The Tamagotchi (たまごっち Tamagocchi ) is a handheld digital pet, created in Japan by Akihiro Yokoi of WiZ and Aki Maita of Bandai. It was first sold by Bandai in 1996 in Japan. As of 2010, over 76 million Tamagotchis have been sold world-wide. Most Tamagotchis are housed in a small egg-shaped computer with an interface usually consisting of three buttons, although the number of buttons may vary for different variations.
According to Bandai, the name is a portmanteau combining the Japanese word "たまご" (tamago), which means "egg", and the English word "watch" (ウオッチ - uocchi). Consequently, the name is romanized as "Tamagotch" without the "i" in Japan. But recently in Japan, the romanized name has changed to the English "Tamagotchi" with the i. Most Tamagotchi characters' names end in 'tchi' or 'っち' in Japanese, with the exception of a few newer characters, such as Makiko.
A Tamagotchi is a keychain-sized virtual pet simulation game for people of all ages. The characters are colorful and simplistically designed creatures based on animals, objects, or people. Beginning with the 2004 Tamagotchi Plus/Connection, a second wave of Tamagotchi toys emerged, featuring a different graphic design by JINCO and gameplay which elaborated upon the first generations. However, the story behind the games remained the same: Tamagotchis are a small alien species that deposited an egg on Earth to see what life was like, and it is up to the player to raise the egg into an adult creature. The creature goes through several stages of growth, and will develop differently depending on the care the player provides, with better care resulting in an adult creature that is smarter, happier, and requires less attention. Gameplay can vary widely between models, and some models, such as TamagoChu, require little to no care from the player. Tamagotchi has a large fan base.
Upon activating the toy, an egg appears on the screen. After setting the Tamagotchi unit's clock, the egg will wiggle for several minutes, and then hatch into a small pet. In later versions, inputting the player's name and birthday is also required when setting the clock, and at birth, the player can name the pet and learn of its family group and/or gender. The player can care for the pet as much or as little as they choose, and the outcome depends on the player's actions. The first Tamagotchis could only be paused by going to set the clock, effectively stopping the passage of time in the game, but in later models a pause function was included.
Pets have Hunger meter, Happy meter, and Discipline meter to determine how healthy and well behaved the pet is. Filling up the Hunger meter can be achieved by feeding the pet a meal or a snack. Filling up the Happy meter can be achieved by playing mini games with the pet. Mini games vary between versions. Discipline meter can be filled by pressing the "scold" option when a pet calls for attention but refuses to play or be fed. The pet will leave droppings around the screen from time to time, and can become sick if they are not cleaned up. Before the pet goes to the bathroom, it will make a face and stink lines will appear around it. If the player activates the toilet icon during this animation, but before the pet has gone to the bathroom, the pet will use a toilet instead. When done repeatedly, the pet can be toilet trained.
If the pet gets sick, a skull icon next to the pet as it sits still at the bottom of the screen, with an unhappy expression. The pet can become sick for a number of reasons such as overfeeding of snacks or failing to clean up droppings. The pet can die if sickness is left unchecked. The pet can be cured by pressing the "Medicine" option.
Pets would often fall asleep during the night time. Originally players had the option of manually turning off the light when the pet fell asleep. In order to raise a healthy pet, players were encouraged but not required to turn off the lights when the pet fell asleep. In recent versions, the pet turns off the light on its own when it went to sleep. Recent versions also allow waking the pet for a short time once it has fallen asleep. V5 had the three children look outside on the window when they wake up in the morning and before bed at night.
Life Cycle 
The pet goes through several distinct stages of development throughout its life cycle. Each stage lasts a set amount of time, depending on the model of the toy, and when it reaches a new stage, the toy plays a jingle, and the pet's appearance changes. The pet can "die" due to poor care, old age, sickness, and in a few versions, predators. The pets life cycle stages are Baby, Child, Teen, and Adult. Later Tamagotchi models have added a Senior model.
Poor care can cause a pet to die, but it can also die of old age. If an old pet dies without producing offspring, the family line has ended. The Japanese Tamagotchi toys usually feature a ghost and headstone when the pet dies, but English versions have been changed to show an angel at death, or simply a floating UFO to indicate its return to its home planet. Often at times it will show the transition graphic, after which it will show the pet appearing to be sick, but with the skull flashing, beeping as it flashes. It then will show a happy version of the pet flashing with a longer beep, with an egg on the right side of the screen, after which it will show the pet as an angel (as indicated above). Pressing the middle button shows the age at which the pet died. After the pet dies, one can restart from the beginning by pressing A and C.
New Mechanics 
In recent models, the player earns currency called Gotchi Points while playing games, and can use the currency in an in-game shop to buy different foods, toys, accessories, or even room decorations for the pet.
