Roads in Ukraine

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The network of expressways (M-highways) of Ukraine is in blue, in green are identified automagistrals (motorways)

Roads in Ukraine (Ukrainian: Авто(мобі́льні) шляхи України, Автошляхи) is a network of roads for public use, for official use, for private use, and streets with city roads. There are three types of roads national, local, and streets. Each type has additional classifications. High-speed highways such as motorways or freeways are rare and only available on selected segments of major routes.

Overview[edit]

Section of the E95M05 highway near Kiev.

The whole network of all automobile roads (highways) consists of some 172,400 km (107,100 mi) out which 164,100 km (102,000 mi) - have hard surface or 95.19%. The existing road network was mostly built in 1960's - 1970's. For comparison in 1940 the highway network of Ukraine consisted of 270,700 kilometers which only 10.8% contained a paved surface.

After the fall of the Soviet Union at the end of 1991 all road service state organizations within Ukraine were reorganized. The highway numbering system was changed as well by the late 1990s. Today more and more cities install their own beltways or ringways to improve their traffic conditions.

Ukravtodor is the state governing body of automobile roads in Ukraine. It is supplemented by a project institute Ukrhiprodor which designs objects of road management. Ukravtodor[1] is supervised by the Ministry of Transportation and Communications.[2] On February 28, 2002 by the Presidential order there was created a state owned open stock company Avtomobilni dorohy Ukrainy (ADU).[3] The company is directly involved in road construction and maintenance. It consists of 32 daughter-companies in each oblast, Crimea, and the cities of national importance. The annual budget of ADU is around 4 billion hryvnias (end of the 2000s).

Roads of national importance[edit]

Classifications[edit]

5.3 Russian road sign.svg

Ukraine has its own network of highway that were inherited from the Ukrainian SSR and were part of the Soviet network of highways. The network consists 99% of roads for public use with 12% assigned as of state importance and 87% - local importance.

The state importance roads have three indexes M, H, P, each stand for the respected letter of Cyrillic. The state importance roads are utilized by the European E-network of highways.

The M-network of roads which stands for International network along with H-network (National) range from 01 to 23 and consist of two digits. These highways are designed for the major transportation corridors across the country and the European highway system.

The P-network (Regional) of roads ranges from 01 to 65 and also is a combination of two digits.

Automagistrals[edit]

5.1 Russian road sign.svg

In Ukraine high-speed divided highways or motorways are called automagistrals which is a generic Russian-type term for high-speed road. Currently automagistrals are not designated into a separate network and are part of national level of expressway network. In the late 2000s there were installed first improved highspeed freeways such as Automagistral Kiev - Boryspil (Ukrainian: Автомагістраль Київ - Бориспіль) which connected the capital with its major airport and another one - Kharkiv - Dnipropetrovsk. Kiev-Boryspil stretches for 18 km (11 mi) and has an ability to allow the traffic volume of 40,000 vehicles on daily basis (24 hrs). It is part of the M03 highway. Important supplemental feature of the automagistral is an electronic informational system that allows to inform the traveling drivers of any updates on the route. That experimental project was installed in 2007 and cost 40 million hryvnia. Kharkiv-Dnipropetrovsk is part of M18 highway.

Road characteristics categories[edit]

Aside of classification the roads in Ukraine are categorized by the road's ability to handle a certain degree of traffic. There are five categories with roads of I category split in a and b subcategories. Also all roads of I category are considered automagistrals, however not all of them could be considered as real motorways. Around 2010 there were two major automagistrals: Kiev - Boryspil and Kharkiv - Dnipropetrovsk. They are categorized as the top roads of category Ia.

Categories IA IB II III IV V
Average traffic intensity (daily) >7,000 >7,000 >3,000-7,000 >1,000-3,000 >200-1,000 <200
Maximum traffic intensity (daily) >14,000 >14,000 >6,000-14,000 >2,000-6,000 >400-2,000 <400
Estimated traffic speed, km/h 150 120 120 100 80 60
Number of lanes (in both directions) 4-6 4-6 2 2 2 1(total)
Width of lanes, m 3,75 3,75 3,75 3,75 3,5 4,5
Width of median, m 6 5 - - - -
Width of an edge reinforced lane on median, m 1 1 - - - -
Width of an edge reinforced lane on roadside, m 0,75 0,75 0,75 0,5 - -
Total road width, m 28,5 27,5 15 12 10 6
Radius of a curvature on a turn, m 1,200 800 800 600 300 150
Maximum lengthwise gradient, per mil 30 40 40 50 60 70

List of International E-road network in Ukraine[edit]

The European routes are part of the International E-road network, routes of which run not only throughout the European continent covering such remote areas as the British Isles, but also parts of the Asian continent regions such as Middle Asia, Caucasus mountains, and Asia Minor. The European routes in Ukraine mostly travel on the Ukrainian International routes network, known as M-network.

