Supercarrier is an unofficial descriptive term for the largest type of aircraft carrier, typically those displacing over 70,000 tons (64,000 metric tons). Supercarriers are the largest warships ever built, larger than the largest battleship class laid down by any country. The United States Navy has ten supercarriers as of 2015[update].
A few countries operate medium-sized fleet carriers of around 40,000 tons, such as the French aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle. The size and configuration of Charles de Gaulle corresponds closely with the 45,000-ton Midway class the United States built at the end of World War II as a successor class to the much more numerous 27,000-ton Essex class, mainstay vessels of World War II after 1943 when they entered service. Outside the US, there are more light carriers closer to 30,000 tons, such as Italy's Cavour. In 2009 the United Kingdom cut the first steel for construction of two Queen Elizabeth-class aircraft carriers, with the first ship to be delivered in early 2017 and expected to become fully operational by 2020. Their displacement is expected to be 70,600 metric tons, making them the third largest supercarrier class in service, after the United States' Gerald R. Ford (first expected in 2016) and Nimitz classes.
The first ship to be described by The New York Times as a supercarrier was HMS Ark Royal in 1938, with a length of 685 feet (209 m) and a displacement of 22,000 tons, designed to carry 72 aircraft. In 1943 the superlative was transferred to the 45,000-ton Midway-class carriers as a step-up from the 27,000-ton Essex class. The Japanese aircraft carrier Shinano, launched in 1944, was the first aircraft carrier with a standard displacement of over 65,000 metric tons.
The post-war standard for supercarriers was set by the proposed USS United States and USS Forrestal. Forrestal displaced 60,000 tons standard and 78,000 tons in deep load and is considered the first operational supercarrier in the present-day sense, as used by the US press. The similar-sized United States would have been in service earlier, had it been completed; its cancellation triggered the "Revolt of the Admirals".
The Soviet Union's 85,000-ton nuclear carrier Ulyanovsk, closely comparable in size to earlier American supercarriers, was 40% complete when it and a follow-on vessel were canceled in 1991 during post-Cold War funding cuts.
As of 2014[update] the United Kingdom has two 70,000-ton Queen Elizabeth-class carriers being built, and France had until 2013 been considering building one vessel based on the same design. These ships are referred to as supercarriers by British legislators and the news media. The two Queen Elizabeth-class carriers will provide the Royal Navy with capabilities much closer to United States Navy carriers than its current Invincible-class vessels. Giving evidence to the House of Commons Defence Committee in 2004, the First Sea Lord Alan West, Baron West of Spithead explained that interoperability with the United States Navy was as much a deciding factor of the size of the carriers as the firepower of the carrier's airwing:
I have talked with the CNO (Chief of Naval Operations) in America. He is very keen for us to get these because he sees us slotting in with his carrier groups. He really wants us to have these, but he wants us to have the same sort of clout as one of their carriers.
Future plans for supercarriers in the United States involve the construction of the U.S. Navy's next generation of carriers, the Gerald R. Ford class, which will have a 100,000-ton displacement.
The United States maintains ten of these ships, with each typically operating 45 McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet aircraft for traditional fighter, attack and electronic countermeasure roles with twelve Sikorsky SH-60 Seahawk helicopters, four Northrop Grumman E-2 Hawkeye airborne early warning and control aircraft and two Grumman C-2 Greyhound carrier onboard delivery aircraft. Given carriers' vulnerability in combat and to peacetime asymmetrical warfare attacks, the use of more and smaller carriers rather than large vessels has been suggested over the years, such as Elmo Zumwalt's Sea Control Ship, and carriers the size of USS America carrying STOVL aircraft and Unmanned combat aerial vehicle. However, supercarrier advocates consider them to be more cost-effective than a larger number of smaller carriers. An American carrier strike group costs $25 million per week for routine operations, rising to $40 million during combat operations.
The mobile offshore base (MOB) is an extension of the supercarrier concept, a modular floating military base as large as 10 aircraft carriers. If realized, it could be moved anywhere throughout the world's oceans, obviating the need to seek permission from allied nations for use of land bases. The concept was studied in the 1990s by the U.S. government but was abandoned in 2001 as cost prohibitive.
