Molybdenum trioxide

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Molybdenum trioxide
Molybdän(VI)-oxid Kristallstruktur.png
Molybdenum trioxide powder.jpg
Names
IUPAC name
Molybdenum trioxide
Other names
Molybdic anhydride
Molybdite
Molybdic trioxide
Identifiers
1313-27-5 YesY  N
PubChem 14802
Properties
MoO3
Molar mass 143.94 g·mol−1
Appearance yellow or light blue solid
Odor odorless
Density 4.69 g/cm3, solid
Melting point 795 °C (1,463 °F; 1,068 K)
Boiling point 1,155 °C (2,111 °F; 1,428 K) sublimes
0.1066 g/100 mL (18 °C)
0.490 g/100 mL (28 °C)
2.055 g/100 mL (70 °C)
Structure
Crystal structure orthorhombic
see text
Thermochemistry
77.78 J K−1 mol−1
−745.17 kJ/mol
Hazards
MSDS External MSDS
EU Index 042-001-00-9
EU classification Carc. Cat. 3
Harmful (Xn)
Irritant (Xi)
R-phrases R36/37, R40
S-phrases (S2), S22, S36/37
Flash point Non-flammable
125 mg.kg (rat, oral)
Related compounds
Other cations
Chromium trioxide
Tungsten trioxide
Molybdenum dioxide
"Molybdenum blue"
Related compounds
Molybdic acid
Sodium molybdate
Supplementary data page
Refractive index (n),
Dielectric constantr), etc.
Thermodynamic
data
Phase behaviour
solid–liquid–gas
UV, IR, NMR, MS
Except where noted otherwise, data is given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
 YesY verify (what isYesY/N?)
Infobox references

Molybdenum trioxide is chemical compound with the formula MoO3. This compound is produced on the largest scale of any molybdenum compound. It occurs as the rare mineral molybdite. Its chief application is as an oxidation catalyst and as a raw material for the production of molybdenum metal.

The oxidation state of molybdenum in this compound is +6.

Structure[edit]

A section of the chain comprising edge-sharing octahedra. Oxygen atoms above and below the chain link to other chains to build the layer.

In the gas phase, three oxygen atoms are double bonded to the central molybdenum atom. In the solid state, anhydrous MoO3 is composed of layers of distorted MoO6 octahedra in an orthorhombic crystal. The octahedra share edges and form chains which are cross-linked by oxygen atoms to form layers. The octahedra have one short molydenum-oxygen bond to a non-bridging oxygen.[1]

Preparation and principal reactions[edit]

MoO3 is produced industrially by roasting molybdenum disulfide, the chief ore of molybdenum:

2 MoS2 + 9 O2 → 2 MoO3 + 4 SO2

The laboratory synthesis entails the acidification of aqueous solutions of sodium molybdate with perchloric acid:[2]

Na2MoO4 + H2O + 2 HClO4 → MoO3(H2O)2 + 2 NaClO4

The dihydrate loses water readily to give the monohydrate. Both are bright yellow in color.

Molybdenum trioxide dissolves slightly in water to give "molybdic acid." In base, it dissolves to afford the molybdate anion.

Uses[edit]

Molybdenum trioxide is used to manufacture molybdenum metal, which serves as an additive to steel and corrosion-resistant alloys. The relevant conversion entails treatment of MoO3 with hydrogen at elevated temperatures:

MoO3 + 3 H2 → Mo + 3 H2O

It is also a component of the co-catalyst used in the industrial production of acrylonitrile by the oxidation of propene and ammonia.

Because of its layered structure and the ease of the Mo(VI)/Mo(V) coupling, MoO3 is of interest in electrochemical devices and displays.[3] Molybdenum trioxide has also been suggested as a potential anti-microbial agent, e.g., in polymers. In contact with water, it forms H+ ions that can kill bacteria effectively.[4] However, the issue of keeping the catalyst clean in an environment that would exploit such antimicrobial properties has not been explored.

Molybdite on molybdenite, Questa molybdenum mine, New Mexico (size: 11.0×6.7×4.1 cm)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Wells, A.F. (1984) Structural Inorganic Chemistry, Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-855370-6.
  2. ^ Heynes, J. B. B.; Cruywagen, J. J. (1986). Yellow Molybdenum(VI) Oxide Dihydrate Inorganic Syntheses 24. p. 191. doi:10.1002/9780470132555.ch56. ISBN 0-471-83441-6. 
  3. ^ Ferreira, F. F.; Souza Cruz, T. G.; Fantini, M. C. A.; Tabacniks, M. H.; de Castro, S. C.; Morais, J.; de Siervo, A.; Landers, R.; Gorenstein, A. (2000). "Lithium insertion and electrochromism in polycrystalline molybdenum oxide films". Solid State Ionics. 136–137: 357. doi:10.1016/S0167-2738(00)00483-5. 
  4. ^ Zollfrank, Cordt; Gutbrod, Kai; Wechsler, Peter; Guggenbichler, Josef Peter (2012). "Antimicrobial activity of transition metal acid MoO3 prevents microbial growth on material surfaces". Materials Science and Engineering: C 32: 47. doi:10.1016/j.msec.2011.09.010. 

External links[edit]