- See Kāśikāvṛttī for the medieval grammarians.
|Affiliation||Avatar of Vishnu|
|Weapon||Wooden umbrella and water pot|
Vamana (Devanagari: वामन, IAST: Vāmana) is described in the Puranas as the fifth Avatar of Vishnu, and the first incarnation of the Second Age or Treta yuga. He is the first Avatar to appear without anthropomorphic features, although as a dwarf Brahmin. He is also known as Upendra.
The Bhagavata Purana describes that Vishnu descended as the Vamana avatar to restore the authority of Indra over the heavens, as it had been taken by Mahabali, a benevolent Asura King. Bali was the grandson of Prahlada, the son of Hiranyakshipu.
Vamana, in the guise of a short Brahman carrying a wooden umbrella, went to the king to request three paces of land. Mahabali consented, against the warning of his guru, Sukracharya. Vamana then revealed his identity and enlarged to gigantic proportions to stride over the three worlds. He stepped from heaven to earth with the first step, from earth to the netherworld with the second. King Mahabali, unable to fulfill his promise, offered his head for the third. Vamana then placed his foot and gave the king immortality for his humility.
In worshiping Mahabali and his ancestor Prahláda, he conceded sovereignty of Pátála, the netherworld. Some texts also report that Vamana did not step into the netherworld, and instead gave its rule to Bali. In giant form, Vamana is known as Trivikrama.
Just before King Mahavali was pushed out of this earth, he was given permission by Vamana to visit his people once a year. The Onam festival is a celebration of welcoming Mahabali home to his lost kingdom. During this festival, beautiful floral decorations are made in every house and boat races are held throughout Kerala. A twenty-one-course feast is the most important part of the Onam festival.
Jainism also describes Vamana. In its scripture, an ill natured man has contention with Jain Munis, which results in the king banishing him from the kingdom. He traveled to a rival kingdom and managed to gain the favor and trust of its king, and is granted a wish. He asked to be made King for 4 months during Chaturmas, a holy time for the Jains. The evil man orders that he must be allowed a bite of every meal in Jain Muni, thus not allowing them not eat for the rest of the day as the food would be considered contaminated. The Jain Shravaks and Shravikas, recognizing his intent, consulted Vamana, the dwarf and avatar who had the capability to change his size.
Dressed up as a tiny Brahman, he went to the house of the evil Raja while he performed a pooja. Near its end, the practitioner must give something to those present. He asked the dwarf what he wished, and Varana replied that wantedthree feet of land. The King consented. Vamana then grew so large that one foot covered the planet, another the heavens, and so there was no where to place the third. The evil king then realized his mistake, and in shame bowed his head down for the third footstep of Vamana.
Vamana taught King Mahabali that pride should be abandoned for advancement in life, and that wealth should be appreciated as it can easily disappear. Vamana then took the form of Mahavishnu and was pleased by King Mahabali's determination to keep his promise, despite the curse of his spiritual master and losing his wealth. Vishnu named the King Mahabali since he was a Mahatma (great soul). He allowed Mahabali to return to the spiritual sky to join Prahlada, the demoniac Hiranyakashipu's pious son, and other divine beings. Mahavishnu also declared that Mahabali would be able to rule the universe in the following yuga. Mahabali was the grandson of Prahlada, with his father being Virochana, who was killed in a battle with the Devas.
Mahabali is supposed to return every year to the land of his people, to ensure that they are prosperous.
In Sikhism 
Vamana is discussed in the Guru Granth Sahib, the sacred text of Sikhism.
- Satjugi tai manio Chhalio bali bavan bhaio
- In Satyayuga, you sported as the dwarf incarnation, and fooled Bali.
On page 1390 of the Guru Granth Sahib, Vamana is mentioned as the "enticer" of Baliraja.
In the Ramayana 
According to the Adhyatma Ramayana It is also said that Vamana is the guard of the gate of Bali's underworld realm Sutala and will remain so forever. Tulsidas' Ramayana too declares that Vamana became the "dwarpal" (gate-defender) of Bali.
It is said that Mahabali attained Moksha by atmanivedinam. Krishna in the Sri Rūpa Gosvāmī's Bhakti-rasāmrta-sindhuh says that Mahabali came to Him or attained Him. Some traditions also hold that Vamana was an avatar of Ganesha.
The Vamana temples are located in
- Mithranandapuram Vamanamoorthy Temple, Cherpu, Thrissur, kerala
- Thrikkakara Temple, Thrikkakkara, Cochin, Kerala.
- Ulagalantha Perumal Temple in Kanchipuram near the Kamakshi temple.
- Vamana Temple, Eastern Group of Temples, Khajuraho, Madhya Pradesh.
- Vamana and Ulagalantha Perumal Temple in Tirukoilur, Viluppuram district, Tamil Nadu.
See also 
- "Vamana Avatar: Vishnu’s Fifth Incarnation". Retrieved 6 November 2008.
- Account of the several Manus and Manwantaras Vishnu Purana, translated by Horace Hayman Wilson, 1840, Book III: Chapter I. 265:22, at the request of the deities Vishńu was born as a midget, Vámana, the son of Adití by Kaśyapa. By applying to Mahabali for alms Kaśyapa was promised by the prince whatever he might demand, notwithstanding Śukra (the preceptor of the Daityas). The dwarf demanded as much space as he could step over at three steps and upon the assent of Mahabali he enlarged himself to such dimensions as to stride over the three worlds. Being worshipped however by Mahabali and his ancestor Prahláda, he conceded to them the sovereignty of Pátála.
- Chandra, Suresh (Aug 15, 2012). Encyclopaedia of Hindu Gods and Goddesses. Kindle Edition.
- P. 1390 Guru Granth Sahib
- P. 1330, Sri Guru Granth Sahib, Vol. 4
- P. 281 The Adhyatma Ramayana: Concise English Version By Chandan Lal Dhody
- P. 134 Srī Rūpa Gosvāmī's Bhakti-rasāmṛta-Sindhuh By Rūpagosvāmī, Bhakti Hridaya Bon
- P. 134 Sri Rūpa Gosvāmīs Bhakti-rasāmrta-sindhuh By Rūpagosvāmī
- P. 246 Complete Works of Gosvami Tulsidas By Satya Prakash Bahadur, Tulasīdāsa
- P. 178 Vedanta Established in Its Own Light =: Sushka Vedanta Tamo Bhaskaram By Malayalaswamulavaru
- Sri Rūpa Gosvāmīs Bhakti-rasāmrta-sindhuh last= Gosvāmī. pp. P. 379.
- P. 22 Bhavan's Journal By Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan
- Vamana Temples in Kerala
- Complete Story of Bali
- Srimad Bhagavatam 8.18: Lord Vamanadeva, the Dwarf Incarnation
- Vamana Avatar
- Story of Vamana Avataram