsterdam to the British under the terms of the Second Treaty of Westminster.
|Portrait||Governor||Took office||Left office||Notes|
East and West Jerseys (1674–1702) 
After the British regained New Jersey and New York, New Jersey was restored as a proprietary colony, and was divided into two provinces—East Jersey and West Jersey. The settlement of East Jersey, and its commercial and political development was chiefly connected to New England and New York. West Jersey was largedly a Quaker venture focused on the settlement of the lower Delaware River area, and was associated with William Penn and prominent figures in the colonization of the Pennsylvania.
This arrangement lasted for approximately thirty years, but because of issues of administration, the proprietors of both colonies surrendered their right to government to Queen Anne. On April 17, 1702, New Jersey was transformed into a crown colony. The proprietors would retain their land rights until the East Jersey proprietors dissolved their corporation (then New Jersey’s oldest) in 1998. The West Jersey Proprietors, currently the second oldest corporation in North America, continues as an activity entity based in Burlington, New Jersey.
For a brief period beginning in 1688, New York, East Jersey and West Jersey came under the short-lived Dominion of New England. New York and New Jersey were largely overseen by a Lieutenant Governor and army captain Francis Nicholson The Proprietors of East Jersey were angered by the revocation of their charters, but retained their property and petitioned Andros for manorial rights.:p.211 The colony proved too large for a single governor to administer, and Andros was highly unpopular.:pp.180, 192-193, 197.
After news of the Glorious Revolution in England reached Boston in 1689, the anti-Catholic Puritans in New England, and Dutch Calvinists in New York launched a revolt against Andros, arresting him and his officers for fears that Andros sought to impose popery on the colony.:pp.240-250 Leisler's Rebellion in New York City deposed Nicholson in what amounted to an ethnic war between English newcomers and Dutch old settlers. After these events, the colonies reverted to their previous forms of governance until 1702.:pp.212-213
Governors of East Jersey (1674–1702) 
|Portrait||Governor||Took office||Left office||Notes|
|Jeremiah Basse (d. 1725)
Governors of West Jersey (1680–1702) 
|Portrait||Governor||Took office||Left office||Notes|
|Dr. Daniel Coxe
|Dr. Daniel Coxe
As an English Crown colony (1702–1776) 
Governors of New York and New Jersey (1702–1738) 
Shortly after ascending to the British throne, Queen Anne (1665–1714) reunited East Jersey and West Jersey as a royal colony and appointed her cousin Edward Hyde, Viscount Cornbury as the province's first Royal Governor.
|Portrait||Governor||Took office||Left office||Notes|
|Edward Hyde, Lord Cornbury
|John Lovelace, 4th Baron Lovelace
|Colonel John Montgomerie
|Sir William Cosby
(1665 - 1736)
|John West, 1st Earl De La Warr
Governors of New Jersey only (1738–1776) 
After tensions were provoked with the Penn's Walking Purchase in 1737, relations between colonists and the region's Native American tribes became increasingly hostile. During these years, colonists left the seacoast cities and settled the colony's northwestern wilderness. By the 1750s, violent raids against these settlers, and fears that the French were supporting these hostilities led to the French and Indian War.
During this time, the colonial government provided generous monetary rewards to colonists who killed Indians, established a line of fortifications in the Minisink (the upper valley of the Delaware River), and mustered military units (the New Jersey Frontier Guard and 1st New Jersey Regiment) to defend this frontier and carry out punitive raids on Indian villages.  Hostilities began to subside with the Treaty of Easton in October 1758, negotiated by New Jersey Royal Governor Francis Bernard, Pennsylvania Attorney-General Benjamin Chew, and chiefs of 13 Native American nations, led by Teedyuscung.:pp.102-123
New Jersey was the only province to have two colleges established during the colonial period, and the colony's governors were influential in their establishment. Governors John Reading and Jonathan Belcher aided the establishment of The College of New Jersey (now Princeton University) was founded in 1746 in Elizabethtown by a group of Great Awakening "New Lighters" that included Jonathan Dickinson, Aaron Burr, Sr. and Peter Van Brugh Livingston. In 1756, the school moved to Princeton. In 1766, Governor William Franklin issued the charters to establish Queens College (now Rutgers University) in New Brunswick to "educate the youth in language, liberal, the divinity, and useful arts and sciences" and for the training of future ministers for the Dutch Reformed Church. Franklin issued a second charter in 1770 after the college's trustees requested amendments.
