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|Archeological Site and Historical City|
|Elevation||262 m (860 ft)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Vehicle registration||PB 12|
Rupnagar (Punjabi:ਰੂਪਨਗਰ), also spelled Ropar or Rupar, is a city and a municipal council in Rupnagar district in the Indian state of Punjab. Ropar is a newly created fifth "Divisional Headquarters" of Punjab comprising Ropar, Mohali, and its adjoining districts. The ancient town of Rupnagar is said to have been named by a Raja called Rokeshar, who ruled during the 11th century and named it after his son Rup Sen. It is also one of the bigger sites belonging to the Indus Valley Civilization.
Ropar—witness to Indus Valley Civilization
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Ropar is one of the major Indus Valley civilization sites. It is situated on a high ancient mound overlaying the Shiwalik (also spelt Sivalik) deposition on the left bank of the river Satluj where it emerges into the plains. It has yielded a sequence of six cultural periods or phases with some breaks from Harappan times to the present day. The excavations were carried out by Dr. Y.D. Sharma of the Archaeological Survey of India.
At Ropar excavations at the lowest levels yielded Harappan traits belonging to Period 1. Findings include a steatite seal with Indus script probably used for trading goods, impressions of seals on a terracotta lump of burnt clay, chert blades, copper implements, terracotta beads and bangles and typical standardised pottery of the Indus Valley civilization.
The earliest houses at Ropar were built with river pebbles available in abundance but soon they made use of cut slabs of lime with the same ratio of 4:2:1. Sun baked bricks were sometimes used in the foundations. Houses were built to suit climatic conditions. Walls were plastered with water repelling sticky clay. In the north, flat roofs were common but deep-pitched roofs were used along the west coast—Bengal and Assam—due to heavy rainfall.
Period II belongs to the Painted Grey Ware period which followed the Period I. Typical pottery of this period consisted of fine greyware painted black, terracotta bangles, semi precious stones, glass, bone arrowheads, ivory kohl sticks and copper implements.
A new settlement sprang up here by about 600 BC—chronologically Period III at Ropar. Grey pottery of Period II still continued. This period belongs to circa 600 BC to 200 BC. It yielded early coins (punch marked and uninscribed cast coins), copper and implements. An important find was an ivory seal inscribed in the Mauryan Brahmi script (4th and 3rd centuries BCE)
A 3.6 metre wide fired brick wall traced to a length of about 75 metres probably encompassed a water tank which collected water through inlets. The upper levels have soak wells lined with terracotta rings of the Sunga and Kushana periods.
Period III To V
From Period III to V there are fairly rich dwelling complexes with houses of stone and mud bricks. Full layouts of buildings could not be exposed owing to the vertical nature of excavations carried out.
The next phase, Period IV revealed evidence of the Sunga, Kushan (also spelt as Kushana) and Gupta periods. With a hoard of copper coins from the Kushan and Gupta periods being found. This includes a gold coin issued by Chandragupta Kumardevi of the Gupta dynasty, which is also known as the golden age in ancient Indian history.
A large number of terracotta figurines of the Sunga, Kushana and Gupta periods were also discovered. Among them was a Yakshi figure with cherubic expression and a beautiful seated figure of a woman playing the lyre reminiscent of Samudragupta’s figure in a similar position on gold coins from the Gupta dynasty. A set of three silver utensils for ritualistic purpose with Greek influence depicts the fine craftsmanship of the Gupta dynasty in its chased decoration.
The pottery of this period in the upper levels is for the most part red ware and is frequently decorated with incised motifs. After a short break, there is evidence of a fresh occupation identified as Period V commencing around the early 6th century and continuing for three or four centuries. The coins of Toramana (circa 500 CE) and Mihirakula (circa 510CE-40CE) have been recovered from these levels. The spacious brick building of the fifth period were constricted neatly and evidences showed a good measure of prosperity during this period.
Probably after desertion, a new town sprang up here around 13th century CE on the same site named Period VI and it continues to flourish to the present day.
An archaeological museum has been set up to house some of the antiquities found along with photographs displaying excavation material.
Rupnagar is located at  It has an average elevation of 260 metres (853 ft). Town lies on bank of Satluj river and Shivalik hill range spreads along the opposite bank of the river..
Towns and villages
Rupnagar district, included in the Rupnagar Division of Punjab falls between north latitude 30°-32' and 31°-24' and east longitude 76°-18' and 76°-55'. Rupnagar (formerly known as Ropar) town, the district headquarters is 42 km from Chandigarh, the state capital. The district adjoins Nawanshahar, Mohali and Fatehgarh Sahib Districts of Punjab. The district comprises four Tehsils, Rupnagar Nangal Anandpur Sahib and Chamkaur Sahib and includes 617 villages and 6 towns: Rupnagar, Chamkaur Sahib, Anandpur Sahib, Morinda, Kiratpur Sahib and Nangal. All the towns except Chamkaur Sahib have railway connections. The Satluj river passes close to the towns of Nangal, Rupnagar and Anandpur Sahib.
