Elections in the Republic of China

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This article is about the elections in Taiwan. For the article about the elections in Mainland China after 1949, administered by the People's Republic of China, see Elections in the People's Republic of China.

Elections in the Republic of China refers to the election to choose public officials in charge of the Government of the Republic of China (ROC) in Taiwan by the public under the principle of universal, fairness, directness and secrecy. ROC is a multi-party state, but there are only a few major parties organized into two factions, which are the Pan-Blue Coalition and the Pan-Green Coalition.[1]

History[edit]

After 1949 when the ROC Government moved to Taiwan from Mainland China, the ROC elects on national level a head of state - the president - and a legislature. The president is elected for a four-year term by the people. Prior to 2007, the Legislative Yuan (Lifa Yuan 立法院) had 225 members, 168 members elected for a three-year term in multi-seat constituencies, 8 members representing the aboriginals, 41 members elected by proportional representation and 8 members representing the overseas Chinese elected by proportional representation. Amid 70% public support, the Legislative Yuan voted 217-1 on August 23, 2004 for a package of amendments to:

  • halve the number of seats from 225 to 113
  • switch to a single-member district parallel voting electoral system
  • increase the terms of members from 3 to 4 years, to synchronize the legislative and presidential elections. (It is unclear whether this will be implemented for the next presidential and legislative elections with small parties opposing the move, because it would reduce their chances of getting better results)

The new electoral system will include 73 plurality seats (one for each electoral district), 6 seats for aboriginals, with the remaining 34 seats to be filled from party lists. Every county has a minimum of 1 electoral district, thereby guaranteed at least one seat in the legislature, while party lists for the proportionally represented seats must be half women. Members for this 34 party lists seats shall be elected from the lists of political parties in proportion to the number of votes won by each party that obtains at least 5 percent of the total vote on the Free Area of the Republic of China (中華民國自由地區).

Types of election[edit]

Central elections[edit]

  • President and Vice President
  • Legislators

Local elections[edit]

  • Municipal Mayors
  • Municipal Councilors
  • County Magistrates and City Mayors
  • County Councilors and City Councilors
  • Township Chiefs
  • Township Councilors
  • Village Chiefs[2]

Schedule[edit]

Election[edit]

Position 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Type Legislative Yuan (January)
Presidential (March)
None Local (November) None Legislative Yuan (January)
Presidential (March)
None Local (November)
President and Vice President President and Vice President None President and Vice President None
Legislative Yuan All seats None All seats None
Provinces, cities and municipalities None All positions None All positions

Inauguration[edit]

Position 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Type Legislative Yuan (February)
Presidential (May)
None Local (December) None Legislative Yuan (February)
Presidential (May)
None Local (December)
President and Vice President 20 May None 20 May None
Legislative Yuan 1 February None 1 February None
Provinces, cities and municipalities None 25 December None 25 December

Latest elections[edit]

2012 Presidential election[edit]

e • d Summary of the 14 January 2012 Republic of China presidential election results
Party Candidate Votes Percentage
President Vice president
Emblem of the Kuomintang.svg Kuomintang Ma Ying-jeou (incumbent) Wu Den-yih 6,891,139 51.60%
 
Green Taiwan in White Cross.svg Democratic Progressive Party Tsai Ing-wen Su Jia-chyuan 6,093,578 45.63%
 
LogoPFP.svg People First Party James Soong Chu-yu Lin Ruey-shiung 369,588 2.77%
 
Total 13,354,305 100%

2012 Legislative election[edit]

e • d Summary of the 14 January 2012 Legislative Yuan election results
Parties (alliances) constituency + Aboriginal Party block Votes % Total
seats
Seats ± Seats ± Before After ±
Emblem of the Kuomintang.svg Kuomintang 48 Decrease13 16 Decrease4 5,863,379 44.55 81 64 Decrease17
LogoPFP.svg People First Party 1 Steady0 2 Increase2 722,089 5.49 1 3 Increase2
Grey and red.svg Non-Partisan Solidarity Union 2 Decrease1 0 Steady0 148,105 1.12 3 2 Decrease1
LogoCNP.svg New Party 0 Steady0 0 Steady0 195,960 1.49 0 0 Steady0
Pan-Blue coalition 51 Decrease14 18 Decrease2 7,503,517 51.48 85 69 Decrease16
Green Taiwan in White Cross.svg Democratic Progressive Party 27 Increase14 13 Decrease1 4,556,526 34.62 27 40 Increase13
Taiwan orange.svg Taiwan Solidarity Union 0 Steady0 3 Increase3 1,178,896 8.96 0 3 Increase3
Pan-Green coalition 27 Increase14 16 Increase2 5,735,422 43.56 27 43 Increase16
Independent candidate icon (TW).svg Independents 1 Steady0 0 Steady0 2,528 0.02 1 1 Steady0
Total 79 Steady0 34 Steady0 13,241,467 100% 113 113 Steady0
Source: Central Election Commission

2008 Presidential election[edit]

e • d Summary of the 22 March 2008 Republic of China presidential election results
Party Candidate Votes Percentage
President Vice president
Emblem of the Kuomintang.svg Kuomintang Ma Ying-jeou Vote1.png Vincent Siew Wan-chang 7,659,014 58.45%
Green Taiwan in White Cross.svg Democratic Progressive Party Frank Hsieh Chang-ting Su Tseng-chang 5,444,949 41.55%
Total 13,103,963 100.00%

2008 Legislative election[edit]

 Summary of the Republic of China Legislative Yuan elections, 2008[1]
Parties Constituency and
Aboriginal
Party list Total seats
Votes  % +/−[2] Seats Votes  % Seats Outgoing  % Incoming  % +/−[2]
   Emblem of the Kuomintang.svg Kuomintang registration 5,291,512 53.5 +20.7 61 5,010,801 51.2 20 90 40.0 81 71.7 +31.7
     Emblem of the Kuomintang.svg Kuomintang 54 17 85 71
     LogoPFP.svg People First Party co-nomination[3] 5 3 - 8
     LogoCNP.svg New Party endorsement[4] 2 - 5 2
Grey and red.svg Non-Partisan Solidarity Union[5] 239,317 2.4 -1.2 3 68,527 0.7 0 8 3.6 3 2.7 -0.9
LogoPFP.svg People First Party[3] 28,254 0.3 -13.3 1 - - - 20 8.9 1 0.9 -8.0
LogoCNP.svg New Party[4] - - (-0.1) - 386,660 4.0 0 - - 0 0 -
Pan-Blue coalition[6] 5,559,083 56.2 +5.7 65 5,465,988 55.9 20 118 52.4 85 75.2 +22.8
   Green Taiwan in White Cross.svg Democratic Progressive Party 3,775,352 38.2 +2.5 13 3,610,106 36.9 14 90 40.0 27 23.9 -16.1
Taiwan orange.svg Taiwan Solidarity Union 93,840 0.9 -6.9 0 344,887 3.5 0 7 3.1 0 0 -3.1
Red heart tw.svg Taiwan Constitution Association 3,926 <0.1 0 30,315 0.3 0 0 0 0 0 0
Pan-Green coalition 3,863,118 39.1 -4.4 13 3,954,993 40.7 14 97 43.1 27 23.9 -19.2
   Red party flag.svg Home Party 6,355 <0.1 0 77,870 0.8 0 0 0 0 0 0
Green circle.svg Green Party Taiwan 14,767 0.1 0 58,473 0.6 0 0 0 0 0 0
Taiwan Farmers' Party 8,681 <0.1 0 57,144 0.6 0 0 0 0 0 0
Civil Party 6,562 <0.1 0 48,192 0.5 0 0 0 0 0 0
Third Society Party 10,057 0.1 0 45,594 0.5 0 1 0.4 0 0 -0.4
Blue white green.svg Hakka Party 8,860 <0.1 0 42,004 0.4 0 0 0 0 0 0
Independent candidate icon (TW).svg Independents[6] 393,346 4.0 -1.9 1 - - - 1 0.4 1 0.9 +0.5
Vacant - - - - - - - 8 3.6 - - -
Total[7] 10,050,619 - - - 10,076,239 - - 225 100 113 100 -

2005 National Assembly election[edit]

e • d Summary of the 14 May 2005 Republic of China National Assembly election results
Parties Votes Percentage (%) Seats
Parties in favor of the amendments 249
Green Taiwan in White Cross.svg Democratic Progressive Party 1,647,791 42.52 127
Emblem of the Kuomintang.svg Kuomintang 1,508,384 38.92 117
___ Chinese People's Party 41,940 1.08 3
___ Peasant Party 15,516 0.40 1
___ Civil Party 8,609 0.22 1
Parties not in favor of the amendments 51
Taiwan orange.svg Taiwan Solidarity Union 273,147 7.05 21
LogoPFP.svg People First Party 236,716 6.11 18
___ 150 persons union led by Jhang Ya Jhong 65,081 1.68 5
LogoCNP.svg New Party 34,253 0.88 3
Grey and red.svg Non-Partisan Solidarity Union 25,162 0.65 2
LogoTWIP.svg Taiwan Independence Party 11,500 0.30 1
___ 20 persons union led by Wang Ting Sing 7,499 0.19 1
Total (turnout ) 300

Past elections[edit]

NB: Does not include the 1948 election held in the Republic of China before the fall of mainland China to the communist government of the People's Republic of China. The terms of those elected from mainland seats lasted until December 31, 1991.

Party elections[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]