In the last year of William Franklin's tenure, his power was diminished and he became marginalized by the rebellious sentiment rising in the colony's residents. The province was being run de facto by the Provincial Congress of New Jersey (1775–1776). While colonial militia had taken Franklin prisoner and enforced a "house arrest" starting in January 1776, he would not be formally deposed until June 1776 when the colony's Provincial Congress ordered him arrest and imprisonment. Franklin considered the Provincial Congress to be an "illegal assembly," although they proceeded to adopt a state constitution and reorganize the province into an independent state. The newly formed State of New Jersey elected William Livingston as its first governor on 31 August 1776.
|Portrait||Governor||Took office||Left office||Notes|
(1686 – 1767)
See also 
- For post-independence governors (1776—present), see List of Governors of New Jersey.
Further reading 
- Black, Frederick R. The Last Lords Proprietors: The West Jersey Society, 1692-1703. Ph.D. Dissertation, Rutgers University, 1964, Rutgers University Library, Special Collections (New Brunswick, New Jersey).
- Brodhead, John Romeyn. The Government of Sir Edmund Andros over New England, in 1688 and 1689. (Morrisania, N.Y: Bradstreet Press, 1867).
- Godfrey, Carlos E. When Boston Was New Jersey’s Capital, 1685-1689. (Newark, New Jersey: New Jersey Historical Society, 1933).
- McCormick, Richard P. New Jersey, from Colony to State, 1609-1779. (Newark, New Jersey: New Jersey Historical Society, 1981).
- McCreary, John Roger. “Ambition, Interest and Faction: Politics in New Jersey, 1702—1738.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Nebraska, 1971.
- Myers, Albert Cook. Narratives of Early Pennsylvania West New Jersey and Delaware: 1630-1707. (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1912).
- Pomfret, John Edwin. The New Jersey Proprietors and Their Lands. New Jersey Historical Series, Volume 9. (Princeton: D. Van Nostrand Co., Inc., 1964).
- Pomfret, John Edwin. Colonial New Jersey, A History. (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1973).
- Tanner, Edwin Platt. The Province of New Jersey, 1664-1738. (New York: s.n. 1908).
- Firth, C.H.; Knighton, C. S. (revised). "Carteret, Sir George, first baronet (1610?–1680), naval officer and administrator" Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, January 2008).
- Hayton, D. W. "Berkeley, John, first Baron Berkeley of Stratton (bap. 1607, d. 1678), royalist army officer and courtier" Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, January 2008).
- "The Duke of York's Release to John Lord Berkeley, and Sir George Carteret, 24th of June, 1664" from Leaming, Aaron and Spicer, Jacob. The Grants, Concessions, and Original Constitutions of the Province of New-Jersey. The acts passed during the proprietary governments, and other material transactions before the surrender thereof to Queen Anne. The instrument of surrender, and her formal acceptance thereof, Lord Cornbury's Commission and Introduction consequent thereon. (2nd Edition. Philadelphia: William Bradford, 1758), 8-11. Published online at the Avalon Project: Documents in Law, History and Diplomacy, Yale Law School, Lillian Goldman Law Library. Retrieved 5 April 2013.
- "Quintipartite Deed of Revision, Between E. and W Jersey: July 1st, 1676" from Thorpe, Francis Newton (editor). The Federal and State Constitutions Colonial Charters, and Other Organic Laws of the States, Territories, and Colonies Now or Heretofore Forming the United States of America Volume IV. (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1909). Published online at the Avalon Project: Documents in Law, History and Diplomacy, Yale Law School, Lillian Goldman Law Library. Retrieved 5 April 2013.