Rupnagar is nearly 50 km to the northwest of Chandigarh (the nearest airport). It is bordered by Himachal Pradesh to the north and Shahid Bhagat Singh Nagar district (formerly known as Nawanshahr district) to its west. The major cities in Ropar District are Morinda, Kurali, Anandpur Sahib and Chamkaur Sahib. The town of Mohali was once part of Ropar District before it became a separate district in 2006. The Bhakra Dam in Nangal lies on the boundary with the neighbouring state of Himachal Pradesh. Dadhi is one the most important villages of the district, particularly because of Gurudwara Sri Hargobindsar Sahib.
There are many historical places in Ropar and religious places including gurdwaras such as : Bhhatha Sahib, Tibbi Sahib and Sadabarat Sahib.
The climate of Rupnagar District is characterized by general dryness (except in the south west monsoon season), a hot summer and a cold winter. The year may be divided into four seasons. The period from about middle of November to February is the cold season. This is followed by the summer season from March to about the end of June. The south-west monsoon season commences late in June and continues up to about middle of September. The period from mid September to the middle of November constitute the post-monsoon or transition season. The temperature ranges from minimum of 4 °C in winter to 45 °C in summer. May and June are generally hottest months and December and January are the coldest months. Relative humidity is high, averaging about 70% during monsoon. The average annual rainfall in district is 775.6 mm. About 78% of the annual rainfall is received during June - September. Evening in Ropar is a special one as it have very cool ,breezy and cloudy kind of scenario which makes the natives rush towards the ropar lake to enjoy the landsscape and its natural beauty .
The soil of the District vary in texture generally from loam to silty clay loam except along the Satluj River and chos where some sandy patches may be found. Chamkaur Sahib and Kharar, Mohali blocks have sodic soils. The soil of Anandpur Sahib and Rupnagar blocks are undulating.
As per 2001 India census, Rupnagar had a population of 48,165. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Rupnagar has an average literacy rate of 75%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 78%, and female literacy is 82%. In Rupnagar, 11% of the population is under 6 years of age.
- The commissioner (India):Commissioner,an officer belonging to the Indian Administrative Service, is the over all in charge of the newly created Divisional Headquarters Ropar, comprising Ropar, Mohali. and Nawashahr districts .
- The Deputy Commissioner, an officer belonging to the Indian Administrative Service, is the overall in-charge of the General Administration in the district.
- The Senior Superintendent of Police, an officer belonging to the Indian Police Service is entrusted with the responsibility of maintaining law and order and related issues of the district and he is assisted by the officers of the Punjab Police Service.
- The Divisional Forest Officer, an officer belonging to the Indian Forest Service is responsible for managing the Forests, environment and wild-life related issues of the district and he is assisted by the officers of the Punjab Forest Service and Punjab Wild-Life Division.
- Sectoral development is looked after by the district head of each development department such as PWD, Agriculture, Health, Education and Animal husbandry.
Rupnagar city houses one of the prestigious technological institutes of the country, the IIT Ropar. The area surrounding the institute has developed well due to the establishment of the Institute during 2009.There are large no of govt ,public and private schools in the city .
- Rayat International School.
- Shiwalik Public School.
- Netaji Model School.
- Holy Family Convent School.
- Sahibzada Ajit Singh Academy.
- Sant Karam Singh Academy.
- New Model High School.
- Model Middle School.
- Gurukul Public High School.
- DAV Public School.
- Khalsa Senior Secondary School.
- Government Girls' School.
- Government Boys' School.
- GMN Senior Secondary School.
- RTP Model School.
- Saint Carmel Public School.
- DaffoDil.....Z Playway School
- Sri Dasmesh Academy, Anandpur Sahib.
Colleges and institutions:
- Government College, Ropar (1951).
- Indian Institute of Technology (IIT, Ropar).
- Rayat Bahra Group of Institutes.
- Bela College of Pharmacy.
- Ropar Institute of Management And Technology .
- IET Bhaddal Technical Campus.
- Rayat Polytechnic.
- ITI Ropar.
- Bk Institute of Nursing.
- Government Nursing College .
- DIET Ropar.
Cities and towns
- Anandpur Sahib
- Chamkaur Sahib
- Kiratpur Sahib
- Jane, Mcintosh. The Ancient Indus Valley : New Perspectives. Page 207. ABC-ClIO.Santabarbara,California.(2008)
- Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Rupnagar
- "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Rupnagar.|
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Rupar". Encyclopædia Britannica 23 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 855.
- Govt. Website on Rupnagar
- Rupnagar BSNL telephone directory search
- Archaeological Museum in Rupnagar (Archaeological Survey of India)
- Location of Ropar in IVC map