Kabir

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Kabir
Painting of Kabir and disciple
An 1825 CE painting depicts Kabir with a disciple
Born c. 1440
Lahartara near Kashi (present-day Varanasi)
Died c. 1518
Maghar
Occupation Weaver, poet
Known for influencing the Bhakti movement, Sant Mat and Kabir Panth movements. Having hymns included in the Guru Granth Sahib

Kabir (IAST: Kabīr, c. 1440 – c. 1518)[1][2][3] was a mystic poet and saint of India, whose writings influenced Hinduism's Bhakti movement and Sikhism's founder Nanak.[1] His early life was in a Muslim family, but he was strongly influenced by his teacher, the Hindu bhakti leader Ramananda.[1]

Kabir is known for being critical of both Hinduism and Islam, stating that the former were misguided by the Vedas and the latter by the Quran, and questioning their meaningless rites of initiation such as the sacred thread and circumcision respectively.[1][2] When he was alive, both Hindus and Muslims he had annoyed, threatened him for his views.[4]:4 When he died, both Hindus and Muslims he had inspired, claimed him as theirs.[3]

Kabir suggested that True God is with the person who is on the path of righteousness, considered all creatures on earth as his own self, and who is passively detached from the affairs of the world.[3] To know God, suggested Kabir, meditate with the mantra Rāma, Rāma.[4]:4

Kabir's legacy survives and continued through the Kabir panth ("Path of Kabir"), a religious community that recognises him as its founder and is one of the Sant Mat sects. Its members, known as Kabir panthis.[5]

Early life and background[edit]

The early life of Kabir (Hindi: कबीर, Punjabi: ਕਬੀਰ, Urdu: کبير‎), including his year of birth and death are unclear.[6][7]:14 Some historians favor 1398-1448 as the period Kabir lived,[7]:5[4] while others favor 1440-1518.[1][8][7]:106

Many legends, inconsistent in their details, exist about his birth family and early life. According to one version, Kabir was born to a Brahmin unwed mother in Varanasi, by immaculate conception and delivered through the palm of her hand,[4]:5 who then abandoned him in a basket floating in a pond, and baby Kabir was picked up then raised by a Muslim family.[1][4]:4-5 However, modern scholarship has abandoned these legends for lack of historical evidence, and Kabir is widely accepted to have been born and brought up in a family of Muslim weavers.[4]:3-5 According to the Indologist Wendy Doniger, Kabir was born into a Muslim family and various birth legends attempt to "drag Kabir back over the line from Muslim to Hindu".[9]

Some scholars state that Kabir's parents may have been recent converts to Islam, they and Kabir were likely unaware of Islamic orthodox tradition, and are likely to have been following the Nath (Shaiva Yogi) school of Hinduism. This view, while contested by other scholars, has been summarized by Charlotte Vaudeville as follows,[10]

Circumcised or not, Kabir was officially a musalman, though it appears likely that some form of Nathism was his ancestral tradition. This alone would explain his relative ignorance of Islamic tenets, his remarkable acquaintance with Tantric-yoga practices and his lavish use of its esoteric jargon [in his poems]. He appears far more conversant with Nath-panthi basic attitudes and philosophy than with the Islamic orthodox tradition.

—Charlotte Vaudeville on Kabir (1974), [10]

Kabir is widely believed to have become one of the many disciples of the Bhakti poet-sant Swami Ramananda in Varanasi, known for devotional Vaishnavism with a strong bent to monist Advaita philosophy teaching that God was inside every person, everything.[3][11][12]

Some legends assert that Kabir never married and led a celibate's life. Most scholars conclude from historical literature that this legend is also untrue, that Kabir was likely married, his wife probably was named Dhania, they had at least one son named Kamal and a daughter named Kamali.[13]

Kabir's family is believed to have lived in the locality of Kabir Chaura in Varanasi. Kabīr maṭha (कबीरमठ), a maṭha located in the back alleys of Kabir Chaura, celebrates his life and times.[14] Accompanying the property is a house named Nīrūṭīlā (नीरू टीला) which houses Niru and Nima's graves.[15] The house also accommodates students and scholars who live there and study Kabir's work.

