List of endemic species of Taiwan

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The endemic species of Taiwan are organisms that are endemic to the island of Taiwan— that is, they occur nowhere else on Earth.

Percentages of endemic animals of all living species in Taiwan.

Category Total species Endemic species (& ssp.) Percentages
Mammals 70 45 64%
Birds 450 84 19%
Reptiles 85 27 32%
Amphibians 32 10 31%
Freshwater Fishes 220 36 16%
Butterflies 400 50 13%
Total 1,257 252 20%

Percentages of endemic plants of all living species in Taiwan.[1]

Category Total (native) species Endemic species (& ssp.) Percentages
Pteridophytes 629 72 11%
Gymnosperms 28 18 64%
Dicotyledons 2,410 750 31%
Monocotyledons 1,010 227 23%
Total 4,077 1,067 26%

Endemic mammals[edit]

Formosan Serow
Formosan Macaque
  1. Formosan SerowNaemorhedus swinhoei (Gray)
  1. Formosan ShrewSoriculus fumidus Thomas
  2. Tada's ShrewCrocidura tadae Tokuda & Kano
  3. Koshun ShrewSoriculus sodalis Thomas
  1. Formosan Field VoleApodemus semotus Thomas
  2. Spinous Country-ratNiviventer coxingi (Swinhoe)
  3. Formosan White-bellied RatNiviventer culturatus (Thomas)
  4. Kikuchi's Field VoleMicrotus kikuchii (Kuroda)
  1. Formosan MacaqueMacaca cyclopis (Swinhoe)
  1. Formosan Long-eared BatPlecotus taivanus Yoshiyuki
  2. Formosan Mouse-eared BatMyotis taiwanensis Linde
  3. Formosan Tube-nosed BatMurina puta Kishida
  4. Yellow-necked BatArielulus torquatus Gabor & Lee
  5. Formosan Broad-muzzled BatMyotis latirostris Kishida
  6. Formosan Leaf-nosed BatHipposideros terasensis Kisida
  7. Formosan Greater Horseshoe BatRhinolophus formosae Sanborn
  8. Formosan Lesser Horseshoe BatRhinolophus monoceros Andersen

Endemic birds[edit]

Taiwan Blue Magpie
Taiwan Whistling Thrush
Mikado Pheasant

17 endemic bird species and another 60 endemic subspecies of Taiwan have been identified (out of a total of 569 bird species). The seventeen endemic speacies make up about 3% of all birds living in Taiwan.

  1. Yellow TitParus holsti Seebohm
  2. White-whiskered LaughingthrushGarrulax morrisonianus (Ogilvie-Grant)
  3. White-eared SibiaHeterophasia auricularis (Swinhoe)
  4. Taiwan YuhinaYuhina brunneiceps Ogilvie-Grant
  5. Taiwan BarwingActinodura morrisoniana Ogilvie-Grant
  6. Steere's LiocichlaLiocichla steerii Swinhoe
  7. Taiwan Blue MagpieUrocissa caerulea (Gould)
  8. Styan's BulbulPycnonotus taivanus Styan
  9. Taiwan Whistling ThrushMyiophoneus insularis Gould
  10. Collared Bush RobinLuscinia johnstoniae (Ogilvie-Grant)
  11. FlamecrestRegulus goodfellowi Ogilvie-Grant
  12. Taiwan Bush WarblerBradypterus alishanensis
  13. Taiwan HwameiGarrulax taewanus
  1. Taiwan Hill PartridgeArborophila crudigularis (Swinhoe)
  2. Mikado PheasantSyrmaticus mikado (Ogilivie-Grant)
  3. Swinhoe's PheasantLophura swinhoii (Gould)
  1. Taiwan BarbetMegalaima nuchalis

Endemic reptiles[edit]

