Foreign relations of Austria

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The 1955 Austrian State Treaty ended the four-power occupation and recognized Austria as an independent and sovereign state. In October 1955, the Federal Assembly passed a constitutional law in which "Austria declares of her own free will her perpetual neutrality." The second section of this law stated that "in all future times Austria will not join any military alliances and will not permit the establishment of any foreign military bases on her territory." Since then, Austria has shaped its foreign policy on the basis of neutrality.

In recent years, however, Austria has begun to reassess its definition of neutrality, granting overflight rights for the UN-sanctioned action against Iraq in 1991, and, since 1995, contemplating participation in the EU's evolving security structure. Also in 1995, it joined the Partnership for Peace, and subsequently participated in peacekeeping missions in Bosnia. Discussion of possible Austrian NATO membership intensified during 1996. ÖVP and FPÖ aim at moving closer to NATO or a European defense arrangement. The SPÖ, in turn, believes continued neutrality is the cornerstone of Austria's foreign policy, and a majority of the population generally supports this stance.

In February 2000, Austria's foreign relations cooled down when the ÖVP formed a coalition with the FPÖ after the 1999 election. European governments imposed diplomatic sanctions, and the United States called home its ambassador.[1] The diplomatic sanctions were lifted in September 2000, after a three-member panel assessed human rights and political life in Austria.[2] In November 2000, the United States and Austria normalized their relations.[3]

Austrian leaders emphasize the unique role the country plays as East-West hub and as a moderator between industrialized and developing countries. Austria is active in the United Nations and experienced in UN peacekeeping efforts. It attaches great importance to participation in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and other international economic organizations, and it has played an active role in the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE).

Vienna hosts the Secretariat of the OSCE and the headquarters of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the United Nations Industrial Development Organization, and the United Nations Drug Control Programme. Other international organizations based in Vienna include the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis. Recently, Vienna added the preparatory commission for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization and the Wassenaar Arrangement (a technology-transfer control agency) to the list of international organizations it hosts.

Austria traditionally has been active in "bridge-building to the east," increasing contacts at all levels with Eastern Europe and the states of the former Soviet Union. Austrians maintain a constant exchange of business representatives, political leaders, students, cultural groups, and tourists with the countries of central and eastern Europe. Austrian companies are active in investing and trading with the countries of central and eastern Europe. In addition, the Austrian Government and various Austrian organizations provide assistance and training to support the changes underway in the region.

Bilateral relationships[edit]

Austria maintains significant bilateral relations with several countries.

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Albania 1912

Austria-Hungary supported Albanian Declaration of Independence in 1912.

  • Albania has an embassy in Vienna.
  • Austria has an embassy in Tirana.
 Argentina 1870-10-27
 Australia 1948
 Belarus 1992-02
 Belgium 1833
 Bulgaria 1878
 Canada 1929 See Austria–Canada relations
 Chile 1846 See Austria–Chile relations
 Colombia 1920 see Austria–Colombia relations
 Croatia 1992-01-15 See Austria–Croatia relations
 Cyprus 1960
 Czech Republic 1920-01-20 See Austria – Czech Republic relations

Austria has an embassy in Prague and two honorary consulates (in Brno and České Budějovice). The Czech Republic has an embassy in Vienna and five honorary consulates (in Graz, Innsbruck, Klagenfurt, Linz, and Salzburg). Both countries are full members of the European Union. They share 362 km of common border, which can be crossed anywhere without border control due to the Schengen Agreement.

 Denmark 1925-12-19 See Austria-Denmark relations
 Egypt 1929
 Estonia 1921-06-26
 Finland 1918-07-19
 France 1535 See Austria–France relations
 Georgia 1992 See Austria–Georgia relations

Georgia opened its Embassy in Vienna in 1996.[29]

 Germany See Austria–Germany relations

Due to German being the common language of these two neighboring European countries relations between them are close.

 Hungary 1921 See Austria–Hungary relations
 Iceland 1928
 Iran See Austria–Iran relations
  • Austria has an embassy in Tehran.
  • Iran has an embassy in Vienna.
 Ireland 1951
 Israel 1949 See Austria–Israel relations

See also History of the Jews in Austria.

