- This is about the warships. For the television program, see Supercarrier (TV series).
Supercarrier is an unofficial descriptive term for the largest type of aircraft carrier, typically those displacing over 65,000 long tons. Supercarriers are the largest warships ever built, larger than the largest battleship class laid down by any country. The U.S. Navy had ten supercarriers as of 2013[update].
A few countries operate fleet carriers of around 42,000 tons, such as the French aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle (R91). The size and configuration of the Charles de Gaulle corresponds closely with the 45,000-ton Midway class the United States built at the end of World War II as a successor class to the much more numerous 27,000-ton Essex-class aircraft carrier, mainstay vessels of WWII after 1943 when they entered service. Internationally, there are more light carriers closer to 20,000 tons, such as HMS Illustrious. In 2009 the United Kingdom cut the first steel for construction of two Queen Elizabeth class aircraft carriers, with the first ship to be delivered in early 2017 and expected to become fully operational by 2020. Their displacement is expected to be 70,600 metric tons, making them the third largest supercarrier class in service.
The first ship to be described by The New York Times as a supercarrier was HMS Ark Royal in 1938, with a length of 685 ft and a displacement of 22,000 tons, designed to carry 72 aircraft. In 1943 the superlative was transferred to the 45,000-ton Midway class carriers as a step-up from the 27,000-ton Essex class.
The post-war standard for supercarriers was set by the proposed USS United States and USS Forrestal. Forrestal displaced 60,000 tons standard and 78,000 tons in deep load and is considered the first operational supercarrier in the present-day sense, as used by the US press. The similar-sized United States would have been in service earlier, had it been completed; its cancellation triggered the "Revolt of the Admirals".
The Soviet Union's 85,000-ton nuclear carrier Ulyanovsk, closely comparable in size to earlier American supercarriers, was 40% complete when it and a follow-on vessel were canceled in 1991 during post-Cold War funding cuts.
As of 2013[update] the United Kingdom was building two 70,600-ton Queen Elizabeth class carriers, and France had until 2013 been considering building one vessel based on the same design. These ships are referred to as supercarriers by British legislators and the news media. The two Queen Elizabeth class carriers will provide the Royal Navy with capabilities much closer to United States Navy carriers than its current Invincible-class vessels. Giving evidence to the House of Commons Defence Committee in 2004, the First Sea Lord Admiral Sir Alan West explained that interoperability with the United States Navy was as much a deciding factor of the size of the carriers as the firepower of the carrier's airwing:
I have talked with the CNO (Chief of Naval Operations) in America. He is very keen for us to get these because he sees us slotting in with his carrier groups. He really wants us to have these, but he wants us to have the same sort of clout as one of their carriers.
Future plans for supercarriers in the United States involve the construction of the U.S. Navy's next generation of carriers, the Gerald R. Ford class, which will have a 100,000-ton displacement.
The United States maintains ten of these ships. Given carriers' vulnerability in combat and to peacetime asymmetrical warfare attacks, the use of more and smaller carriers rather than large vessels has been suggested over the years, such as Elmo Zumwalt's Sea Control Ship, and carriers the size of USS America (LHA-6) carrying STOVL and UCAV aircraft. However, supercarrier advocates consider them to be more cost-effective than a larger number of smaller carriers. An American carrier strike group costs $25 million per week for routine operations, rising to $40 million during combat operations.
The mobile offshore base (MOB) is an extension of the supercarrier concept, a modular floating military base as large as 10 aircraft carriers. If realized, it could be moved anywhere throughout the world's oceans, obviating the need to seek permission from allied nations for use of land bases. The concept was studied in the 1990s by the U.S. government but was abandoned in 2001 as cost prohibitive.
- United States class (1950s): Single-unit laid down, cancelled along with four others
- Forrestal class (1955): Four-unit class, all decommissioned
- Kitty Hawk class (1961): Four-unit class, all decommissioned
- Enterprise class (1961): Six-unit class, five cancelled, one deactivated
- CVA-01 (1960s): Two-unit class, both cancelled
- Project 1153 Orel (1970s): Cancelled
- Nimitz class (1975): 10 unit class, all active.
- Kuznetsov class (1990s): Two-unit class, all active. Displacement max 68 000
- Ulyanovsk class (1990s): Two units cancelled after partial completion
- Gerald R. Ford class (2015): Two units in construction, one ordered, further seven planned
- Queen Elizabeth class (2016–2018): Two units under construction
- Porte-Avions 2 (20xx): One unit cancelled
- David Miller and Lindsay Peacock, Carriers: The Men and the Machines (London and New York: Salamander, 1991), p. 7: "There are four main types of carrier in service today. Largest of these are the super-carriers displacing over 70,000 tons; the U.S. Navy currently has fourteen, the Soviet Navy one."
- USS Enterprise carrier taken out of active service
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- John G Norris, "World's Largest Warships: Three 45,000-Ton Carriers For Bombers Ordered by Navy", The Washington Post (23 October 1943), p. 1.
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- Fortress at Sea? The Carrier Invulnerability Myth
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- Warbirds of the sea: a history of aircraft carriers & carrier-based aircraft, By Walter A. Musciano, Page 553
- "US Navy: Cost Of Syria Strikes Would Not Be 'Extraordinary'."
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Aircraft carriers.|
- Haze Gray & Underway, World Aircraft Carrier Lists—comprehensive and detailed listings of all the world's aircraft carriers and seaplane tenders from 1913 to 2001, with photo gallery.
- Aircraft carriers of the USN