Thao (θau, Thaw a lalawa), also known as Sao, is the language of the Thao people, a tribe of Taiwanese aborigines in the region of Sun Moon Lake in central Taiwan. In 2000 there were approximately 5 or 6 speakers living in Dehua (德化) village (however this name is discouraged among the Thao inhabitants), all but one of whom were over the age of sixty. It is a Formosan language of the Austronesian family; Barawbaw and Shtafari are dialects.
|This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. The specific problem is: there should be a consonant table and consistent use of brackets and slashes with IPA. (January 2012)|
p as in punuq (head), apuy (fire)
b as in bizu (beard), tubu (urine)
m as in matha (eye), rumfaz (bird), urum (cloud)
f as in funush (knife), afu (food), qaruf (knee)
t as in taparuz (rabbit), katawnan (village), shpat (four)
d as in dadú (chief), shmadia (owl)
n as in nipin (tooth), tanathu (nine), muzin (nose)
ɬ as in lhanaz (name), tilhaz (sun), qawlh (bamboo)
l as in luysh (short, not long), lalay (cicada), bunaz (sand)
r as in ribush (tree), katuru (six), kamar (millet)
θ as in thaythuy (they), ruthun (monkey), lhamith (root)
ð as in zama (tongue), pazay (corn husk), fizfiz (banana)
s as in sazum (water), rusaw (fish), balis (iron)
ʃ as in shmin'an (to drink), tusha (two), shaqish (face)
k as in ku'aw (eagle), kakulhum (ant)
ŋ as in kakani na pangka (table), lhungqawshin (to sneeze)
q as in qnuan (deer, pig), maqusum (black), flhuq (to wash)
ʔ as in a'a (baby)
h as in hudun (mountain), ihu (you)
j as in yaku (I), today (thuyni), bukay (flower)
w as in wakrath (river), kawash (year), mashimzaw (cold as in weather)
The letter i is pronounced e before and after q and r.
The letter u is pronounced o before and after q and r.
Thao has two or arguably three patterns of reduplication: Ca-reduplication, full reduplication, and rightward reduplication (which is sometimes considered to be a form of full reduplication).
Thao verbs have the following types of focus (Blust 2003:239).
- Actor: -um- (present), ma- (future)
- Patient: -in, -in-
- Locative: -an
Thao word order can be both SVO and VSO, although the former is derived from Taiwanese (Blust 2003:228).
The Thao personal marker is "ti" (Blust 2003:228). Negatives include "ani" and "antu"; "ata tu" is used in "don't" constructions. The perfect is marked by "iza", the past by an infix just after the primary onset consonant "-in-" and the future by the prefix "a-". Imperatives are marked by "-í" and softer imperatives or requests roughly translated as "please" by "-uan" sometimes spelled "-wan" which can co-occur with "-í".
The Thao personal pronouns below are from Blust (2003:207). Note that there is only 1 form each for "we (exclusive)," "you (plural)" and "they."
Other pronouns include:
- minmihu - for you
- panmihu - as for you
- panihun - because of you
- shanaihun - up to you
- shaunatazihun - go to your place
- shmunaihun - bring to you
- nakin - for me
- panyakin - as for me
- pashiyakin - leave me
- shanayayakin - up to me
- shmunayakin - bring me
The following affixes are sourced from Blust (2003:92-188) and adjusted to the modern spelling.
- a- : only found in /kan/ 'eat'
- -ak : '1st person singular (I)'
- ak- ... -in : 'morning, noon, evening meals'
- an- : uncertain function
- -an : Verbal uses can be indicative, imperative, or adversative.
- i- : prefix or clitic particle marking location
- -i : imperative
- -ik : patient focus (1st person singular)
- -in- : perfective or completive aspect
- -in : patient focus
- ish- : found most with intransitive verbs (uncommon prefix)
- ka- : 'to make an X', 'two times' (with reduplication)
- ka- ... -an : meaning unclear
- kal- : 'X told'
- kalh- : 'to pile, spread'
- kash- : 'intensity, repetition'
- kashi- : meaning uncertain
- kashi- ... -an : 'pull by the X'
- kashun- : derives verbs referring to positions of the human body, or sometimes objects such as boats
- kat- : 'gradually become X'
- ki- : 'stand, stay'; other possible meanings as well
- ki- ... -an : 'be affected with pain in the X'
- kilh- : 'search for, seek'
- kin- : 'to pick or gather X'
- kit- ... -in : 'infested with X'
- ku- : 'to perform an action with X' (when used with tools or weapons); less specific in other contexts
- kun- : 'sudden or abrupt action', 'to eat the X meal', 'to do X times'; meaning unclear sometimes
- la- : usually found in expressions of quantity of degree
- lhin- : causative sense
- lhun- : swelling-related meanings, etc.
- m- : marks the genitive in 'you (2s)' and 'we (incl.)'