- Forrestal class (1955): Four unit class, all decommissioned
- Kitty Hawk class (1961): Four unit class, all decommissioned
- Enterprise class (1961): Six unit class, five cancelled, one decommissioned
- Nimitz class (1975): 10 unit class, all active
- Gerald R. Ford class (2015): 10 unit class, two under construction, one ordered, 7 planned
- Queen Elizabeth class (2016): Two unit class, all under construction
- Kuznetsov class (1990): Two unit class, all active
- United States class (1950s): Five planned, one laid down, all cancelled
- CVA-01 (1960s): Two planned, both cancelled
- Project 1153 OREL (1970s): Cancelled
- Ulyanovsk class (1990s): Two planned, one partially completed, all cancelled
- Porte-Avions 2 (2010s): One planned, cancelled
Supercarriers in service
|Country||Name (Hull number)||Length||Tonnage (mt)||Class||Propulsion||Type||Commission|
|US||Nimitz (CVN-68)||333 m (1,093 ft)||100,020 mt||Nimitz||Nuclear||CATOBAR||3 May 1975|
|US||Dwight D. Eisenhower (CVN-69)||333 m (1,093 ft)||103,200 mt||Nimitz||Nuclear||CATOBAR||18 October 1977|
|US||Carl Vinson (CVN-70)||333 m (1,093 ft)||102,900 mt||Nimitz||Nuclear||CATOBAR||13 March 1982|
|US||Theodore Roosevelt (CVN-71)||333 m (1,093 ft)||106,300 mt||Nimitz||Nuclear||CATOBAR||25 October 1986|
|US||Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72)||333 m (1,093 ft)||105,783 mt||Nimitz||Nuclear||CATOBAR||11 November 1989|
|US||George Washington (CVN-73)||333 m (1,093 ft)||105,900 mt||Nimitz||Nuclear||CATOBAR||4 July 1992|
|US||John C. Stennis (CVN-74)||333 m (1,093 ft)||105,000 mt||Nimitz||Nuclear||CATOBAR||9 December 1995|
|US||Harry S. Truman (CVN-75)||333 m (1,093 ft)||105,600 mt||Nimitz||Nuclear||CATOBAR||25 July 1998|
|US||Ronald Reagan (CVN-76)||333 m (1,093 ft)||103,000 mt||Nimitz||Nuclear||CATOBAR||12 July 2003|
|US||George H.W. Bush (CVN-77)||333 m (1,093 ft)||104,000 mt||Nimitz||Nuclear||CATOBAR||10 January 2009|
|Russia||Admiral Kuznetsov||305 m (1,001 ft)||61,390 mt||Kuznetsov||Conventional||STOBAR||25 December 1990|
|China||Liaoning||304.5 m (999 ft)||67,500 mt||Kuznetsov||Conventional||STOBAR||September 25, 2012|
Supercarriers under construction
|Country||Name (Hull number)||Length||Tonnage||Class||Propulsion||Type||Commission date||Status|
|UK||Queen Elizabeth (R08)||280 m (920 ft)||70,600 mt||Queen Elizabeth||Conventional||STOVL||2017 (expected)||Being fitted out|
|UK||Prince of Wales (R09)||280 m (920 ft)||70,600 mt||Queen Elizabeth||Conventional||STOVL||2018 (expected)||Under construction|
|US||Gerald R. Ford (CVN-78)||337 m (1,106 ft)||102,000 mt||Gerald R. Ford||Nuclear||CATOBAR||2016 (expected)||Under construction|
|US||John F. Kennedy (CVN-79)||337 m (1,106 ft)||102,000 mt||Gerald R. Ford||Nuclear||CATOBAR||2020 (expected)||Under construction|
- List of aircraft carrier classes of the United States Navy
- Japanese aircraft carrier Shinano
- Project Habakkuk
- David Miller and Lindsay Peacock, Carriers: The Men and the Machines (London and New York: Salamander, 1991), p. 7: "There are four main types of carrier in service today. Largest of these are the super-carriers displacing over 70,000 tons; the U.S. Navy currently has fourteen, the Soviet Navy one."
- 1 December 2012. "USS Enterprise carrier taken out of active service". Fox News. Associated Press. Retrieved 17 May 2015.
- "Reich's Cruise Ships Held Potential Plane Carriers". The New York Times. 1 May 1938. p. 32. Retrieved 17 May 2015. (subscription required)
- "The Ark Royal Launched. Most Up-To-Date Carrier. Aircraft In The Fleet". The Times. 14 April 1937. p. 11.
- Rossiter, Mike (2007) . Ark Royal: the life, death and rediscovery of the legendary Second World War aircraft carrier (2nd ed.). London: Corgi Books. pp. 48–51. ISBN 978-0-552-15369-0. OCLC 81453068.
