تطوان / تطّاون
|• Mayor||Mohamed Ideêmar|
|Elevation(at Place Moulay El Mehdi)||187 ft (57 m)|
|Time zone||WET (UTC+0)|
|• Summer (DST)||WEST (UTC+1)|
|Website||The official web site|
|Official name: Medina of Tétouan (formerly known as Titawin)|
|Criteria:||ii, iv, v|
|Designated:||1997 (21st session)|
Tetouan (from the Berber Tiṭṭawin, Arabic: تطوان, Spanish: Tetuán, French: Tétouan) is a city in northern Morocco. The Berber name means literally "the eyes" and figuratively "the water springs". Tetouan is one of the two major ports of Morocco on the Mediterranean Sea. It lies a few miles south of the Strait of Gibraltar, and about 40 mi (60 km) E.S.E. of Tangier. In 2004 the city had 320,539 inhabitants (census figure). Tetouan's civil airport Sania Ramel Airport is located 6 km to the east.
Arabic is the official language but it is not used for everyday dialogue. The city has its own dialect, a particular citadin variant of non-hilalian Arabic which is distinct from Jebli Arabic. However, Jebli Arabic is predominant since people from the neighboring rural areas settled in the city during the 20th century rural flights.. Its main religion is Islam. A small Christian minority lives in the city.
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The city is situated about 60 km east of the city of Tangier and 40 km south of the Spanish exclave of Ceuta (Sebta) and the Strait of Gibraltar. It is in the far north of the Rif Mountains. To the south and west of the city there are mountains. Tetuan is situated in the middle of a belt of orchards that contain orange, almond, pomegranate and cypress trees. The Rif Mountains are nearby, as the city is located in the Martil Valley. It is picturesquely situated on the northern slope of a fertile valley down which flows the Martil river, with the harbour of Tetouan, Martil, at its mouth. Behind rise rugged masses of rock, the southern wall of the Anjera country, once practically closed to Europeans, and across the valley are the hills which form the northern limit of the still more impenetrable Rif.
The streets are fairly wide and straight, and many of the houses belonging to aristocratic families, descendants of those expelled from Al-Andalus by the Spanish "Reconquista", possess marble fountains and have groves planted with orange trees. Within the houses the ceilings are often exquisitely carved and painted in hispano-moresque designs, such as are found in the Alhambra of Granada, and the tile-work for which Tetuan is known may be seen on floors, pillars and dados. The traditional industries are tilework, inlaying with silver wire, and the manufacture of thick-soled yellow slippers, much-esteemed flintlocks, and artistic towels used as cape and skirt by Arabic girls in rural areas. The Jews lived in a mellah, separated from the rest of the town by gates which were closed at night. The harbour of Tetuan was obstructed by a bar, over which only small vessels can pass, and the roadstead, sheltered to the north, northwest and south, is exposed to the east, and is at times unsafe in consequence of the strong Levanter.
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Around 1305 a city was built here by the Marinid king Abu Thabit. It served as a base for attacks on Ceuta. Around 1400 it was destroyed by the Castilians, because pirates used it for their attacks. By the end of the 15th century it was rebuilt by refugees from the Reconquista (reconquest of Spain, completed by the fall of Granada in 1492), when the Andalusian Moors first reared the walls and then filled the enclosure with houses. It had a reputation for piracy at various times in its history, and in 1829, the Austrians punitively bombarded the city due to Moroccan piracy. It was taken on 4 February 1860 by the Spaniards under Leopoldo O'Donnell, (a descendant of an old Irish royal family, O'Donnell of Tyrconnell, who was made hereditary Duke of Tetuan, and later Prime Minister of Spain) but evacuated on 2 May 1862.
In 1913 it became the capital of the Spanish protectorate of Morocco, which was governed by the Jalifa (Moroccan prince, serving as Viceroy for the Sultan), and the Spanish "Alto Comisario" accredited to him, and it remained its capital until 1956.
Tétouan has also been home to an important Sephardi Jewish community, which immigrated from Spain after the Reconquista and the Spanish Inquisition. This Jewish Sephardi community spoke a form of Judaeo-Spanish known as Haketia. Some of them emigrated later to Oran (in Algeria), to South America and much later to Israel, Spain, France and Canada. There are very few Jews left in Tétouan nowadays. 
Tétouan features a Mediterranean climate with Köppen climate classification of Csa. Located along the Mediterranean sea . The weather in Tétouan is cool (sometimes cold) and Rainy among the winter , hot and dry in the summer months.
|Climate data for Tétouan|
|Average high °C (°F)||17.2
|Average low °C (°F)||8.8
|Rainfall mm (inches)||81.3
|Avg. rainy days||9.1||9.6||9.0||9.0||6.3||1.5||0.7||1.7||4.6||9.2||10.4||9.2||80.3|
|Source: BBC Weather (records)|
Sights in and around Tétouan 
- The medina (old town) of Tétouan is on the World Heritage List of the UNESCO. The inner city is very characteristic and traditional. One can find many white houses there, especially low houses. Everywhere in the city there are people performing their craftsmanship, like weavers, jewellers, leather workers. Street sellers often try to sell carpets to tourists as well.
- The royal palace in Tétouan is situated just outside and by one of the entrances to the medina. There is a public square in front of it.
See also 
Notes and references 
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- L. Messaoudi, Cahiers de Sociolinguistique n°6 (2001), Variations linguistiques: images urbaines et sociales, pp.87-98
- S. Levy, EDNA n°1 (1996), Reperes pour une histoire linguistique du Maroc, pp.127-137
- Dominique Caubet, Questionnaire de dialectologie du Maghreb
- (French)Jordi Aguadé, Patrice Cressier, Ángeles Vicente : Peuplement et arabisation au Maghreb occidental, Casa de Velázquez, 1998 (ISBN 8486839858)
- (French)M. Lazaar, Migration internationale et croissance des villes du Nord-Ouest marocain: Les cas de Tétouan et de Tanger (Maroc), in Urbanisation du monde arabe, no.28 (1995), pp.145-150 (ISSN 0760-3819)
- M. Tarradell, El poblamiento antiguo del Rio Martin, Tamuda, IV, 1957, p. 272
- M. R. El Azifi, « L'habitat ancien de la vallée de Martil » in Revue de la Faculté des lettres de Tétouan, 1990, 4e année, n° 4, p. 65-81. (Arabic)
- Ali ibn-abi-Zar' (1326) - Rawd Al-Kirtas (Histoire des souverains du Maghreb et annales de la ville de Fès. Traduction française Auguste Beaumier. Editions La Porte, Rabat, 1999, 325 p.
- "'Abd ar-Rasham". Encyclopedia Britannica. I: A-Ak - Bayes (15th ed.). Chicago, IL: Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc. 2010. p. 17. ISBN 978-1-59339-837-8.
- YouTube - Broadcast Yourself
- "Average Conditions tetoaun, Morocco". BBC Weather. Retrieved August 17, 2009.
- Medina of Tétouan - unesco.org
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