||This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (November 2013)|
|Test site||500 miles (800 km) southwest of San Diego|
|Date||14 May 1955|
|Yield||30 kilotons of TNT (130 TJ)|
|Previous test||Operation Teapot|
|Next test||Project 56|
Operation Wigwam involved a single test of the Mark 90 Betty nuclear bomb. It was conducted between Operation Teapot and Operation Redwing on May 14, 1955, about 500 miles (800 km) southwest of San Diego, California. 6,800 personnel aboard 30 ships were involved in Wigwam. The purpose of Wigwam was to determine the vulnerability of submarines to deeply detonated nuclear weapons, and to evaluate the feasibility of using such weapons in a combat situation. The task force commander, Admiral John Sylvester, was embarked on the task force flagship USS Mount McKinley (AGC-7).
The test device was suspended by a 2,000 feet (610 m) cable under a barge. A six-mile tow line connected a fleet tug, the USS Tawasa, and the shot barge itself. Suspended from the tow lines of other tugs were three miniature unmanned submarines named "Squaws", each packed with cameras and telemetry instruments.
The time of detonation was 1300 hrs Pacific Time. The test was carried out without incident, and radiation effects were negligible. The device yielded 30 kilotons. Three personnel received doses of over 0.5 rems.
The equipment intended for direct measurement of the explosion-generated underwater bubble was not operational at the time of the shot, but based on other measurements, the bubble's maximum radius was calculated as 376 feet (115 m), and its pulsation period approximately 2.83 seconds. (See Scientific Director's Report)
|Test name||Date Time (UT)||Location||Elevation + Height||Delivery||Purpose||Device||Yield||Note|
|Wigwam||14 May 1955 20:00:00.0||500 miles (800 km) SW of San Diego,||0 - 610 metres (2,000 ft)||underwater||weapon effects||Mark 90 B7 "Betty" atomic depth charge||30 kilotons|
- Operation Wigwam Test Report, DTRA (PDF)
- The short film Nuclear Test Film - Operation Wigwam (1955) is available for free download at the Internet Archive [more]
- Griggs, D. T., and Frank Press (1961). "Probing the earth with nuclear explosions". Journal of Geophysical Research. 66(1): 237–258.
- United States Nuclear Tests: July 1945 through September 1992 (Revision 15). Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office. December 2000. Retrieved 2013-10-26.
- Yang, Xiaoping, Robert North, and Carl Romney (August 2000). CMR Nuclear Explosion Database (Revision 3). SMDC Monitoring Research. Retrieved 2013-10-26.
- "Operation Wigwam Scientific Director's Report (Large PDF)" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-03-24.
- Local time (PST) is 8 hours less than UT (7 for PDT); local date is the day before UT if UT time is before 08:00 (07:00 PDT).