- Gordon, Thomas Francis. The history of New Jersey: from its discovery by Europeans, to the adoption of the Federal Constitution. (Trenton, New Jersey: Daniel Fenton, 1834), 73.
- Pomfret, John Edwin. The Province of West New Jersey, 1609-1702: A History of the Origins of an American Colony. (New York: Octagon Books, 1956).
- Whitehead, William A. East Jersey Under the Proprietary Governments: A Narrative of Events connected with the Settlement and Progress of the Province, until the Surrender of the Government to the Crown in 1703. [sic] (Newark, New Jersey: New Jersey Historical Society, 1875).
- Pomfret, John E. The Province of East New Jersey, 1609-1702: The Rebellious Proprietary. (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1962).
- Salter, Edwin. A History of Monmouth and Ocean Counties: Embracing a Genealogical Record of Earliest Settlers in Monmouth and Ocean Counties and Their Descendants. (Bayonne, New Jersey: E Gardner & Son, 1890), 24.
- Steen, James. New Aberdeen: Or the Scotch Settlement of Monmouth County, New Jersey. (Matawan, NJ: Journal Steam Print, 1899), 5.
- "Surrender from the Proprietors of East and West New Jersey, of Their Pretended Right of Government to Her Majesty; 1702" from Leaming, Aaron and Spicer, Jacob. The Grants, Concessions, and Original Constitutions of the Province of New-Jersey. The acts passed during the proprietary governments, and other material trnasactions before the surrender thereof to Queen Ann. The instrument of surrender, and her formal acceptance thereof, Lord Cornbury's Commission and Introduction consequent thereon. (2nd Edition. Philadelphia: William Bradford, 1758) 600-618. Published online at the Avalon Project: Documents in Law, History and Diplomacy, Yale Law School, Lillian Goldman Law Library. Retrieved 5 April 2013.
- "Grant of Exclusive Trade to New Netherland by the States-General of the United Netherlands; October 11, 1614" from Documentary History of the State of Maine (Portland: Maine Historical Society / Bailey and Noyes, 1869-1916). Published online at the Avalon Project: Documents in Law, History and Diplomacy, Yale Law School, Lillian Goldman Law Library. Retrieved 6 April 2013.
- Jacobs, Jaap. New Netherland: A Dutch Colony In Seventeenth-Century America. (Leiden: Brill, 2005), 35.
- van der Sijs, Nicoline. Cookies, Coleslaw and Stoops: The Influence of Dutch on the North American Languages. (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2009), 21.
- Dolin, Eric Jay. Fur, Fortune, and Empire: The Epic History of the Fur Trade in America. (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2011) passim.
- World Digital Library. Articles about the Transfer of New Netherland on the 27th of August, Old Style, Anno 1664. Retrieved 21 March 2013
- Versteer, Dingman (editor). "New Amsterdam Becomes New York" in The New Netherland Register. Volume 1 No. 4 and 5 (April/May 1911): 49-64.
- Farnham, Mary Frances (compiler). "Farnham Papers (1603-1688)" in Volumes 7 and 8 of Documentary History of the State of Maine. (Portland, Maine: Collections of the Maine Historical Society, 2nd Series. 1901-1902), 7:311-314.
- Parry, Clive (editor). Consolidated Treaty Series 231 Volumes. (Dobbs Ferry, New York: Oceana Publications, 1969-1981), 10:231.
- Burrows, Edwin G., and Wallace, Mike. Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998), xivff.
- Shorto, Russell. The Island at the Center of the World: The Epic Story of Dutch Manhattan and the Forgotten Colony that Shaped America. (New York City: Vintage Books, 2004).
- Weslager, Charles A. New Sweden on the Delaware 1638-1655 (Wilmington, Delaware: The Middle Atlantic Press, 1988).
- Mickley, Joseph J. Some account of Willem Usselinx and Peter Minuit: Two individuals who were instrumental in establishing the first permanent colony in Delaware (Wilmington, Delaware: The Historical Society of Delaware, 1881).