International E-road network in Ukraine

In the list below with a green background are identified the main routes. Those are either ones that end with zero (0) or five (5). Note that odd numbers have north-south directions and even numbers - east-west. With the red background are the obsolete routes.

Highway Route Length in Ukraine Notes
E38 Hlukhiv - P65/P-199 (Russia) 37 km The shortest
E40 4 (Poland)/M10 - Lviv - M06 - Kiev - M03 - Debaltseve - M04/M21 The longest
E50 50 (Slovakia)/M08 - Uzhhorod - M06StryiM12Znamianka - M04 - Debaltseve - M03/M19
E58 50 (Slovakia)/M08 - Uzhhorod - M06Mukacheve - P54 - Berehove - M23 - Vydok - P55/DN1C ... M14 (Moldova)/M16 - M14/M23
E81 Mukacheve - P54 - Berehove - M23 - Vydok - P55/DN1C 41 km
E85 М12/M19 - M19/DN2
E87 Odessa - M15/(Moldova)
E93 Changed to E95
E95 М8/M01 - M05...D.010 692 km ferry service in Odessa
E97 Kherson - M17...M25 423.6 km Kerch Strait ferry
E101 Kiev - M01 - Kipti - M02/M3
E105 Yalta - M18 - KharkivM20/M2 777 km
Auxiliary routes
E372 S17/M09 - Lviv 62.5 km
E373 S12/M07 - Kiev 486.5 km
E381 Kiev - Hlukhiv - Oryol
E391 Hlukhiv - Trosna
E471 Mukacheve - M06 - Lviv 221 km
E573 4 (Hungary)/M06 - Uzhhorod 26 km
E577 M21 (Moldova)E584/M13 - M12 - Znamianka - M04 - Oleksandriya - M22 - Poltava 507 km
E581 M14 (Moldova)/M16 - Odessa 58.7 km
E583 Zhytomyr - M21 - Mohyliv-Podilskyi 260 km

Notes:

  • There are also some "hidden" routes such as E-577 which coincides with E-584.
  • Route E471 is completely located within Ukraine.

Transportation corridors[edit]

The European route network creates several important transport corridors known as Pan-European corridors and also including such as Gdansk-Odessa, Eurasian, Europe-Asia, ChES, and others. There exist a proposition to create a beltway around the Black Sea, traveling through the Crimean peninsula.

Among the Pan-European corridors system, Ukraine houses such corridors as III (Brussels - Dresden - Krakow - Kiev), V (Venice - Budapest - Lviv - Kiev), VII (The Danube river), and IX (Helsinki - Saint-Petersburg - Gomel - Kiev - Chisinau - Bucharest - Thrace).

Border checkpoints[edit]

Country Highway Nearest settlement Region
Russia Russia E101 Bachivsk, Hlukhiv Raion Sumy
E58 Novoazovsk
E50 Dolzhansky
E105 Shcherbakivka
E40 Izvaryne, Krasnodon Luhansk
Poland Poland Shehyni, Mostyska Raion Lviv
Krakovets, Yavoriv Raion
E372 Rava-Ruska, Zhovkva Raion
Ustyluh, Volodymyr-Volynskyi Raion Volyn
E373 Yahodyn
Hungary Hungary E573 Kosyny, Chop Zakarpattia
Slovakia Slovakia E50 Uzhhorod
Maly Berezny, Velykyy Bereznyi Raion
Moldova Moldova Kuchurhan, Rozdilnianskyi Raion
Mamalyha, Novoselytsia Raion Chernivtsi
E584 Platonove, Krasni Okny Raion
E583 Mohyliv-Podilsky Vinnytsia
Romania Romania E81 Velyka Kopanya
E87 Reni Odessa
E85 Terebleche
Belarus Belarus Domanove
E95 Novi Yarylovychi, Ripky Raion Chernihiv

Important projects[edit]

Avtomagistral Kosyny - Kiev 672 kilometres (418 mi).[4][5]

The project was confirmed in 2007 by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine as part of the 2007-2011 program of roads development in Ukraine. The route will start on the border with Hungary at village Kosyny (Zakarpattya Oblast) and will connect to E95 60 kilometres (37 mi) south of Kiev (between Vasylkiv and Bila Tserkva). It is foretasted to be IA category road with the minimum of 27.5 metres (90 ft) total road width and four lanes (two in each direction). The route includes its major section Vinnytsia - Kiev[6] which will be the first stage project. It was one of the primary construction projects for the 2007-11. The Vinnytsia - Kiev avtomagistral will be 145 kilometres (90 mi) long with the estimated cost of the project is around $1 billion. It also will include 114 artificial constructions such as bridges. The road is planned to be a toll road with an alternative non-toll road running along. The whole Kosyny - Kiev project is estimated at around $5 billion and will include nine tunnels with a total length of 20 kilometres (12 mi) plus 389 other artificial constructions such as bridges, including 29 road interchanges.