 Italy See Austria–Italy relations
 Japan 1869-10 See Austria–Japan relations
 Kosovo 2008
  • Austria recognized Kosovo on 28 February 2008.[41]
  • Austria has an embassy in Pristina since 20 March 2008.[42]
  • Kosovo has an embassy in Vienna since February 2009.
 Latvia 1921-02-17
 Lithuania 1991
 Malaysia 1962-08-06 See Austria–Malaysia relations
  • Austria has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur.[44]
  • Malaysia has an embassy in Vienna.[45]
  • Malaysia is one of Austria's most important trading partners in Southeast Asia.[46]
 Malta
 Mexico 1842 See Austria–Mexico relations

During the French intervention in Mexico between 1864 and 1867, with French backing Maximilian I of Mexico, member of Austria's Imperial Habsburg-Lorraine family was proclaimed Emperor of Mexico.

As of 2005, Mexico was Austria's second most important trade partner in Latin America.[49] The same year, the President of Austria Heinz Fischer visited Mexico and Brazil, the first ever state visit of an Austrian President to countries in Latin America.[49][50][51]

  • Austria has an embassy in Mexico City.[52]
  • Mexico has an embassy in Vienna.[53]
 Moldova 1992-03-25 See Austria–Moldova relations
  • Austria is represented in Moldova through its embassy in Bucharest (Romania) and through an honorary consulate in Chişinău.
  • Moldova has an embassy in Vienna and an honorary consulate in Innsbruck.[54]
  • Austria announced to later open a resident embassy in Chişinău.
 Montenegro 2006-07-12
 Netherlands
 Pakistan 1956 See Austria–Pakistan relations

Relations between the two countries are generally friendly. The diplomatic ties between Pakistan and Austria were established in 1956 when Pakistan formally recognized Austria.[57]

 People's Republic of China 1971-05-28 See Austria – People's Republic of China relations
 Poland 1921
 Romania 1878-09-22
 Russia See Austria–Russia relations
 Saudi Arabia 1957-09-10 See Austria – Saudi Arabia relations
  • Both countries had diplomatic contact since July 7, 1880, with the opening of an Austrian consulate in Jeddah (then under Ottoman occupation).
  • Austria has an embassy in Riyadh
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Vienna.
 Serbia 1874 See Austria–Serbia relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1874.

 Slovakia See Austria–Slovakia relations
 South Korea 1963-05-22
 Turkey See Austrian–Turkish relations
 Ukraine 1992 See Austria–Ukraine relations
 United Kingdom 1799 See Austria – United Kingdom relations
 United States 1921 See Austria – United States relations