Poetry[edit]

Indian postage stamp portraying Kabir, 1952

Kabir composed poems in a pithy and earthy style, fused with imagery. His poems were in vernacular Hindi, borrowing from various dialects including Avadhi, Braj, and Bhojpuri.[16] They cover various aspects of life and call for a loving devotion for God.[4]:4-6

Where spring, the lord of seasons reigneth, there the unstruck music sounds of itself,
There the streams of light flow in all directions, few are the men who can cross to that shore!
There, where millions of Krishnas stand with hands folded,
Where millions of Vishnus bow their heads, where millions of Brahmas are reading the Vedas,
Where millions of Shivas are lost in contemplation, where millions of Indras dwell in the sky,
Where the demi-gods and the munis are unnumbered, where millions of Saraswatis, goddess of music play the vina,
There is my Lord self-revealed, and the scent of sandal and flowers dwells in those deeps.

—Kabir, II.57, Translated by Rabindranath Tagore[17]

Kabir and his followers named his verbally composed poems of wisdom as "bāņīs" (utterances). These include songs and couplets, called variously dohe, śalokā (Sanskrit: ślokā), or sākhī (Sanskrit: sākşī). The latter term means "witness", implying the poems to be evidence of the Truth.[18] Literary works with compositions of Kabir include Kabir Bijak, Kabir Parachai, Sakhi Granth, Adi Granth (Sikh), and Kabir Granthawali (Rajasthan).[19]

Authenticity[edit]

Numerous poems are attributed to Kabir, but scholars now doubt the authenticity of many songs credited to him.[4]:6

Rabindranath Tagore's English translation and compilation One Hundred Poems of Kabir was first published in 1915, and has been a classic reprinted and widely circulated particularly in the West.[20][21] Scholars believe only six[22] of the hundred are authentic,[23] and they have questioned whether Tagore introduced then prevalent theological perspectives onto Kabir, as he translated poems in early 20th century that he presumed to be of Kabir's.[24] The unauthentic poems, nevertheless belong to the Bhakti movement in medieval India, and may be by admirers of Kabir who lived later.[20]

Philosophy[edit]

Some commentators suggest Kabir's philosophy to be a syncretic synthesis of Hinduism and Islam, but scholars widely state that this is false and a misunderstanding of Kabir.[4]:5 He adopted their terminology and concepts, but vigorously criticized them both.[25][4]:5-6 He questioned the need for any holy book, as stated in Kabir Granthavali as follows:

Reading book after book the whole world died,
and none ever became learned !

—Kabir Granthavali, XXXIII.3, Translated by Charlotte Vaudeville[26]

Many scholars interpret Kabir's philosophy to be questioning the need for religion, rather than attempting to propose either Hindu-Muslim unity or an independent synthesis of a new religious tradition.[27] Kabir rejected the hypocrisy and misguided rituals evident in various religious practices of his day, including those in Islam and Hinduism.[27] Kabir urged people to look within and consider all human beings as manifestation of God's living forms,

If God be within the mosque, then to whom does this world belong?
If Ram be within the image which you find upon your pilgrimage,
then who is there to know what happens without?
Hari is in the East, Allah is in the West.
Look within your heart, for there you will find both Karim and Ram;
All the men and women of the world are His living forms.
Kabir is the child of Allah and of Ram: He is my Guru, He is my Pir.

—Kabir, III.2, Translated by Rabindranath Tagore[28]

Charlotte Vaudeville states that the philosophy of Kabir and other sants of the Bhakti movement is the seeking of the Absolute. The notion of this Absolute is nirguna which, writes Vaudeville, is same as "the Upanishadic concept of the Brahman-Atman and the monistic Advaita interpretation of the Vedantic tradition, which denies any distinction between the soul [within a human being] and God, and urges man to recognize within himself his true divine nature".[29] Vaudeville notes that this philosophy of Kabir and other Bhakti sants is self-contradictory, because if God is within, then that would be a call to abolish all external bhakti. This inconsistency in Kabir's teaching may have been differentiating "union with God" from the concept of "merging into God, or Oneness in all beings". Alternatively, states Vaudeville, the saguna prema-bhakti (tender devotion) may have been prepositioned as the journey towards self-realization of the nirguna Brahman, a universality beyond monotheism.[30]

Many scholars trace these ideas of God in Kabir's philosophy as nirguna Brahman to those in Adi Shankara's theories on Advaita Vedanta school of Hinduism, albeit with some differences.[31]

Influence of Islam[edit]

Lorenzen in his review of Kabir philosophy and poetry writes, "the extent to which Kabir borrowed elements from Islam is controversial. Most recent scholars have argued that he simply rejected Islam and took almost all his ideas and beliefs from the Hindu tradition. Contemporary Kabir Panth sadhus makes roughly the same argument. Most of the vocabulary used in his songs and verses is borrowed directly from the Hindu tradition. Nonetheless it is hard not to see the influence of Islam in his insistence on devotion to a single God, a god Kabir most often calls Ram".[31]