- Hazard, Samuel. Annals of Pennsylvania from the Discovery of the Delaware, 1609-1682. (Philadelphia: Hazard and Mitchell, 1850).
- A Brief History of New Sweden in America (The Swedish Colonial Society)
- Weslager, Charles A. A Man and his Ship: Peter Minuit and the Kalmar Nyckel. (Wilmington, Delaware: Kalmar Nickel Foundation, 1989).
- Heite, Edward F. and Heite, Louise B. (SOPA/Camden, Delaware). "Report of Phase I archaological [sic] and historical investigations at the site of FORT CASIMIR New Castle, Delaware. Prepared for Trustees of the New Castle Commons." and an analysis titled "Where Was Fort Casimir? Historical And Archaeological Evidence From The 1986 Heite Report." from the New Castle, Delaware Community History and Archaeology Program. Retrieved 6 April 2013.
- Shorto, Russell, The Island at the Center of the World, Part II; Chapter 6; Pages 115-117.
- Carter, Edward C., II, and Lewis, Clifford, III. "Sir Edmund Plowden and the New Albion Charter, 1632-1785" in The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography. LXXXIII:2 (April 1959).
- Charles Varlo (compiler). "The Grant of King Charles the First, to Sir Edmund Plowden, Earl Palatine of Albion, of the Province of New Albion, in America, June 21, A.D., 1634" (London: s.n., 1785) in the Charles Varlo Papers, Rare Books and Manuscripts Collection, New York Public Library, New York City.
- Hazard, Ebenezer (editor). Historical Collections, considering of State Papers and other Authentic Documents. (Philadelphia: s.n., 1792) I:172.
- Scharf, Thomas J. History of Delaware, 1609-1688. Volume I. (Philadelphia: L.J. Richards & Co., 1888), 57-61.
- Evelyn, Robert. "A direction for adventurers with small stock to get two for one, and good land freely and for gentlemen and all servants, labourers, and artificers to live plentifully." (London: s.n., 1641).
- Lewis, Clifford Lewis III. "Some Extracts Relating to Sir Edmund Plowden and Others from the Lost Minutes of the Virginia Council and General Court: 1642-1645" and "Some Notes on Sir Edmund Plowden's Attempts to Settle His Province of New Albion" in William and Mary Historical Quarterly. (January 1940).
- Farrar, John. “A mapp of Virginia discovered to ye hills” (1651) printed in Williams, Edward. Virgo Triumphans: or, Virginia richly and truly valued. (London: s.n., 1651).
- Schuyler Van Rensselaer. History of the City of New York in the Seventeenth Century: New Amsterdam (New York: Macmillan, 1909), 527.
- Smith, Samuel. The History of the Colony of Nova Cæsarea, Or New Jersey: Containing, an Account of Its First Settlement, Progressive Improvements, the Original and Present Constitution, and Other Events to the Year 1721. With Some Particulars Since and a Short View of Its Present State. (Burlington, New Jersey: James Parker, 1765).
- "The Concession and Agreement of the Lords Proprietors of the Province of New Caesarea, or New Jersey, to and With All and Every the Adventurers and All Such as Shall Settle or Plant There - 1664" from Thorpe, Francis Newton (editor). The Federal and State Constitutions Colonial Charters, and Other Organic Laws of the States, Territories, and Colonies Now or Heretofore Forming the United States of America. Volume IV. (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1909). Published online at the Avalon Project: Documents in Law, History and Diplomacy, Yale Law School, Lillian Goldman Law Library. Retrieved 5 April 2013.
- Roosevelt, Theodore. "IV. New Amsterdam becomes New York The Beginning of English Rule. 1664-1674," in New York: A Sketch of the City’s Social, Political, and Commercial Progress from the First Dutch Settlement to Recent Times. (New York: Charles Scribner & Sons, 1906).
- Barrevald, Dirk J. From New Amsterdam to New York: The Founding of New York by the Dutch in July 1625. (Lincoln, Nebraska: Writers Club Press, 2001), 248.