Using infrared communication, two players can link their toys and the pets may form friendships, play games, exchange gifts, and even marry. Infrared connection was introduced with the Plus/Connection, but the Japanese Chou Jinsei Enjoy Tamagotchi was the first model to interact with a computer. Since then, many subsequent models have also been able to interact with the E-Tamago or Tamatown websites by using alphanumeric codes generated by the toy to log into the website's Flash game. After generating a code, the toy remains paused until the player either enters a logout code or cancels. The player may play minigames in the town to earn Gotchi Points, or use Gotchi Points to buy items in the town shops. To transfer points and items back to the toy, the player signs out of the Flash game and is given a code to input back into the toy.
Marriage and Family 
The Mesutchi and Osutchi Tamagotchis were the first to introduce marriages and offspring, and the feature returned in the Plus/Connection and subsequent models. Two players with a male and female pet may link their toys and allow the pets to develop a friendship and fall in love. Once the pets have raised their relationship meter sufficiently, the pets may marry. The player can also choose to have their pet marry a random pet brought in by the "Matchmaker." Once married, the female will eventually produce two eggs, keeping one and leaving one with the male. Since the parent will automatically guide the baby's life, the only care it needs from you is medicine in the case of sickness. After a few days the parent will leave, and you are left to care for a new generation. This can continue for as long as you manage to care for the pets.
The Chou Jinsei Enjoy Tamagotchi also introduced the idea of character "families" or "groups." These "families" are a kind of classification for characters obtainable in the game, grouped mainly by appearance, though they are also associated with certain skills. A character of one group cannot grow into an adult of a different group, and if two pets of different groups marry and have an egg, the baby will be of the female's group.
Some characters are only obtainable by breeding certain characters together, and some groups are only obtainable by using a special card for the Matchmaker.
With the many different versions of the toy, there are other less common mechanics that influence the pet's growth, including but not limited to friendship with the player, varying types of skills, and career. The Chou Jinsei Enjoy Tamagotchi also introduced Skills, which can be built by playing certain games with the pet, or using certain toys or foods bought from the E-Tamago or in-game shops. Having certain skills can help the pet obtain a career, and if built up high enough, can unlock special characters.
As of 2009, there have been over 44 Tamagotchi versions released since their creation in 1996, several of which were only released in Japan. Along with the original Tamagotchi, the first wave of Tamagotchi toys included Christmas, angel, and ocean themed versions. The newer versions began in 2004 with the Tamagotchi Plus, and the most recent version is the Japanese Tamagotchi P's, an enhanced version of the Tamagotchi iD L.
Internationally, the TamaTown Tama-Go is the latest model, featuring a grayscale screen and attachable figurines containing small microchips that enable the pet to visit different shops and play different games.
Video Games 
Since its debut, Tamagotchi has made its way onto several gaming platforms. Several early games feature gameplay similar to the original toys. A few party-style games appeared on major consoles, along with the Corner Shop series of simulation games and a few role playing games for the Nintendo DS.
- Tamagotchi — Game Boy (International), 1997
- Game de Hakken!! Tamagotchi V2 — Game Boy (Japan), 1997
- Game de Hakken!! Tamagotchi Osutchi to Mesutchi — Game Boy (Japan), 1997
- Tamagotchi 64: Minna de Tamagotchi World — Nintendo 64 (Japan), 1997
- Tamagotchi CD-ROM — Windows 95 (International), 1998
- Hoshi de Hakken!! Tamagotchi — PlayStation (Japan), 1998
- Tamagotchi Connection: Corner Shop — Nintendo DS (International), 2005
- Tamagotchi Connection: Corner Shop 2 — Nintendo DS (International), 2006
- Tamagotchi: Party On! — Wii (International), 2006
- Tamagotchi Connection: Corner Shop 3 — Nintendo DS (International), 2007
- 'Tamagotchi: Dance Fever! — Wii (Japan), 2007
- Tamagotchi no Narikiri Channel — Nintendo DS (Japan), 2009
- Tamagotchi no Narikiri Challenge — Nintendo DS (Japan), 2010
- Tamagotchi Collection — Nintendo DS (Japan), 2011
- Tamagotchi Connection: Corner Shop 4 - Nintendo DS/Nintendo 3DS (Japan), Nintendo DS 2008, Nintendo 3DS TBC 2012
An arcade machine known as TamaStation is available in Japan from which players can win prizes for their Tamagotchi toy. This machine has several sequels, such as TamaStation 2.
In other media 
On June 5, 2007, it was announced by Reuters that an animated Tamagotchi film was to be released in December 2007. The film, Tamagotchi: The Movie, focuses on Mametchi, along with his friends Memetchi and Kuchipatchi. Introduced are Tanpopo, a human girl who Mametchi accidentally transports to the Tamagotchi Planet; and Chamametchi, the younger sister of Mametchi who is born during the film's events. On December 20, 2008, a second film, known as Tamagotchi: Happiest Story in the Universe!, was released into theaters. This film, introducing a new Tamagotchi known as Hapihapitchi, was later released on DVD, on June 26, 2009.
Tamagotchi: The Movie was released on December 15, 2007, and was distributed by Toho Co. The film opened at #3 at the box office on opening weekend. On May 31, 2008, North American distributor Bandai Entertainment announced they had acquired the rights to the film. The movie's first English release was a direct-to-DVD version, released on June 3, 2009 in Australia. The UK DVD was released on September 14, 2009 via Manga Entertainment.