Kabir left Islam, states Ronald McGregor, but that does not mean Kabir adopted Hindu beliefs.[32] Kabir, nevertheless, criticized practices such as killing and eating a cow by Muslims, in a manner Hindus criticized those practices:[33]

We have searched the turaki dharam (Turk's religion, Islam), these teachers throw many thunderbolts,
Recklessly they display boundless pride, while explaining their own aims, they kill cows.
How can they kill the mother, whose milk they drink like that of a wet nurse?
The young and the old drink milk pudding, but these fools eat the cow's body.
These morons know nothing, they wander about in ignorance,
Without looking into one's heart, how can one reach paradise?

—Kabir, Ramaini 1, Translated by David Lorenzen[33]

Persecution and social impact[edit]

Kabir's couplets suggest he was persecuted for his views, while he was alive. He stated, for example

Saints I see the world is mad.
If I tell the truth they rush to beat me,
if I lie they trust me.

—Kabir, Sabda 4, [4]:4

The legends about Kabir describe him as the underdog who nevertheless is victorious in trials by a Sultan, a Brahmin, a Qazi, a merchant, a god or a goddess. The ideological messages in the legends appealed to the poor and oppressed. According to David Lorenzen, legends about Kabir reflect a "protest against social discrimination and economic exploitation", they present the perspective of the poor and powerless, not the rich and powerful.[34] However, many scholars doubt that these legends of persecution are authentic, point to the lack of any corroborating evidence, consider it unlikely that a Muslim Sultan would take orders from Hindu Brahmins or Kabir's own mother demanded that the Sultan punish Kabir, and question the historicity of the legends on Kabir.[35]

Legacy[edit]

Kabir's literature legacy was championed by two of his disciples, Bhāgodās and Dharmadās. Songs of Kabir were collected by Kshitimohan Sen from mendicants across India, these were then translated to English by Rabindranath Tagore.[36]

Kabir's legacy continues to be carried forward by the Kabir panth ("Path of Kabir"), a religious community that recognises him as its founder and is one of the Sant Mat sects. This community was founded centuries after Kabir died, in various parts of India, over the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.[37] Its members, known as Kabir panthis, are estimated to be around 9.6 million.[citation needed] They are spread over north and central India, as well as dispersed with the Indian diaspora across the world, up from 843,171 in the 1901 census.[38]

Influence on Sikhism[edit]

Further information: Writers of Guru Granth Sahib

Kabir's verses were incorporated into Adi Granth, the scripture of Sikhism. After the Sikh gurus themselves, verses attributed to Kabir constitute the largest contribution.[32] Kabir's ideas and bhakti practices were one of the many influences on Guru Nanak, who went on to found Sikhism in the fifteenth century.[39][40]

Harpreet Singh, quoting Hew McLeod, states, "In its earliest stage Sikhism was clearly a movement within the Hindu tradition; Nanak was raised a Hindu and eventually belonged to the Sant tradition of northern India, a movement associated with the great poet and mystic Kabir."[41]

Kabir's poetry today[edit]

There are several allusions to Kabir's poetry in mainstream Indian film music. The title song of the Sufi fusion band Indian Ocean's album Jhini is an energetic rendering of Kabir's famous poem "The intricately woven blanket", with influences from Indian folk, Sufi traditions and progressive rock.

Noted classical singer, late Kumar Gandharva, is widely recognized for his wonderful rendering of Kabir's poetry.

Documentary filmmaker Shabnam Virmani, from the Kabir Project, has produced a series of documentaries and books tracing Kabir's philosophy, music and poetry in present-day India and Pakistan. The documentaries feature Indian folk singers such as Prahlad Tipanya, Mukhtiyar Ali and the Pakistani Qawwal Fareed Ayaz.

The album No Stranger Here by Shubha Mudgal, Ursula Rucker draws heavily from Kabir's poetry. Kabir's poetry has appeared prominently in filmmaker Anand Gandhi's films Right Here Right Now (2003) and Continuum. Pakistani Sufi singer Abida Parveen has sung Kabir in a full album.

Criticism of Kabir[edit]

Kabir has been criticised for his depiction of women. Nikky-Guninder Kaur Singh states, "Kabir's opinion of women is contemptuous and derogatory".[42] Wendy Doniger concludes Kabir had a mysogynist bias.[42] For Kabir, states Schomer, woman is "Kali nagini (a black cobra), kunda naraka ka (the pit of hell), juthani jagata ki (the refuse of the world)". According to Kabir, a woman prevents man's spiritual progress.[42]

Woman ruins everything when she comes near man;
Devotion, liberation, and divine knowledge no longer enter his soul.