- ma- : marks stative verbs, occasionally nouns derived from stative verbs
- ma- : active verb prefix
- ma- : prefix marking the future in actor focus verbs
- ma- : 'tens' (used with numbers)
- mak- : intransitive verbs
- maka- : 'to resemble X' (people), 'produce X' (plant or animal parts), 'from/in/to X' (deictic/directional expressions)
- makin- : intransitive verbs; 'Xth from the bottom' (with numerals)
- makit- : 'happen gradually', 'perform X gradually'
- maku- : directional sense, and is followed by /na/- (though it does not follow not in non-locative expressions)
- malhi- : 'give birth to an X'
- man- : generally used with dynamic, intransitive verbs
- mana- : generally found with directional verbs
- mapa- : 'reciprocal', 'collective action'
- mash- : 'to speak X' (language), 'walk with an X' (positions or conditions of the leg)
- masha- : relates to body positions, or may have a directional meaning
- mashi- : comparatives (with stative bases of measurement); often synonymous with /ma/- (stative verb marker)
- mat- : derives intransitive or stative verbs
- mati- : locative expressions
- matin- + full reduplication : 'X-ish' or 'spotted with X' (colors)
- mi- : derives intransitive verbs, often with some form of base reduplication
- mi- + Ca reduplication : 'do with a group of X'
- mya- : used to derive various verbs
- min- : derives inchoative verbs (Bunun loan?); 'become an X' or 'become like an X' (with kinship terms)
- mu- : most frequently derives verbs of motion; 'go into X; enter X' (with concrete nouns that refer to structures or places capable of being entered); 'search for X' (with names of useful plants); 'do X times' (numeral bases and expressions of quantity)
- mun- : intransitive verbs
- -n : derives accusative pronouns from nominative bases
- na- : most commonly with verbs indicating change of location; 'it's up to X'
- pa- : causative of dynamic verbs (verbs with -/um/-); 'make X do Y' or 'let X do Y'; active transitive (or intransitive) verb with no causative argument/sense
- pak- : 'exude X' (body fluids, other natural fluids/substances); intransitive verb prefix
- pan- : 'perform X in a downward direction'
- pan- ... -an : used with terms for lineal consanguines to derive the corresponding collateral terms of the same generation (e.g., 'father' > 'uncle', 'grandparent' > 'grandparental sibling')
- pash- ... -an : 'place in which X is kept'
- pashi- : generally causative sense (often with Ca-reduplication); 'let X do it' or 'let X have it' (with the accusative forms of personal pronouns)
- pashi- ... -an : 'put X on' or 'wear X'
- pat- : generally causative sense
- pi- : causative verbs of location (can be paired with /i/- 'at, in, on'); may also form non-locative verbs
- pya- : forms causative verbs (usually have stative counterparts with /ma/-; note that /pa/- and -/um/- are also counterparts.); simulative verb
- pik- : generally causative sense
- pin- : generally forms causative verbs or deverbal nouns
- pish- : 'play X' (musical instruments); inchoative sense (sometimes with an implied element of suddenness); causative sense
- pu- : causative or transitive counterpart of the movement prefix /mu/-, which is intransitive; 'use an X' or 'put in an X' (with names of some tools); 'send out an X' (with names of plant parts)
- pu- ... -an : to wear X' (body ornaments)
- pun- : 'to catch X' (animals used for food)
- qata- : bodily movement, observation, and the like
- sha- : directional sense ('facing', etc.)
- shan-na-Ca- ... : 'it's up to X' (often with pronouns)
- shau- : 'go to X' or 'arrive at X' (with bases that have an inherently locative sense or temporal sense)
- shi- : appears to mark past tense (as opposed to the perfective aspect marker -/in/-)
- shi- : sometimes appears with commands
- shi-X-X : 'X-ish, somewhat X'
- shi-X-iz: 'X times'
- shu- : 'bring X' or 'take X' (with pronominal and deictic bases)
- tana- : generally directional sense (from Bunun /tana/- 'prefix of direction')
- tau- : 'to carry X' (with concrete nouns); 'to turn to X' (with bases having a directional meaning)
- tish- : forms both transitive and intransitive verbs; often refers to results of non-deliberate actions
- tu-Ca- ... : 'the odor of X'
- -um- : actor focus infix
- un- ... -an : 'undesirable bodily conditions or afflictions'; 'figurative extension of a physical affliction'
- -un : equivalent of -/in/ 'patient focus' (borrowed from Bunun)
- -wak : 1st person singular actor (apparently distinct from -/ak/)
- -wan : 'X's turn (to do something)'
- ya- : only comes after /mapa/- 'reciprocal or collective action'
- -zan : 'X paces' (used with numerals)
- kan 'step, walk'
- lhqa 'live, living'
- pasaháy 'to use'
- qalha 'much, many'
- sa (usually almost impossible to translate in most environments)