- Shomette, Donald G. and Haslach, Robert D. Raid on America: The Dutch Naval Campaign of 1672-1674. (Columbia, South Carolina: University of South Carolina Press, 1988), 73, 139-151; De Waard, Cornelis. De Zeeuwsche expeditie naar de West onder Cornelis Evertsen den Jonge, 1672-1674. (The Hague: Nijhoff, 1928). (in Dutch)
- Westdorp, Martina. "Behouden of opgeven? Het lot van de nederlandse kolonie Nieuw-Nederland na de herovering op de Engelsen in 1673" in De wereld van Peter Stuyvesant (in Dutch). Retrieved 21 March 2013.
- Prak, Maarten. The Dutch Republic in the Seventeenth Century: The Golden Age. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005), 116.
- New Jersey Law Revision Commission. Final Report relating to Fair Resolution of Proprietary Title Claims Act, June 1999 (Newark, NJ). Retrieved 29 April 2013.
- James, George. "Long on Ceremony, Short on Business" in The New York Times (15 April 2001).
- Dunn, Randy. "Patronage and Governance in Francis Nicholson's Empire". English Atlantics Revisited. (Montreal: McGill-Queens Press, 2007), 64.
- Lovejoy, David. The Glorious Revolution in America. (Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1987).
- Webb, Stephen Saunders. Lord Churchill's Coup: The Anglo-American Empire and the Glorious Revolution Reconsidered. (Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press, 1998), 202, 522-523.
- "Robert Barclay" in Stellhorn, Paul A., and Birkner, Michael J. The Governors of New Jersey 1664-1974: Biographical Essays. (Trenton, New Jersey: New Jersey Historical Commission, 1982), 26.
- McCormick, John D. "John Tatham, New Jersey’s First Catholic Governor". American Catholic Historical Society Researches (1888), 79-92.
- Whitehead, William A. "Elizabethtown Bill in Chancery," East Jersey Under the Proprietary Governments (Newark, New Jersey: Martin R. Dennis, 1875), 124.
- Pomfret, John Edwin. The Province of West New Jersey, 1609-1702: A History of the Origins of an American Colony. New York: Octagon Books, 1956), 158.
- Bisbee, Henry H. "John Tatham, Alias Gray." The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography Volume 83, Number 3 (July 1959): 253-264.
- Weeks, Daniel J. Not for filthy Lucre's sake: Richard Saltar and the antiproprietary movement in East New Jersey, 1665-1707. (Lehigh University Press, 2001), 86ff.
- "Jeremiah Basse (d. 1725)" from Stellhorn, Paul A. and Birkner, Michael J. (editors). The Governors of New Jersey 1664-1974: Biographical Essays. (Trenton, New Jersey: New Jersey Historical Commission, 1982), 33-35. Retrieved 29 April 2013.
- Hunter, Michael. "Coxe, Daniel". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press.
- Scull, G. D. "Biographical Notice of Doctor Daniel Coxe, of London". The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography Vol. 7 (1883): 317‑337.
- For a history of Palatine emigration, see: Knittle, Walter Allen. Early Eighteenth Century Palatine Emigration: A British Government Redemptioner Project to Manufacture Naval Stores. (Philadelphia: Dorrance, 1937); Statt, Daniel. Foreigners and Englishmen: The Controversy over Immigration and Population, 1660–1760. (Newark, Delaware: University of Delaware Press, 1995); Chambers, Theodore Frelinghuysen (Rev.). The Early Germans of New Jersey: their History, Churches and Genealogies. (Dover, New Jersey: Dover Printing Company, 1895).
- Lepore, Jill. New York Burning: Liberty, Slavery, and Conspiracy in Eighteenth-Century Manhattan. (New York: Random House, 2006), 25.
- "William Cosby (1690-1736)" from "Stellhorn, Paul A. and Birkner, Michael J. (editors). The Governors of New Jersey 1664-1974: Biographical Essays. (Trenton, New Jersey: New Jersey Historical Commission, 1982), 52-54. Retrieved 29 April 2013.