—Kabir, Translated by Nikky-Guninder Kaur Singh[42]

Singh states that this outlook of Kabir about women and their role in human quest for spirituality was not shared by other Bhakti movement poet-sants, particularly Nanak who founded Sikhism.[42]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Kabir Encyclopædia Britannica (2015), Accessed: July 27 2015
  2. ^ a b Carol Henderson Garcia; Carol E. Henderson (2002). Culture and Customs of India. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 70–71. ISBN 978-0-313-30513-9. Retrieved 12 July 2012. 
  3. ^ a b c d Hugh Tinker (1990). South Asia: A Short History. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 75–77. ISBN 978-0-8248-1287-4. Retrieved 12 July 2012. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Hess, Linda; Shukdev Singh (2002). The Bijak of Kabir. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0199882029. 
  5. ^ David Lorenzen (Editors: Karine Schomer and W. H. McLeod, 1987), The Sants: Studies in a Devotional Tradition of India, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, ISBN 978-81-208-0277-3, pages 281-302
  6. ^ Lorenzen, David (1991). Kabir Legends and Ananta-Das's Kabir Parachai. SUNY Press. pp. 12–18. ISBN 978-1-4384-1127-9. 
  7. ^ a b c Dass, Nirmal; Dass, introduction by Nirmal (1991). Songs of Kabir from the Adi Granth. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0791405605. 
  8. ^ Lorenzen, David N. (2006). Who invented Hinduism?: essays on religion in history. New Dehli: Yoda Press. ISBN 8190227262. 
  9. ^ Wendy Doniger, The Hindus: An Alternative History, Oxford University Press (2010), p. 462
  10. ^ a b David N. Lorenzen and Adrián Muñoz (2012), Yogi Heroes and Poets: Histories and Legends of the Naths, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-1438438900, page 31
  11. ^ Rekha Pande (2014), Divine Sounds from the Heart—Singing Unfettered in their Own Voices, Cambridge Scholars, ISBN 978-1443825252, page 77
  12. ^ Ronald McGregor (1984), Hindi literature from its beginnings to the nineteenth century, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3447024136, pages 43-44
  13. ^ Lorenzen, David (1991). Kabir Legends and Ananta-Das's Kabir Parachai. SUNY Press. p. 19. ISBN 978-1-4384-1127-9. 
  14. ^ Karine Schomer; W. H. McLeod (1 January 1987). The Sants: Studies in a Devotional Tradition of India. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. pp. 291–. ISBN 978-81-208-0277-3. Retrieved 12 July 2012. 
  15. ^ "Jab Mein Tha Tab Hari Nahin‚ Ab". Kabirchaura.com. Retrieved 12 July 2012. 
  16. ^ Scudiere, Todd. "Rare Literary Gems: The Works of Kabir and Premchand at CRL". South Asian Studies, Spring 2005 Vol. 24, Num. 3. Center for Research Libraries. 
  17. ^ R Tagore (Edited by Evelin Underhill, 2005), Poem XV One Hundred Poems of Kabir: Translated by Rabindranath Tagore, ISBN 978-1421253596, University of Toronto Archives, page 15
  18. ^ The Vision of Kabir: Love poems of a 15th Century Weaver, (1984) Alpha & Omega, page 48 ASIN B000ILEY3U
  19. ^ Lorenzen, David (1991). Kabir Legends and Ananta-Das's Kabir Parachai. SUNY Press. pp. 18–19. ISBN 978-1-4384-1127-9. 
  20. ^ a b Karine Schomer and W. H. McLeod (1987), The Sants: Studies in a Devotional Tradition of India, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, ISBN 978-81-208-0277-3, pages 167-169
  21. ^ R Tagore (Edited by Evelin Underhill, 2005), One Hundred Poems of Kabir: Translated by Rabindranath Tagore, ISBN 978-1421253596, University of Toronto Archives
  22. ^ The authentic poems are poem 15, 32, 34, 35, 69 and 94; see Karine Schomer and W. H. McLeod (1987), The Sants: Studies in a Devotional Tradition of India, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, ISBN 978-81-208-0277-3, page 173
  23. ^ Karine Schomer and W. H. McLeod (1987), The Sants: Studies in a Devotional Tradition of India, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, ISBN 978-81-208-0277-3, page 172
