United States Border Patrol
|United States Border Patrol|
|Common name||U.S. Border Patrol|
|CBP patch worn on the right sleeve of the USBP uniform.|
|Logo of the United States Border Patrol; also the USBP patch worn on the left sleeve of the USBP uniform.|
|Badge of the United States Border Patrol|
|Flag of the United States Border Patrol|
|Formed||May 28, 1924|
|Legal personality||Governmental: Government agency|
|Federal agency||United States|
|Size||19,000 lineal miles|
|Specialist jurisdiction||National border patrol, security, and integrity.|
|Border Patrol Agents||21,444|
|Agency executive||Michael J. Fisher, Chief, U.S. Border Patrol|
|Parent agency||U.S. Customs and Border Protection|
The United States Border Patrol (USBP) is an American federal law enforcement agency that enforces laws and regulations for the admission of foreign-born persons (aliens) to the United States, as codified in the Immigration and Nationality Act. It is an agency within the U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), a component of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). The U.S. Customs and Border Protection has more sworn, armed law enforcement officers than any other agency in the United States.
Mounted watchmen of the United States Immigration Service patrolled the border in an effort to prevent illegal crossings as early as 1904, but their efforts were irregular and undertaken only when resources permitted. The inspectors, usually called "mounted guards", operated out of El Paso, Texas. Though they never totaled more than 75, they patrolled as far west as California trying to restrict the flow of illegal Chinese immigration.
In March 1915, Congress authorized a separate group of mounted guards, often referred to as "mounted inspectors". Most rode on horseback, but a few operated automobiles, motorcycles and boats. Although these inspectors had broader arrest authority, they still largely pursued Chinese aliens trying to avoid the National Origins Act and Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882. These patrolmen were Immigration Inspectors, assigned to inspection stations, and could not watch the border at all times. U.S. Army soldiers along the southwest border performed intermittent border patrolling, but this was secondary to "the more serious work of military training." Non-nationals encountered illegally in the U.S. by the army were directed to the immigration inspection stations. Texas Rangers were also sporadically assigned to patrol duties by the state, and their efforts were noted as "singularly effective".
The Border Patrol was founded on May 28, 1924 as an agency of the United States Department of Labor to prevent illegal entries along the Mexico–United States border and the United States-Canada border. Additional operations were established along the Gulf Coast in 1927 to perform crewman control to insure that non-American crewmen departed on the same ship on which they arrived. In 1932 the Border Patrol was divided into two offices. Mexican border operations were directed from El Paso, Texas and Canadian border operations were directed from Detroit, Michigan. The Canadian border operations from Detroit employed more men than the El Paso operations along the Mexican border because of focus on prevention of liquor smuggling during prohibition. Franklin Delano Roosevelt's Executive Order 6166 formed the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) in 1933 by consolidation of the Bureau of Immigration and the Bureau of Naturalization. Following the outbreak of World War II in Europe, Border Patrol staffing doubled to 1,500 in 1940, and the INS was moved from the Department of Labor to the U.S. Department of Justice. Additional stations were temporarily added along the Gulf Coast, Florida and the Eastern Seaboard during the sixties when in Cuba triumphed the Cuban Revolution and emerged the Cuban Missile Crisis. INS was decommissioned in March 2003 when its operations were divided between CBP, United States Citizenship and Immigration Services, and U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement.
The priority mission of the Border Patrol, as a result of the September 11 attacks and its merging into the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is to prevent terrorists and terrorist weapons from entering the United States of America. However, the Border Patrol's traditional mission remains as the deterrence, detection and apprehension of illegal aliens and individuals involved in the illegal drug trade who generally enter the United States other than through designated ports of entry. The Border Patrol also operates 33 permanent interior checkpoints along the southern border of the United States.
As of 2012, the U.S. Border Patrol employed 21,394 agents. The 1,969 miles of Mexican international border was patrolled by 18,516 of those agents and 2,206 additional agents were responsible for patrolling the 5,525-mile Canadian international border; 224 agents were patrolling the coastal waters surrounding the Florida Peninsula and the island of Puerto Rico. Agents are assigned primarily to the Mexico–United States border, where they are assigned to control drug trafficking and illegal immigration. Patrols on horseback have made a comeback since smugglers have been pushed into the more remote mountainous regions, which are hard to cover with modern tracking strategies.
1986: Employer sanctions and interior enforcement 
The Border Patrol's priorities have changed over the years. In 1986, the Immigration Reform and Control Act placed renewed emphasis on controlling illegal immigration by going after the employers that hire illegal aliens. The belief was that jobs were the magnet that attracted most illegal aliens to come to the United States. The Border Patrol increased interior enforcement and Form I-9 audits of businesses through an inspection program known as "employer sanctions". Several agents were assigned to interior stations, such as within the Livermore Sector in Northern California.
Employer sanctions never became the effective tool it was expected to be by Congress. Illegal immigration continued to swell after the 1986 amnesty despite employer sanctions. By 1993, Californians passed Proposition 187, denying benefits to illegal aliens and criminalizing illegal aliens in possession of forged green cards, identification cards, and Social Security numbers. It also authorized police officers to question non-nationals as to their immigration status and required police and sheriff departments to cooperate and report illegal aliens to the INS. Proposition 187 drew nationwide attention to illegal immigration.
Inspection stations 
El Paso Sector's Operation Hold the Line 
El Paso Sector Chief Patrol Agent Silvestre Reyes started a program called "Operation Hold the Line". In this program, Border Patrol agents would no longer react to illegal entries resulting in apprehensions, but would instead be forward deployed to the border, immediately detecting any attempted entries or deterring crossing at a more remote location. The idea was that it would be easier to capture illegal entrants in the wide open deserts than through the urban alleyways. Chief Reyes deployed his agents along the Rio Grande, within eyesight of other agents. The program significantly reduced illegal entries in the urban part of El Paso, however, the operation merely shifted the illegal entries to other areas.
San Diego Sector's Operation Gatekeeper 
San Diego Sector tried Silvestre Reyes' approach of forward deploying agents to deter illegal entries into the country. Congress authorized the hiring of thousands of new agents, and many were sent to San Diego Sector. In addition, Congressman Duncan Hunter obtained surplus military landing mats to use as a border fence. Stadium lighting, ground sensors and infra-red cameras were also placed in the area. Eventually the primitive landing mat fence was replaced with a modern triple fence line that begins over one hundred yards into the Pacific Ocean at Imperial Beach, CA and ends more than 13 miles (19 km) inland on Otay Mesa where the mountains begin. Apprehensions decreased dramatically in that area as people crossed in different regions.
Tucson Sector's Operation Safeguard 
California was no longer the hotbed of illegal entry and the traffic shifted to Arizona, primarily in Nogales (currently the largest border patrol station in the United States). The Border Patrol instituted the same deterrent strategy it used in San Diego to Arizona.
Northern border 
Through agency whistleblowers, Agent M. Hall and Agent R. Lindemann, it was revealed that in 2001, the Border Patrol had approximately 324 agents assigned along the Canada – United States border. Northern border staffing had been increased by 1,128 agents to 1,470 agents by the end of fiscal year 2008, and is projected to expand to 1,845 by the end of fiscal year 2009, a sixfold increase. Resources that support Border Patrol agents include the use of new technology and a more focused application of air and marine assets.
The northern border sectors are Blaine (Washington), Buffalo (New York), Rochester (New York), Malone (New York), Detroit (Selfridge ANGB, