Mangalasasanam by Divyadesam

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The Alvars during the early medieval period of Tamil history (between the 7th and 10th centuries CE) worshipped Vishnu and his avatars through their hymns. This collection of their hymns is known as Divya Prabhandham. Mangalasasanam means "praying that the holy shrines be happy all the time". The Srivaishnava shrines that were sung about by the Alvars are called Divya Desams. The divyadesams that have the most number of pasurams sung upon them are Srirangam (247), Thirumala (202), Thirumaliruncholai and Thirukannapuram (128 each).

Azhwars[edit]

The word azhwar means the one who dives deep into the ocean of the countless attributes of god. Azhwars are considered the twelve supreme devotees of Vishnu, who were instrumental in popularising Vaishnavism during the 5th-8th centuries A.D. The religious works of these saints in Tamil, songs of love and devotion, are compiled as Nalayira Divya Prabandham containing 4000 verses and the 108 temples revered in their songs are classified as Divya desam.[1][2] The saints had different origins and belonged to different castes. As per tradition, the first three azhwars, Poigai, Bhutha and Pey were born miraculously. Tirumizhisai was the son of a sage, Thondaradi, Mathurakavi, Peria and Andal were from brahmin community, Kulasekhara from Kshatria community, Namm was from a cultivator family, Tirupana from panar community and Tirumangai from kazhwar community. Divya Suri Saritra by Garuda-Vahana Pandita (11th century AD), Guruparamparaprabavam by Pinbaragiya Perumal Jiyar, Periya tiru mudi adaivu by Anbillai Kandadiappan, Yatindra Pranava Prabavam by Pillai Lokacharya, commentaries on Divya Prabandam, Guru Parampara (lineage of Gurus) texts, temple records and inscriptions give a detailed account of the azhwars and their works. According to these texts, the saints were considered incarnations of some form of Vishnu. Poigai is considered an incarnation of Panchajanya (Krishna's conch), Bhoothath of Kaumodakee (Vishnu's Mace/Club), Pey of Nandaka (Vishnu's sword), Thirumalisai of Sudarshanam (Vishnu's discus), Namm of Vishvaksena (Vishnu's commander), Madhurakavi of Vainatheya (Vishnu's eagle, Garuda), Kulasekhara of Kaustubha (Vishnu's necklace), Periy of Garuda (Vishnu's eagle), Andal of Bhoodevi (Vishnu's wife, Lakshmi, in her form as Bhudevi), Thondaradippodi of Vanamaalai (Vishnu's garland), Thiruppaan of Srivatsa (An auspicious mark on Vishnu's chest) and Thirumangai of Saranga (Rama's bow). The songs of Prabandam are regularly sung in all the Vishnu temples of South India daily and also during festivals.[2][3]

According to traditional account by Manavala Mamunigal, the first three azhwars namely Poigai, Bhoothath and Pey belong to Dwapara Yuga (before 4200 BC). Modern historians place the period of azhwars from the 5th to 8th century AD, but there is dispute about the chronology and relation between each other. But it is widely accepted by tradition and historians that the trio are the earliest among the twelve azhwars.[1][2][4][5][6] Along with the three Saiva nayanmars, they influenced the ruling Pallava kings, creating a Bhakti movement that resulted in changing the religious geography from Buddhism and Jainism to these two sects of Hinduism in the region. The azhwars were also instrumental in promoting the Bhagavatha cult and the two epics of India, namely, Ramayana and Mahabaratha.[7] The azhwars were instrumental in spreading Vaishnavism throughout the region.[8] The verses of the various azhwars were compiled by Nathamuni (824-924 AD), a 10th-century Vaishnavite theologian, who called it the "Tamil Veda".[9][10]

The following table lists the azhwars.