  24. ^ V Mishra in K Schomer and WH McLeod (Editors, 1987), The Sants: Studies in a Devotional Tradition of India, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, ISBN 978-81-208-0277-3, pages 168, 178-179
  25. ^ David N. Lorenzen and Adrián Muñoz (2012), Yogi Heroes and Poets: Histories and Legends of the Naths, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-1438438900, pages 27-28
  26. ^ Charlotte Vaudeville (Editors: Karine Schomer and W. H. McLeod, 1987), The Sants: Studies in a Devotional Tradition of India, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, ISBN 978-81-208-0277-3, page 23
  27. ^ a b David N. Lorenzen and Adrián Muñoz (2012), Yogi Heroes and Poets: Histories and Legends of the Naths, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-1438438900, page 35
  28. ^ R Tagore (Edited by Evelin Underhill, 2005), Poem LXIX One Hundred Poems of Kabir: Translated by Rabindranath Tagore, ISBN 978-1421253596, University of Toronto Archives, page 72
  29. ^ Charlotte Vaudeville (Editors: Karine Schomer and W. H. McLeod, 1987), The Sants: Studies in a Devotional Tradition of India, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, ISBN 978-81-208-0277-3, page 26
  30. ^ Charlotte Vaudeville (Editors: Karine Schomer and W. H. McLeod, 1987), The Sants: Studies in a Devotional Tradition of India, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, ISBN 978-81-208-0277-3, pages 27-33 with footnotes
  31. ^ a b David N. Lorenzen and Adrián Muñoz (2012), Yogi Heroes and Poets: Histories and Legends of the Naths, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-1438438900, page 48
  32. ^ a b Ronald McGregor (1984), Hindi literature from its beginnings to the nineteenth century, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3447024136, page 47
  33. ^ a b David N. Lorenzen and Adrián Muñoz (2012), Yogi Heroes and Poets: Histories and Legends of the Naths, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-1438438900, page 27
  34. ^ Lorenzen, David (1991). Kabir Legends and Ananta-Das's Kabir Parachai. SUNY Press. pp. 5–6. ISBN 978-1-4384-1127-9. 
  35. ^ Lorenzen, David (1991). Kabir Legends and Ananta-Das's Kabir Parachai. SUNY Press. pp. 16–35. ISBN 978-1-4384-1127-9. 
  36. ^ "Songs of Kabir in Persian : Gutenberg: Songs of Kabir by Rabindranath Tagore". 
  37. ^ J. S. Grewal (2010), WH McLeod and Sikh Studies, Journal of Punjab Studies, Vol. 17, Issue 1-2, page 119, Archive
  38. ^ Westcott, G. H. (2006). Kabir and the Kabir Panth. Read Books. p. 2. ISBN 1-4067-1271-X. 
  39. ^ WH McLeod (2003), Exploring Sikhism: Aspects of Sikh Identity, Culture, and Thought, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195658569, pages 19-31
  40. ^ David Lorenzen (1981), Religious change and cultural domination, Colegio Mexico, ISBN 978-9681201081, pages 173-191
  41. ^ Pashaura Singh and Louis E. Fenech (2014), The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0199699308, page 205
  42. ^ a b c d e Nikky-Guninder Kaur Singh (24 Sep 1993). The Feminine Principle in the Sikh Vision of the Transcendent. English: Cambridge University Press. pp. 114–116. ISBN 978-0521432870. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Bly, Robert, tr. Kabir: Ecstatic Poems. Beacon Press, 2004. (ISBN 0-8070-6384-3)
  • Dass, Nirmal, tr. Songs of Kabir from the Adi Granth. SUNY Press, 1991. (ISBN 0-7914-0560-5)
  • Duggal, [edited by]G. N. Das ; foreword by K.S. (1992). Love songs of Kabir. Sittingbourne: Asia. ISBN 978-0-948724-33-6. 
  • Kabir. Compilation of Kabir's dohas in Devanagiri. Kabir ke dohey
  • Masterman, David, ed/rev. Kabir says... Los Angeles: Three Pigeons Publishing, 2011.
  • Tagore, Rabindranath, tr. Songs of Kabir. Forgotten Books, 1985. (ISBN 1-60506-643-5) Songs of Kabir
  • Vaudeville, Charlotte. A Weaver Named Kabir: Selected Verses with a Detailed Biographical and Historical Introduction. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1993. (ISBN 0-19-563933-2)
  • KavitaKosh.org Compilation of Kabir's dohas in Devanagiri Kabir Page on Kavitakosh

External links[edit]