  1. Formosan Smooth SkinkScincella formosensis (Van Denburgh)
  2. Taiwan Forest SkinkSphenomorphus taiwanensis Chen & Lue
  3. Lanyu Scaly-toed GeckoLepidodactylus yami Ota
  4. Kikuchi's GeckoGekko kikuchii (Oshima)
  5. Lue's JapaluraJapalura luei Ota, Chen & Shang
  6. Maki's JapaluraJapalura makii Ota
  7. Swinhoe's JapaluraJapalura swinhonis Gunther
  8. Short-legged JapaluraJapalura brevipes Gressitt
  9. Formosan Legless LizardOphisaurus formosensis Kishida
  10. Formosan Grass LizardTakydromus formosanus Boulenger
  11. Sauteri Grass LizardTakydromus sauteri Van Denburgh
  12. Hsuehshan Grass LizardTakydromus hsueshanesis Lin & Cheng
  13. Stejneger's Grass LizardTakydromus stejnegeri Van Denburgh
  14. Hengchun Blind SnakeTyphlops koshunensis Oshima
  15. Taiwan Slug-eating SnakePareas formosensis (Van Dengurgh)
  16. Formosa Odd-scaled SnakeAchalinus formosanus Boulenger
  17. Black Odd-scaled SnakeAchalinus niger Maki
  18. Maki's KeelbackAmphiesma miyajimae Maki
  19. Swinhoe's Grass SnakePhabdophis swinhonis (Gunther)
  20. Formosa Coral SnakeHemibungarus sauteri (Steindachner)
  21. Taiwan Pit-viperTrimeresurus gracilis Oshima

Endemic amphibians[edit]

  • Order Anura (Frogs and Toads)
  1. Central Formosan ToadBufo bankorensis
  2. Emerald Green TreefrogRhacophorus prasinatus
  3. Farmland Green TreefrogRhacophorus arvalis
  4. Taipei Green TreefrogRhacophorus taipeianus
  5. Moltrecht's Green TreefrogRhacophorus moltrechti
  6. Robust Buerger's FrogBuergeria robusta
  7. Temple TreefrogChirixalus idiootocus
  8. Orange-belly TreefrogRhacophorus aurantiventris
  9. Stejneger's Narrow-mouthed Toad – Micryletta steinegeri
  • Order Urodela (Salamanders and Newts)
  1. Alishan SalamanderHynobius arisanensis
  2. Formosan SalamanderHynobius formosanus
  3. Taiwan Lesser SalamanderHynobius fuca
  4. Nanhu SalamanderHynobius glacialis
  5. Sonani's SalamanderHynobius sonani

Endemic freshwater fishes[edit]

Formosan Landlocked Salmon
  1. Taitung River LoachHemimyzon taitungensis Tzeng et Shen
  2. Formosan River LoachHemimyzon formosanus (Boulenger)
  3. Shen's river loach – Hemimyzon sheni Chen et Fang
  4. River Loach – Formosania lacustris (Steindachner)
  5. Pulin River LoachSinogastromyzon puliensis Liang
  6. Rasborinus macrolepis (Regan) (Extinct)
  7. Pararasbora moltrechti Regan
  8. Acrossocheilus paradoxus (Günther)
  9. Lake Candidus DaceCandidia barbata (Regan)
  10. Microphysogobio alticorpus Banarescu et Nalbant
  11. Taiwan Ku Fish – Onychostoma alticorpus (Oshima)
  12. Freshwater Minnow – Opsariichthys pachycephalus Günther
  13. Gobiobotia cheni Banarescu et Nalbant
  14. Microphysogobio brevirostris (Günther)
  15. Aphyocypris kikuchii (Oshima)
  16. Squalidus iijimae (Oshima)
  1. Goby – Rhinogobius gigas Aonuma et Chen
  2. Goby – Rhinogobius formosanus Oshima
  3. Goby – Cryptocentrus yatsui Tomiyama
  4. Goby – Rhinogobius nantaiensis Aonuma et Chen
  5. Goby – Rhinogobius henchuenensis Chen et Shao
  6. Goby – Rhinogobius delicatus Chen et Shao
  7. Goby – Rhinogobius maculafasciatus Chen et Shao
  8. Goby – Rhinogobius rubromaculatus Lee et Chang
  9. Goby – Myersina yangii (Chen) (Extinct)
  10. Goby – Rhinogobius lanyuensis Chen, Miller et Fang
  1. Formosan Trooent CatfishLiobagrus formosanus Regan
  2. Bagrid Catfish – Pseudobagrus adiposalis Oshima
  3. Bagrid Catfish – Pseudobagrus brevianalis Regan
  1. Ariake IcefishSalanx acuticeps Regan (Extinct)
  1. Formosan landlocked salmonOncorhynchus formosanus (Jordan et Oshima)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hsieh, C. F. (2002) Composition, endemism and phytogeographical affinities of the Taiwan Flora. Taiwania 47(4): 298-310.

See also[edit]

External links[edit]