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Watson, Paul; Dahlburg, John-Thor (2000-02-05). "Austria’s Far Right Is Sworn Into Office". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2008-11-24. 
  2. ^ Daley, Suzanne (2000-09-13). "Europe Lifts Sanctions on Austria, but Vows Vigilance". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-11-24. 
  3. ^ "U.S., Austria Normalize Ties as Reaction to Rightists Eases". Los Angeles Times. 2000-11-09. Retrieved 2008-11-24. 
  4. ^ Australian embassy in Vienna
  5. ^ Austrian embassy in Canberra
  6. ^ "Bilateral Relations between Austria and Australia". Austrian Embassy Canberra. Retrieved 19 November 2008. 
  7. ^ "Austria-born". Department of Immigration and Citizenship (Australia). Retrieved 19 November 2008. 
  8. ^ Belarussian embassy in Vienna)
  9. ^ Belarussian embassy in Vienna (in Belarussian and German only)
  10. ^ Austrian embassy in Brussels (in Dutch, French and German)
  11. ^ Belgian embassy in Vienna
  12. ^ Bulgarian embassy in Vienna
  13. ^ "Bulgariens Präsident von pünktlichem EU-Beitritt 2007 überzeugt" (in German). Federal President of the Republic of Austria. Retrieved 19 November 2008. 
  14. ^ Austrian embassy in Ottawa
  15. ^ Canadian embassy in Vienna
  16. ^ Austrian embassy in Santiago de Chile (in German and Spanish only)
  17. ^ "Bilaterale Beziehungen" (in German). Austrian Embassy in Bogota. Retrieved 2009-04-01. 
  18. ^ Austrian embassy in Bogota (in German and Spanish only)
  19. ^ Colombian embassy in Vienna
  20. ^ Croatian embassy in Vienna (in Croatian and German only)
  21. ^ Danish embassy in Vienna (in Danish and German only)
  22. ^ Austrian embassy in Cairo (in German only)
  23. ^ Egyptian embassy in Vienna
  24. ^ Egypt State Information Service Joint press conference between President Mubarak and Austrian President March 14, 2006
  25. ^ Estonian embassy in Vienna
  26. ^ Finnish embassy in Vienna (in Finnish, German and Swedish only)
  27. ^ Austrian embassy in Paris (French and German only)
  28. ^ French embassy in Vienna (in French and German only)
  29. ^ "Embassy of Georgia to Austria". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 2009-06-11. Diplomatic relations between Georgia and Republic of Austria were established in 1992. Georgia opened its Embassy in Vienna in 1996. The relations between the two countries are close and friendly. Georgia appreciates Support of Austrian Government in different fields of bilateral relations. In addition the commercial and cultural ties are also very important, but do not reflect its full potential and has a big prospective to develop. 
  30. ^ Austrian embassy in Budapest (in German and Hungarian only)
  31. ^ Hungarian embassy in Vienna (in German and Hungarian only)
  32. ^ Icelandic embassy in Vienna
  33. ^ "Seanad Éireann - Volume 116 - 09 July 1987". Office of the Houses of the Oireachtas. pp. [2166]. Retrieved 2008-11-22. 
  34. ^ "McAleese State visit to Austria". Radio Telefís Éireann. 2006-07-19. Retrieved 2008-11-21. 
  35. ^ Austrian embassy in Tel Aviv
  36. ^ Israeli embassy in Vienna (in German only)
  37. ^ Austrian embassy in Rome (in German and Italian only
  38. ^ Italian embassy in Vienna (in German and Italian only
  39. ^ Austrian embassy in Tokyo
  40. ^ Japanese embassy in Vienna
  41. ^ "Plassnik: "Letter on Kosovo’s recognition signed"" (Press release). Austrian Foreign Ministry. 2008-02-28. Retrieved 2008-02-29. 
  42. ^ KosovaLive
  43. ^ Lithuanian embassy in Vienna (in German and Lithuanian only)
  44. ^ "Austrian Embassy Kuala Lumpur". The Austrian Foreign Ministry. Retrieved 24 May 2014. 
  45. ^ "Official Website of Embassy of Malaysia, Vienna". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Malaysia. Retrieved 24 May 2014. 
  46. ^ Reinhart Zimmermann (2008). "Österreichs Wirtschaftsbeziehungen in Südostasien (Austrian Economic Relations to South-East Asia)" (PDF) (in German). Society for South-East Asian Studies. p. 80. Retrieved 24 May 2014. 
  47. ^ Direction of the Austrian embassy in Valletta
  48. ^ Directions of the Maltese representation in Austria
  49. ^ a b "Lateinamerika und die Karibik" (in German). Austrian Foreign Ministry. Retrieved 2008-11-17. 
  50. ^ "Mexico wants artifact back". International Herald Tribune. 2005-06-02. Retrieved 2008-11-17. 
  51. ^ "Viertägiger Staatsbesuch in Mexiko" (in German). Federal President of the Republic of Austria. Retrieved 17 November 2008. 
  52. ^ Embassy of Austria in Mexico City (in German and Spanish)
  53. ^ Embassy of Mexico in Vienna (in Spanish)
  54. ^ "Relations with Austria". Moldovan Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration. Retrieved 2009-05-07. 
  55. ^ Austrian embassy in The Hague (in Dutch and German only)
  56. ^ Dutch embassy in Vienna (in Dutch and German only)
  57. ^ http://archive.is/20121206162643/http://www.mofa.gov.pk/austria/contents.aspx?type=statements&id=5
  58. ^ http://pakistan.visahq.com/embassy/Austria/
  59. ^ http://www.embassiesabroad.com/embassies-in/Austria
  60. ^ http://www.embassiesabroad.com/embassies-in/Pakistan
  61. ^ Austrian embassy in Beijing (in German and Chinese only)
  62. ^ Austrian general consulate in Shanghai (in German and Chinese only)
  63. ^ Austrian general consulate in Hong Kong
  64. ^ Chinese embassy in Vienna (in German and Chinese only)
  65. ^ Austrian embassy in Warsaw (in German and Polish only)
  66. ^ Polish embassy in Vienna (in German and Polish only)
  67. ^ Romanian embassy in Vienna (in German and Romanian only)
  68. ^ Austrian embassy in Seoul (in German and Korean only)
  69. ^ South Korean embassy in Vienna
  70. ^ "Bundespräsident Heinz Fischer zu Staatsbesuch in Südkorea eingetroffen" (in German). Federal President of the Republic of Austria. Retrieved 18 November 2008. 
  71. ^ Austrian embassy in Kiev (in German and Ukrainian only)
  72. ^ Ukrainian embassy in Vienna
  73. ^ Austrian embassy in London
  74. ^ British embassy in Vienna

External links[edit]