S.No Alwar Saint Period and Place Other names Pasurams(Songs)
1 Poigai Alvar 7th century, Kanchipuram Saro-yogi, Kaasaara-yogi,

Poigai-piraan, Padma-muni, Kavinyarporeyeru

100
2 Bhoothathalvar 7th century, Thirukadalmallai (Mahabhalipuram) 100
3 Peyalvar 7th century, Mylapore Kairava-muni, Maha-daahva-yaar, Thamizh-Thalaivan 100
4 Thirumalisai Alvar 7th century, Thirumazhisai Bhakthi-saarar, Bhaargavar, Magisaaraapuriswarar, Mazhisai-piraan 216
5 Nammalvar 9th century, Azhwar Thirunagari (Kurugur) Sadagopan, Sadaari, Paraankusun, Maaran, Vakulaa Baranan, Kurugaiyar-kone 1296
6 Madhurakavi Alvar 9th century, Thirukollur Inkaviyaar, Azhwaarukku Adiyaan 11
7 Kulashekhara Varman 8th century, thirvanjikkolam Kolli-kaavalan, Koodal-naayakan,

Koyikone, Villavar-kone, Cheyralar-kone

105
8 Periyalvar 9th century, Sri Villiputhur Vishnu-chitthar, Patta-naadan, Battar-piraan, Sri-Villiputthooraar, Sriranganaatha-Svasoorar 473
9 Andal 9th century, Sri Villiputhur Choodikoduttha Naacheyaar, Godai,

Godai-piraatti

173
10 Thondaradippodi Alvar 8th century, Thirumandangudi Vibranaaraayanar, Thirumandangudiyaar,

Bhakthangirirenu, Palliunartthiya-piraan

55
11 Thiruppaan Alvar 8th century, Uraiyur Paanar, Muni-vaahanar,

Yogi-vaahanar, Kaveeswarar

10
12 Thirumangai Alvar 8th century, Thirukurayalur Kaliyan, Aalinaadan, NaaluKaviPerumaal,

Arulmaari, Parakaalan, Mangaiyarkone

1253

Madhurakavi Alvar sang only in praise of his guru - Nammalvar and has not done mangalasasanam on any Divya Desam. The following table lists the number of paasurams (hymns) sung by each Alvar on each Divya Desam. [11]

List of Divyadesam and Number of songs for each temple[edit]