- New Jersey Colonial Documents, Archives of the State of New Jersey, First Series, Vol. V; Daily Advertiser Publishing House, Newark, New Jersey, 1882. pp. 490-491.
- Fenton, William N. The Great Law and the Longhouse: a political history of the Iroquois Confederacy. (Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1998), 398.
- Harper, Steven Craig. Promised Land: Penn's Holy Experiment, The Walking Purchase, and the Dispossession of the Delawares, 1600-1763. (Cranbury, New Jersey: Rosemont Publishing, 2008).
- Larrabee, Edward Conyers McMillan. "New Jersey and the Fortified Frontier System of the 1750's." Ph.D. Dissertation, Columbia University, 1970.
- Nelson, William (editor). Documents Relating to the Colonial History of the State of New Jersey: Extracts from American Newspapers, Relating to New Jersey, Volume IV. 1756-1761. Archives of the State of New Jersey, First Series, Volume 20. (Newark, New Jersey: New Jersey Historical Society, 1898), passim.
- Stoeckel, Althea. "Presidents, professors, and politics: the colonial colleges and the American revolution" in Conspectus of History 1:3 (1976) 45-56
- Ward & Trent, et. al. "XXIII. Education. § 13. Colonial Colleges." in The Cambridge History of English and American Literature (New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1907–21; New York: Bartleby.com, 2000).
- Series 2: Trustees Charters and Bylaws, and other College Rules; 1746-2006; Board of Trustees Records, Princeton University Archives, Department of Rare Books and Special Collections, Princeton University Library.
- Oberdorfer, Don. Princeton University: The First 250 Years. (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995), passim.
- Frusciano, Thomas J. A Historical Sketch of Rutgers University. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Libraries. Retrieved 22 March 2013.
- "Charter of a College to be erected in New-Jersey, by the Name of Queen’s-College." (New York: John Holt, 1770); in the collection of Special Collections and University Archives, Alexander Library, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey.
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- Nicolson, Colin. The "Infamas Govener" Francis Bernard and the Origins of the American Revolution. (Boston, Massachusetts: Northeastern University Press, 2000), 45.
- Staff. "A look at Bernards through the centuries", in The Courier-News (27 August 2003)."
- Namier, L. B. (July 1939). "Charles Garth and his Connexions". The English Historical Review (Vol. 54, Number 215): 443–470.
- McCrady, Edward. The History of South Carolina Under the Royal Government, 1719-1776. (New York City: The Macmillan Company, 1899), 353.
- "Josiah Hardy (1715-1790)" from Stellhorn, Paul A. and Birkner, Michael J. (editors). The Governors of New Jersey 1664-1974: Biographical Essays. (Trenton, New Jersey: New Jersey Historical Commission, 1982), 69-72. Retrieved 29 April 2013.
- Haines, Alanson A. (Rev.). Hardyston Memorial: A History of The Township and the North Presbyterian Church, Hardyston, Sussex County, New Jersey. (Newton, New Jersey: New Jersey Herald Print, 1888), 19.
- "William Franklin 1730-1814" from Stellhorn, Paul A. and Birkner, Michael J. (editors). The Governors of New Jersey 1664-1974: Biographical Essays. (Trenton, New Jersey: New Jersey Historical Commission, 1982), 72-76. Retrieved 29 April 2013.
- Skemp, Sheila L. William Franklin: Son of a Patriot, Servant of a King. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990), 211.
- Nelson, William. History of Bergen and Passaic Counties, New Jersey: With Biographical Sketches of Many of Its Pioneers and Prominent Men. (Philadelphia: Everts & Peck, 1882), 204.
- See: Brahms, William B. Images of America: Franklin Township (Mount Pleasant, South Carolina: Arcadia Publishing, 1997), 106; and Franklin Township, Somerset County, NJ: A History (Franklin Township, New Jersey: Franklin Township Public Library, 1998).