The content of science, as well as the meaning of the very idea of science, has continually evolved since the rise of modern science and before. The history of science is concerned with the paths that led to our present knowledge as well as those that were abandoned (and thus overlaps with the history of ideas, history of philosophy and intellectual history), and seeks to explain past beliefs—even those now considered erroneous—in their social, cultural and intellectual contexts. It also forms the foundation of the philosophy of science and the sociology of science, as well as the interdisciplinary field of science, technology, and society, and is closely related to the history of technology.
Bold text--Asma khan123Italic text-History is one of the oldest subjects of study. By history we understand the breadth, comprehensiveness, variety and extent of learning experiences, provided by the study of a particular subject. The growth of history has accompanied with the growth of human race. Thus history and man are inter-related or that history is a story of human race from beginning up to the present day.
History at present is no more confined to the study of political activities of man but it also includes a study of his achievements in the physical, social, economic, religious, philosophical, literary, artistic, cultural, industrial, technological and scientific fields, starting from ancient times up to the modern age. In this way its scope is very wide and varied in fact as wide as the world and as long as the existence of man on earths.
History links the present of mankind with his past. We cannot say that future is outside the scope of history. Experiences of history will form the history of tomorrow and in this way history is connected with future as well.
The most interesting fact about the extent and comprehensiveness of history is that today we hear of “History of Art,” “History of Culture,” History of Civilization,” “History of Religion,” “History of Music,” “History of Geography,”"History of Physics,” “History of Philosophy,” “History of Education,” “History of Biology,” “History of the Atom,” “History of Literature,” “History of Mathematics,” and History of what not.
A learned speaker on a political, religious, literary or any other platform connected with any field of human activity, will place before his audience pure and simple history, connected with the life and achievements of some past of great human beings and nothing else. This makes the scope of history almost limitless, which knows no ends and also speaks of the importance of history as a teaching subject in schools and colleges.
Thus, history has expanded both vertically and horizontally. Its close connection with the allied fields of human sciences, has given new effects to historical studies.
In the words of Lord Action, “If the past has been an obstacle and a burden, a knowledge of past is the safest and surest emancipation”.
In the words of E. Lewis Hasluck, “knowledge of history illumines the whole of human life. It adds to our knowledge of the existing state of world, a knowledge in which the human society and institution has grown up, a knowledge for future.”
From the above discussion at becomes clear that the subject of history has no frontiers and that it is limitless and fathomless ocean, with no ends in view. However for instructional purposes in schools and colleges, we have to limit its scope and frontiers.
For deriving fullest benefit of historical studies, we should place before our students the broad out-lines of development down the ages on one hand and the detailed study of a short period of history, on the other.
The former will provide the whole sweep of the story of the past while die latter will give die varied aspects of the life of a people for a chosen period. In this way bodies the vertical and horizontal aspects of story will be studied together and provide full benefit to the education of our rising generation.
Periodization in the historiography of science is usually oriented around the Scientific Revolution that culminated in the work of Isaac Newton. In this scheme, science (or more precisely, natural philosophy) before Copernicus was pre-modern science. European and Islamic science from antiquity to the 16th century was primarily derived from the work of Aristotle and other Greek philosophers (though historians now recognize the significant influence of Chinese knowledge as well); it included alchemy, astrology, and other subjects no longer considered as scientific, as well as the precursors of the modern sciences. Science (still in the form of natural philosophy) from roughly the late 16th century until the early- to mid-19th century was early-modern science; the birth of the experimental method in the 17th and 18th centuries is often considered a central event in the history of science. The 19th century saw the professionalization and secularization of science and the creation of independent scientific disciplines; modern science can denote science since this period (in distinction to early-modern), all science since Newton (in distinction to pre-modern), or simply science as practiced now.