S.No Temples Poigai Azhwar Boothath Azhwar Peya Azhwar Thiru Mizhisai Azhwar Nam Azhwar Madura Kavi Azhwar Kula Sekara Azhwar Periya Azhwar Andal Thondar Adi Podi Azhwar Tiru Mangai Azhwar Tiru Paana Azhwar Total
Chola Naadu Divyadesams
Trichy Temples
1 Srirangam - Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple 1 4 2 14 12 - 31 35 10 55 73 10 247
2 Thirukkozhi-Sri Azhagiya Manavala Perumal Temple - - - - - - 1 - - - 1 - 2
3 Thirukkarambanoor-Sri Purushothaman Perumal Temple - - - - - - - - - - 1 - 1
4 Thiruvellarai - Sri Pundarikashan Perumal Temple - - - - - - - 11 - - 13 - 24
5 Thiru Anbil - Sri Vadivazhagiya Nambi Perumal Temple - - - 1 - - - - - - - - 1
6 Thirupper Nagar - Sri Appakkudathaan Perumal Temple - - - 1 11 - - 2 - - 19 - 33
7 Thirukkandiyur - Sri Hara Saabha Vimocchana Perumal Temple - - - - - - - - - - 1 - 1
Tanjore Temples
8 Thiru Thanjaimaamani Koil - Sri Neelamega Perumal Temple - 1 - - 1 - - - - - 3 - 5
Kumbakonam Temples
9 Thiruvelliyankudi - Sri Kola Valvilli Ramar Perumal Temple - - - - - - - - - - 10 - 10
10 Thiru Aadhanoor - Sri Aandu Alakkum Ayan Perumal Temple - - - - - - - - - - 1 - 1
11 Thirukkudanthai - Sri Sarangapani Perumal Temple - 2 2 7 11 - - 3 1 - 25 - 51
12 Thiruppullam Boothankudi - Sri Valvil Ramar Perumal Temple - - - - - - - - - - 10 - 10
13 Thirukkavitthalam (Kabisthalam) - Sri Gajendra Varadha Perumal Temple - - - 1 - - - - - - - - 1
14 Thirunandhipura Vinnagaram (Nathan Kovil) - Sri Jaganatha Perumal Temple - - - - - - - - - - 10 - 10
15 Thirukkoodaloor - Sri Aaduthurai Perumal Temple - - - - - - - - - - 10 - 10
16 Thiru Vinnagar - - 2 - 11 - - - - - 34 - 47
17 Thiru Narayoor (Naachiyar Kovil) - Sri Thirunarayoor Nambi Perumal Temple - - - - - - - - - - 110 - 110
18 Thiruccherai - Sri Saranathan Perumal Temple - - - - - - - - - - 13 - 13
19 Thirukkannamangai - Sri Bhaktavatsala Perumal Temple - - - - - - - - - - 14 - 14
Mayavaram Temples
2- Thiruvazhunthoor - - - - - - - - - - 45 - 45
21 ThiruSirupuliyur - Sri Arulmaakadal Perumal Temple - - - - - - - - - - 10 - 10
22 Thiru Thalaicchanga Naanmathiyam - Sri Naan Madhiya Perumal Temple - - - - - - - - - - 2 - 2
23 Thiru Indhaloor - Sri Parimala Ranganatha Perumal Temple - - - - - - - - - - 11 - 11
Nagapattinam Temples
24 Thirukkannapuram - Sri Neelamega Perumal Temple - - - - 11 - 11 1 1 - 104 128
25 Thirukkannankudi - Sri Loganatha Perumal Temple - - - - - - - - - - 10 - 10
26 Thiru Naagai - Sri Neelamega Perumal Temple - - - - - - - - - - 10 - 10
Chidambaram Temples
27 Thiru Chithrakoodam (Chidambaram) - Sri Govindaraja Perumal Temple - - - - - - - - - - 32 - 32
Seergazhi Temples
28 Thirukkazhiseerama Vinnagaram (Seerkazhi) - Thirivikaraman Perumal Temple - - - - - - - - - - 10 - 10
29 Thiruvaali Thirunagari - Sri Lakshmi Narashima Perumal Temple - - - - - - 1 - - - 41 - 42
30 Thiru Kavalampaadi - Sri Gopala Krishna Perumal Temple - - - - - - - - - - 10 - 10
31 Thiru Arimeya Vinnagaram - Sri Kuda Maadu Koothan Perumal Temple - - - - - - - - - - 10 - 10
32 Thiru Vann Purushothamam - Sri Purushothama Perumal Temple - - - - - - - - - - 10 - 10
33 Thiru Sempon Sei Kovil - Sri Per Arulaalan Perumal Temple - - - - - - - - - - 10 - 10
34 Thiru Manimaada Kovil - Sri Narayana Perumal Temple - - - - - - - - - - 12 - 12