Animated series 
A Japanese-only anime series called Anime TV de Hakken!! Tamagotchi (アニメ TVで発見!! たまごっち, lit. Found on Anime TV!! Tamagotchi) aired from July 7, 1997 to March 21, 1998 on Fuji TV.
In December 2007, Bandai Japan began airing Saa Ikou! Tamagotchi(さぁイコー！たまごっち) a week before the release of the first film. In December 2008, Bandai America dubbed the series, Let's Go! Tamagotchi, and began streaming it on YouTube in both English and Japanese, with captions for up to 7 other languages.
In 2009, another anime TV series was announced, called Tamagotchi! (たまごっち!). It began in October 2009. The English version of the Tamagotchi anime TV series began screening in Australia on channel Go! as of 22 November 2010. The anime has been dubbed in Tagalog in the Philippines. There is also a dub in Taiwan airing on YoYo TV. The release date for the United States is yet to be known.
Animated video 
An animated video called, "Now Museum, Now You Don't," Tamagotchi Video Adventures was produced by 7th Level, Inc. in association with Bandai in 1997. Directed by Dan Kuenster, produced by Susan Deming and written by Kuenster, Deming and David Lewman. It runs approximately 42 and a half minutes long. Cosmotchi sends the Tamagotchi to Earth to collect an object that best exemplifies the planet for the Tamagotchi Museum. An original animated music video ("What's a Tamagotchi?") and a how-to-draw Tamagotchi featurette, starring director Kuenster follow the movie.
A song called "Tamagotchi" was produced by the music band Sqeezer in 1997.
In Japan, the band Kigurumi, after gaining new members and becoming a trio, released their single, "Tamagotchi", on November 21, 2007, which was also the theme music for the film. It was dubbed in English along with the English dub of the movie.
The Eurodance group Daze song entitled "Together Forever" uses many Tamagotchi references.
There are many songs created for Tamagotchi!, the anime based on Tamagotchi. Some well known ones are:
- Every Lovely (Japanese) / Lovely Day (English)
- Happy Happy Harmony
- Miracle Kitchen
- Happy Heart
Criticism and controversy 
The main controversy over Tamagotchi digital pets involved children taking them to school because the first two Tamagotchi releases (Generation 1 and Generation 2) could die in less than half a day from lack of care. Worry over potential ownership disputes, class disruptions and general distraction from schoolwork has led many schools to ban the product, which led to the virtual pet's decline in popularity. In response to this controversy, Bandai's later Tamagotchi releases included a Pause feature as well as the ability to turn the sound off when desired.
On August 3, 2005, South Australian MP Nick Xenophon attempted to ban the Tamagotchi Connection Version 2 (or at least have it classified R18+) due to the "Slot" game featured on it, fearing that it would make children grow up to become the "gambling addicts of tomorrow".
Many male Tamagotchi fans[who?] have criticised Bandai for marketing the recently released Tamagotchi Connection series (2004–2009) primarily towards a female audience, rather than to a unisex audience, as was the case of the original releases (1996–1998.) However, Bandai did release a series of virtual pets called Digimon which are aimed at males.
See also 
- Giga Pet - a brand of virtual pets released in 1997 by Tiger Electronics to compete with the Tamagotchi
- Tuttuki Bako - a similar Bandai release
- Fin Fin on Teo the Magic Planet - a similar digital pet game
- Tamagotchi effect - A psychological effect named after the digital pet
- List of Tamagotchi releases
- Digimon - a similar Bandai virtual pet that is aimed more at males
- Bandai (2010-01-31). ""Tamagotchi iD L" March 19th sale!". Bandai. Retrieved 2010-02-20.
- バンダイ タイムマシンバンダイ マシン (Older archived version)
- "Original Instruction Manuals".
- "ネットで発見！！たまごっち 公式ホームページ｜Tamagotchi iD L Princess Spacy ver. (Japanese)". Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- "たまごっちのゲーム総合サイト (Japanese)".
- Japanese Box Office, December 15-16: Tamagotchi at #3 - Anime News Network
- Bandai Entertainment Gets Tamagotchi Feature Film - Anime News Network
- Bandai Streams Tamagotchi in Seven Languages for Free - Anime News Network
- Kigurumi gains two members - Tokyograph
- LOONER "I Love My Tamagotchee!" Music Video
- Honolulu Star-Bulletin Local News
- Your Vote: XYZ | Refused-Classification.com
||This article's use of external links may not follow Wikipedia's policies or guidelines. (May 2011)|
- Official USA Tamagotchi site
- Official European Tamagotchi site
- Tamagotchi Official Japanese site (2004–present models)
- Tamagotch Official Japanese site (1996-1998 models)
- Official Movie Website
- くちぱっちのモグモグブログだっち Kuchipatchi's blog
- Tamagotchi Town English site
- Tamagotchi Town European site