- Norris, John G. (23 October 1943). "World's Largest Warships: Three 45,000-Ton Carriers For Bombers Ordered by Navy". The Washington Post. p. 1.
- "Va. Firm Gets Giant Carrier Building Job. 65,000-Ton Warship Will Be Largest in Postwar Program". The Washington Post. 8 August 1948. p. 3.
- Donald, David; March, Daniel J (2001). Carrier Aviation Air Power Directory. Norwalk, CT: AIRtime Publishing. p. 77. ISBN 1-880588-43-9.
- MacDonald, Scot (1964-02-01). "14" (PDF). Evolution of Aircraft Carriers (PDF). Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 69.
The versatility of the current US carrier fleet is largely due to the operation of what the press has labeled 'super-carriers,' heavy duty aircraft carriers of the size, power, and potency of the Forrestals and the nuclear-powered Enterprise.
- "Queen Elizabeth Class Aircraft Carrier". Royalnavyinfo.com. Retrieved 17 May 2015.
- "House of Commons Written Questions for Answer on Monday 8 September 2003". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). Parliament of the United Kingdom. 8 September 2003.
- "House of Lords". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). Parliament of the United Kingdom. 15 March 2007.
- "House of Commons Written Answers for 17 June 2008". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). Parliament of the United Kingdom. 17 June 2008.
- "Select Committee on Scottish Affairs Minutes of Evidence, Examination of Witnesses (Questions 1–19), 17 July 2007". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). Parliament of the United Kingdom. 17 July 2007.
- "Hoon to confirm ‘supercarrier’". BBC News. 22 June 2001. Retrieved 17 May 2015.
- "Go-ahead given for work to start on supercarriers". Portsmouth News. 20 May 2008. Retrieved 17 May 2015.
- "VT at forefront of £3.9bn supercarrier project". Portsmouth News. 20 May 2008. Retrieved 17 May 2015.
- "Navy (France), Navy Assessment". Jane’s Sentinel Security Assessment—Western Europe . 3 December 2008. Retrieved 28 December 2008.[dead link]
- Burton, Nigel (11 December 2008). "Navy aircraft carriers delayed". The Northern Echo. Retrieved 17 May 2015.
- "Job concerns as MoD proposes carrier delay". The Courier. 12 December 2008. Retrieved 23 December 2008.[dead link]
- Syson, Damon (30 December 2008). "The £4billion Airfix Kit: Behind-the-scenes at Britain's biggest warships". Daily Mail (London). Retrieved 17 May 2015.
- "House of Commons Minutes of Evidence Examination of Witnesses (Questions 540 - 559)". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). Parliament of the United Kingdom. 24 November 2004.
- Alvarez, Beto; Robbins, Gary (4 July 2014). "The Fleet". U-T San Diego: 10–11.
- Patch, John (January 2010). "Fortress at Sea? The Carrier Invulnerability Myth". Proceedings (U.S. Naval Institute) 136 (1). Retrieved 17 May 2015.
- "Lawmaker Calls for Study on Small Carriers". military.com.
- Hendrix, Henry J.; Williams, J. Noel (May 2011). "Twilight of the $UPERfluous Carrier". Proceedings (U.S. Naval Institute) 137 (05). Retrieved 17 May 2015.
- Musciano, Walter A. (1997). Warbirds of the sea: a history of aircraft carriers & carrier-based aircraft. Schiffer. p. 553. ISBN 0-88740-583-5.
- "US Navy: Cost Of Syria Strikes Would Not Be 'Extraordinary'". DefenseNews. Gannett. Agence France-Presse. 5 September 2013. Retrieved 17 May 2015.
- IISS 2010, p. 206
- Allison, George (2 April 2014). "Queen Elizabeth class aircraft carrier: A Guide". UK Defence Journal. Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- O'Rourke, Ronald (24 March 2015). "Navy Ford (CVN-78) Class Aircraft Carrier Program: Background and Issues for Congress" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 17 May 2015.
- "Navy names next aircraft carrier USS John F. Kennedy" (Press release) (449-11). United States Department of Defense. 29 May 2011. Retrieved 29 May 2011.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Aircraft carriers.|
- Haze Gray & Underway, World Aircraft Carrier Lists—comprehensive and detailed listings of all the world's aircraft carriers and seaplane tenders from 1913 to 2001, with photo gallery.
- Aircraft carriers of the USN