35 Thiru VaiKunda Vinnagaram - Sri Vaigundha Nathan Perumal Temple - - - - - - - - - - 10 - 10
36 Thiru Devanaar Thogai - Sri Deiva Naayaga Perumal Temple - - - - - - - - - - 10 - 10
37 Thiru Thetri Aambalam - Sri Seganmaal Ranganatha Perumal Temple - - - - - - - - - - 10 - 10
38 Thiru Manikkoodam - Sri Varadharaja Perumal Temple - - - - - - - - - - 10 - 10
39 Thiru Vellakkulam (Annan Kovil) - Sri Srinivasa Perumal Temple - - - - - - - - - - 10 - 10
40 Thiru Paarthanpalli - Sri Thamaraiyal Kelvan Perumal Temple - - - - - - - - - - 10 - 10
Nadu Naadu Divya Desam(Central)
41 Thiruvaheendrapuram - Sri Deyva Nayaga Perumal Temple - - - - - - - - - - 10 - 10
42 Thirukkoviloor - Sri Thiruvikrama Perumal Temple 2 1 - - - - - - - - 18 - 21
Thondai Naadu Divya Desam
Chennai Temples
43 Thiru Vellikeni - Sri Parthasarathy Temple - - 1 1 - - - - - - 10 - 12
44 Thiru Neermalai - Sri Neervanna Perumal Temple - 1 - - - - - - - - 19 - 20
Mahabalipuram Temples
45 Thiru Ida Venthai (Tiruvedanthai) - Sri Nithya Kalyana Perumal Temple - - - - - - - - - - 13 - 13
46 Thiru Kadalmalai - Sri Sthala Sayana Perumal Temple - 1 - - - - - - - - 26 - 27
47 ThirukKadigai (Sholingur) - Sri Yoga Narasimha Swamy Temple - - 1 - - - - - - - 3 - 4
Kanchipuram Temples
48 Thiru Kacchi (Kanchipuram) - Sri Varadharajar Temple - 2 1 - - - - - - - 4 - 7
49 Thiruvekka 4 - - 3 1 - - - - - 6 - 14
50 (Ashtabujam) - Sri Aadhikesava Perumal Temple - - 1 - - - - - - - 10 - 11
51 Thiru Ooragam (Ooragathaan) - Sri Ulagalantha Perumal Temple - - - 2 - - - - - - 4 - 6
52 Thiru Neeragam (Neeragathaan) - Sri Jagadeeshwarar Temple - - - - - - - - - - 1 - 1
53 Thiru Kaaragam - Sri Karunakara Perumal Temple - - - - - - - - - - 1 - 1
54 Thirukkaar Vaanam - Sri Thirukkaar vaanar Temple - - - - - - - - - - 1 - 1
55 Thiruparameshwara Vinnagaram - Sri Vaikunda Perumal Temple - - - - - - - - - - 1 - 1
56 Thiru Pavala Vannan - Sri Pavala Vannar Temple - - - - - - - - - - 1 - 1
57 Thiru Paadagam - Sri Pandava Thoodhar Temple - 1 1 2 - - - - - - 2 - 6
58 Thiru Nilathingal Thundam - Sri Nilathingal Thundathan Perumal Temple - - - - - - - - - - 1 - 1
59 ThirukKalvanoor - Sri Aadhi Varaha Perumal Temple - - - - - - - - - - 1 - 1
60 Thiru Velukkai - Sri Azhagiya Singar Perumal Temple - - 3 - - - - - - - 1 - 4
61 Thiruthanka (Thoopul) - Sri Deepa Prakasar Perumal Temple - - - - - - - - - - 2 - 2
62 Sri Vijayaraghava Perumal Temple - - - - - - - - - - 2 - 2
63 Thiru Evvul (Tiruvallore) - Sri Veeraraghava Perumal Temple - - - 1 - - - - - - 11 - 12
64 Thiru Nindravoor - Sri Bhatavatsala Perumal Temple - - - - - - - - - - 2 - 2
Pandya Naadu Divya Desam
Tirunelveli Temples
65 Thirukkurungudi - Sri Nindra Nambi Perumal Temple - - - 1 13 - - 1 - - 25 - 40
66 Thiruccherivaramangai (Vaanamaamalai) - Sri Thothatrinatha Perumal Temple - - - - 11 - - - - - - - 11
67 Thirukkurugoor (Azhwar Thirunagari) - Sri Aadhinatha Swamy Temple - - - - 11 - - - - - - - 11
68 Thirukkoloor - Sri Vaitha Maanitha Perumal Temple - - - - 12 - - - - - - - 12
69 Thirupperai - Sri Magara NedungKuzhai Kaathar Perumal Temple - - - - 11 - - - - - - - 11
70 Thiruvaikundam (Sri Vaikundam) - Sri Vaikundanatha Perumal Temple - - - - 2 - - - - - - - 2