Avtomagistal Dnipropetrovsk - Luhansk 490 kilometres (300 mi).[7]

The project is estimated at around $5 billion and will include 875 artificial constructions such as bridges and road interchanges (30). It is planned to start the route from E105 near Novomoskovsk with the terminal end at the existing Russian border checkpoint Izvaryne.

Avtomagistal Odessa - Dnipropetrovsk 559 kilometres (347 mi).[8]
Avtomagistal Yahodyn - Khmelnytsky 350 kilometres (220 mi).[9]
Avtomagistal Vinnytsia - Dnipropetrovsk 530 kilometres (330 mi).[10]
Avtomagistal Odessa - Reni 261 kilometres (162 mi).[11]
New Kiev Beltway 206 kilometres (128 mi).[12]
Local road T-1410 near Lviv

Roads of local importance[edit]

The local importance roads have three classes as well, but only two indexes T, O. The Raion network of roads does not have a system implemented. The indexes for the local roads are also supplemented by an oblast index where they are located.

Indexes of territorial roads of local importance and total length of all highways per oblast
Index Oblast/City Road length, km Index Oblast/City Road length, km Index Oblast/City Road length, km
01 Crimea 6,605 10 Kiev Oblast 8,490 20 Ternopil Oblast 5,063
02 Vinnytsia Oblast 9,519 12 Kirovohrad Oblast 6,545 21 Kharkiv Oblast 9,551
03 Volyn Oblast 6,199 13 Luhansk Oblast 5,810 22 Kherson Oblast 4,950
04 Dnipropetrovsk Oblast 9,182 14 Lviv Oblast 8,334 23 Khmelnytsky Oblast 7,136
05 Donetsk Oblast 8,052 15 Mykolaiv Oblast 4,831 24 Cherkasy Oblast 6,118
06 Zhytomyr Oblast 8,513 16 Odessa Oblast 8,232 25 Chernihiv Oblast 7,680
07 Zakarpattia Oblast 3,330 17 Poltava Oblast 8,836 26 Chernivtsi Oblast 2,869
08 Zaporizhia Oblast 6,974 18 Rivne Oblast 5,056 27 Sevastopol city
09 Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast 4,160 19 Sumy Oblast 7,281

Note that the list is arranged in the order of Cyrillic. For example, the territorial highway 22 in Rivne Oblast would be identified as T-18-22 where 18 is the index for the Rivne Oblast. The T-network (Territorial) as the rest of the roads networks of local importance differs per oblast, but the road numbering itself consists of two digits. The Oblast network (O-network), on the other hand, has the same concept of T-network, but the road numbering contains four digits and the code does not have the hyphen as in T-networks. For example, a highway in Kharkiv Oblast would have code O-21xxxx.

Special routes in Ukraine[edit]

Behavior of some special routes in the United States

There are two main technical terms for special routes: pidyizd (ukr. під'їзд) and obyizd (ukr. об'їзд).

  • Pidyizd route is usually an access route that splits from the main route towards an important geographic point such as city, airport, park etc. On the picture to the right it can be compared to the spur route.
  • Obyizd route is a type of ring road which is not necessarily complete. On the picture to the right it can be compared to the bypass route, business route, truck route.

Historical routes[edit]

Streets[edit]

Types of streets

  • vulytsia, a most common and generic type of a street within a settlement
  • shose, a broad road built for high-speed traffic for big distances with limited number of points through which drivers can access it;[13] generally accessible road, especially main road that connects cities or settlements[14]
  • prospekt, a rare term for a broad, long, and straight street in big cities, such as a parkway
  • bulvar, a scenic broad street, such as boulevard
  • naberezhna, a street along shore or bank of sea, river, or lake
  • ob'yizdna, a street around city
  • provulok, a back street, small street such as side street

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ukravtodor Regulations (Ukrainian)
  2. ^ Ministry of Transportation and Communications (Ukrainian)
  3. ^ ADU official website (Ukrainian)
  4. ^ Avtomagistral Kosyni - Kiev (Russian)
  5. ^ List of road projects
  6. ^ Avtomagistral Vinnytsia - Kiev
  7. ^ Avtomagistral Dnipropetrovsk - Luhansk (Russian)
  8. ^ Avtomagistral Odessa - Dnipropetrovsk (Russian)
  9. ^ Avtomagistral Yahodyn - Khmelnytsky (Russian)
  10. ^ Avtomagistral Vinnytsia - Dnipropetrovsk (Russian)
  11. ^ Autobahn Odessa - Reni (Russian)
  12. ^ New Kiev Beltway
  13. ^ Definition of shose
  14. ^ Another definition of shose

Sources[edit]