Tin(II) oxide

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Tin(II) oxide
PbO structure.png
Tin(II) oxide.jpg
Tin(II) oxide hydrate (2).JPG
Identifiers
CAS number 21651-19-4 YesY
PubChem 88989
EC number 244-499-5
RTECS number XQ3700000
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Properties
Molecular formula SnO
Molar mass 134.709 g/mol
Appearance black or red powder when anhydrous, white when hydrated
Density 6.45 g/cm3
Melting point 1080 °C[1]
Solubility in water insoluble
Structure
Crystal structure tetragonal
Thermochemistry
Std molar
entropy
So298
56 J·mol−1·K−1[2]
Std enthalpy of
formation
ΔfHo298
−285 kJ·mol−1[2]
Hazards
MSDS ICSC 0956
EU Index Not listed
Flash point Non-flammable
Related compounds
Other anions Tin sulfide
Tin selenide
Tin telluride
Other cations Carbon monoxide
Silicon monoxide
Germanium(II) oxide
Lead(II) oxide
Related tin oxides Tin dioxide
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
 YesY (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Infobox references

Tin(II) oxide (stannous oxide) is a compound with the formula SnO. It is composed of tin and oxygen where tin has the oxidation state of +2. There are two forms, a stable blue-black form and a metastable red form.

Preparation and reactions[edit]

Tin(II) oxide burning

Blue-black SnO can be prepared by heating the tin(II) oxide hydrate, SnO.xH2O (x<1) precipitated when a tin(II) salt is reacted with an alkali hydroxide such as NaOH.[3] Metastable, red SnO can be prepared by gentle heating of the precipitate produced by the action of aqueous ammonia on a tin(II) salt.[3] SnO may be prepared as a pure substance in the laboratory, by controlled heating of tin(II) oxalate (stannous oxalate) in the absence of air.[4]

SnC2O4 → SnO + CO2 + CO

Tin(II) oxide burns in air with a dim green flame to form SnO2.[3]

2 SnO + O2 → 2 SnO2

When heated in an inert atmosphere initially disproportionation occurs giving Sn metal and Sn3O4 which further reacts to give SnO2 and Sn metal.[3]

4SnO → Sn3O4 + Sn
Sn3O4 → 2SnO2 + Sn

SnO is amphoteric, dissolving in strong acid to give tin(II) salts and in strong base to give stannites containing Sn(OH)3.[3] It also dissolves in strong acid solutions to give the ionic complexes Sn(OH2)32+ and Sn(OH)(OH2)2+, and in less acid solutions to give Sn3(OH)42+.[3] Note that anhydrous stannites, e.g. K2Sn2O3, K2SnO2 are also known.[5][6][7] SnO is a reducing agent and this appears to its role in the manufacture of so-called "copper ruby glass".[8]

Structure[edit]

Black, α-SnO adopts the tetragonal PbO layer structure containing four coordinate square pyramidal tin atoms.[9] This form is found in nature as the rare mineral romarchite.[10] The asymmetry is usually simply ascribed to a sterically active lone pair; however, electron density calculations show that the asymmetry is caused by an antibonding interaction of the Sn(5s) and the O(2p) orbitals.[11]
Non-stoichiometry has been observed in SnO.[12]

The electronic band gap has been measured between 2.5eV and 3eV.[13]

Uses[edit]

The dominant use of stannous oxide is as a precursor in manufacturing of other, typically trivalent, tin compounds or salts. Stannous oxide may also be employed as a reducing agent and in the creation of ruby glass- See "Red Glass Coloration - A Colorimetric and Structural Study" By Torun Bring. Pub. Vaxjo University.Red Glass Coloration - A Colorimetric and Structural Study. . It has a minor use as an esterification catalyst.

Cerium(III) oxide in ceramic form, together with Tin(II) oxide (SnO) is used for illumination with UV light.[14]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Tin and Inorganic Tin Compounds: Concise International Chemical Assessment Document 65, (2005), World Health Organization
  2. ^ a b Zumdahl, Steven S. (2009). Chemical Principles 6th Ed. Houghton Mifflin Company. p. A23. ISBN 0-618-94690-X. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f Egon Wiberg, Arnold Frederick Holleman (2001) Inorganic Chemistry, Elsevier ISBN 0-12-352651-5
  4. ^ Satya Prakash (2000),Advanced Inorganic Chemistry: V. 1, S. Chand, ISBN 81-219-0263-0
  5. ^ The First Oxostannate(II): K2Sn2O3, M Braun, R. Hoppe, Angewandte Chemie International Edition in English, 17, 6, 449 - 450, doi:10.1002/anie.197804491
  6. ^ Über Oxostannate(II). III. K2Sn2O3, Rb2Sn2O3 und Cs2Sn2O3 - ein Vergleich, R. M. Braun, R. Hoppe, Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie, 485, 1, 15 - 22, doi:10.1002/zaac.19824850103
  7. ^ R M Braun R Hoppe Z. Naturforsch. (1982), 37B, 688-694
  8. ^ Colour development in copper ruby alkali silicate glasses. Part I: The impact of tin oxide, time and temperature ,Bring, T., Jonson, B., Kloo, L. Rosdahl, J , Wallenberg, R., Glass Technology, Eur. J. Glass Science & Technology, Part A, 48 , 2 , 101-108 ( 2007)
  9. ^ Wells A.F. (1984) Structural Inorganic Chemistry 5th edition Oxford Science Publications ISBN 0-19-855370-6
  10. ^ On type romarchite and hydroromarchite from Boundary Falls, Ontario, and notes on other occurrences, Robert A. Ramik,, Robert M. Organ, Joseph A. Mandarino, The Canadian Mineralogist; June 2003; v. 41; no. 3;. 649-657; doi:10.2113/gscanmin.41.3.649
  11. ^ Electronic structures of rocksalt, litharge, and herzenbergite SnO by density functional theory, A. Walsh, G.W. Watson, Phys. Rev. B 70, 235114 (2004)doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.70.235114
  12. ^ Cation nonstoichiometry in tin-monoxide-phase Sn1-δO with tweed microstructure, Moreno, M. S.; Varela, A.; Otero-Díaz, L. C., Physical Review B (Condensed Matter),56, 9,(1997), 5186-5192, doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.56.5186
  13. ^ Science and Technology of Chemiresistor Gas Sensors By Dinesh K. Aswal, Shiv K. Gupta (2006), Nova Publishers, ISBN 1-60021-514-9
  14. ^ "Spectral Studies of New Luminophors for Dental Porcelain". Jdr.iadrjournals.org. doi:10.1177/00220345800590090801. Retrieved 2012-04-05.