71 Thirukkulanthai - Sri Srinivasa Perumal Temple - - - - 1 - - - - - - - 1
72 Thiruvaragunamangai - Sri Vijayaasana Perumal Temple - - - - 1 - - - - - - - 1
73 Thiruppulingudi - Sri Kaaichina Vendha Perumal Temple - - - - 12 - - - - - - - 12
74 Thiruttholai Villimangalam - Sri Aravindha Lochana Perumal Temple - - - - 11 - - - - - - - 11
Virudhu Nagar Temples
75 Thiruthankaal - Sri Nindra Narayana Perumal Temple - 1 - - - - - - - - 4 - 5
76 Thiruvilliputhoor (Sri Villiputhoor) - - - - - - - 1 1 - - - 2
Madurai Temples
77 Thirukkoodal - Sri Koodal Azhagar Perumal Temple - - - - - - - - 1 - 1 - 2
78 Thirumaalirunsolai - Sri Kallazhagar Perumal Temple - 3 1 - 46 - - 34 11 - 33 - 128
79 Thiru Moghur - Sri Kaalamegha Perumal Temple - - - - 11 - - - - - 1 - 12
Ramanathapuram Temples
80 Thiruppullanni - Sri Kalyana Jagannatha Perumal Temple - - - - - - - - - - 21 - 21
Pudukkottai Temples
81 Thirukkotiyoor - Sri Uraga Mellanayaan Perumal Temple - 2 1 1 10 - - 21 - - 13 - 48
82 Thirumeyyam - Sri Sathyagiri Natha Perumal Temple - - - - - - - - - - 9 - 9
Malayala Naadu Divya Desam
83 Thiruvananthapuram - Sri Anantha Padmanabhaswamy Temple - - - - 11 - - - - - - - 11
84 Thiruvanparisaaram - Sri Kuralappa Perumal Temple - - - - 1 - - - - - - - 1
85 Thirukkaatkarai - Sri Kaatkarai Appa Perumal Temple - - - - 10 - - - - - - - 10
86 Thirumoozhikkalam - Sri Moozhikkalathaan Perumal Temple - - - - 11 - - - - - 3 - 14
87 Thirupuliyoor - Sri Maayapiran Perumal Temple - - - - 10 - - - - - - - 10
88 Thirucchenkundroor - Sri Imayavarappa Perumal Temple - - - - 11 - - - - - - - 11
89 Thiru Naavaay - Sri Naavaay Mugundha Perumal Temple - - - - 11 - - - - - 2 - 13
90 Thiruvalvaazh - Sri Kolapira Perumal Temple - - - - 10 - - - - - - - 10
91 Thiruvanvandoor - Sri Paambanaiyappa Perumal Temple - - - - 10 - - - - - - - 10
92 Thiru Vattaaru - Sri Aadhikesava Perumal Temple - - - - 11 - - - - - - - 11
93 Thiruvithuvakkodu - Sri Uyyavantha Perumal Temple - - - - - - 10 - - - - - 10
94 Thirukkadithaanam - Sri Athpudha Narayana Perumal Temple - - - - 11 - - - - - - - 11
95 Thiruvaaran Vilai - Sri Kuralappa Perumal Temple - - - - 10 - - - - - - - 10
Vada Naadu Divya Desam
96 Tirupathi (Tirumalai) - Tirumala Venkateswara Temple 10 9 18 15 52 - 11 7 18 - 60 2 202
97 Ahobilam - Sri Nava Narasimhar Temple - - - - - - - - - - 10 - 10
98 Ayodhya - Ram Janmabhoomi - - - - 1 - 4 6 - 1 1 - 13
99 Thiru Naimisaranyam - Sri Devaraja Perumal Temple - - - - - - - - - - 10 - 10
100 Thiru Salagramam - - - - - - - 2 - - 10 - 12
101 Thiruvadhari Ashramam (Badrinath) - Sri Badri Narayana Perumal Temple - - - - - - - 1 - - 21 - 22
102 Thirukkandam - Kadi Nagar (Devaprayag) - Sri Neelamega Perumal Temple - - - - - - - 11 - - - - 11
103 Thiruppirudhi (Joshimutt) - Sri Paramapurusha Perumal Temple - - - - - - - - - - 10 - 10
104 Thiru Vadamathura (Brindhavanam) - Sri Govardhana Nesa Perumal Temple - - - - 10 - - 16 19 1 4 - 50
105 Thiruvaaipadi (Aayarpadi) - Sri Navamohana Krishna Perumal Temple - - - - - - - 10 5 - 7 - 22
106 Thiru Dwaraka (Dwaraka) - Sri Kalyana Narayana Perumal Temple - - - 1 1 - - 5 4 - 2 - 13
Vinnulaga(Heavenly) Divya Desam
107 ThirupPaarkadal (Vyugam) 1 2 4 13 9 - 2 5 3 1 10 - 50
108 ThirupParamapadham (Parathuvam) 2 - 1 2 24 - - 4 1 - 1 1 36

The following table lists the number of verses for each divyadesam

Number of Pasurams(hymns) 1 2 4 5 6 7 9 10 11 12 13 14 20 21 22 24 27 32 33 36 39 40 42 45 47 50 51 110 128 202 247
Number of Divyadesams 15 8 2 2 2 1 1 23 14 8 5 3 1 2 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1

Mangalasasanam Classification[edit]

The below table provides a classification for Mangalasananam [12]

Prabandam Azhwars (poet) Number of Pasurams (songs)
Mudal Aayiram (First thousand) 947
Tiruppallandu Periyalvar 10
Periyaazhwar Thirumozhi Periyalvar 463
Tiruppaavai Andal 30
Naachiyaar Thirumozhi Andal 143
Perumaal Thirumozhi Kulashekhara 105
Thiruchanda Virutham Thirumalisai Alvar 120
Tirumaalai Thondaradippodi Alvar 45
Tiruppalli Thondaradippodi Alvar 10
Amalaanathi Piraan Thiruppaan Alvar 10
Kanninum Siru Thaambu Madhurakavi Alvar 11
Periya Thirumozhi (Greater Hyms) 1134
Periya Thirumozhi Thirumangai Alvar 1084
Thiru Kurun Thaandagam Thirumangai Alvar 20
Thiru Nedun Thaandagam Thirumangai Alvar 30
Moondram Ayiram 701
Mudal Thiruvandaadhi Poigai Alvar 100
Irandaam Thiruvandaadhi Boothath alvar 100
Moondraam Thiruvandaadhi Peyalvar 100
Naanmugan Thiruvandaadhi Thirumalisai Alvar 96
Thiru Virutham Nammalvar 100
Thiru Vaasiriyam Nammalvar 7
Periya Thiru Andaathi Nammalvar 87
Thiruvezukootrirukkai Thirumangai Alvar 1
Siriya Thirumadal Thirumangai Alvar 1
Periya Thirumadal Thirumangai Alvar 1
Ramanuja Nootranthathi Tiruvarangathu Amuthanar 108
ThiruvaaiMozhi (Divine Hyms) 1102
Thiruvaai Mozhi Nammalvar 1102

Famous Divyadesams[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Rao, P.V.L. Narasimha (2008). Kanchipuram – Land of Legends, Saints & Temples. New Delhi: Readworthy Publications (P) Ltd. p. 27. ISBN 978-93-5018-104-1. 
  2. ^ a b c Dalal 2011, pp. 20-21
  3. ^ Ramaswamy, Vijaya (2007). Historical Dictionary of the Tamils. Scarecrow Press. p. 211. ISBN 9780810864450. 
  4. ^ Aiyangar, Sakkottai Krishnaswami (1920). Early history of Vaishnavism in south India. Oxford University Press. pp. 17–18. 
  5. ^ Lochtefeld, James (2002). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: N-Z. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 515. ISBN 9780823931804. 
  6. ^ Krishna (2009). Book Of Vishnu. Penguin Books India. p. 136. ISBN 9780143067627. 
  7. ^ B.S. 2011, p. 42
  8. ^ B.S. 2011, pp. 47-48
  9. ^ Mukherjee (1999). A Dictionary of Indian Literatures: Beginnings-1850 Volume 1 of A Dictionary of Indian Literature, A Dictionary of Indian Literature. Orient Blackswan. p. 15. ISBN 9788125014539. 
  10. ^ Garg, Gaṅgā Rām (1992). Encyclopaedia of the Hindu World: Ak-Aq. Concept Publishing Company. pp. 352–354. ISBN 9788170223757. 
  11. ^ "About each divyadesam". www.divyadesamonline.com. Archived from the original on 2007-06-23. Retrieved 2007-07-06. 
  12. ^ http://www.108-divya-desam.com/azhwars-and-naalaayira-divya-prabhandam/

References[edit]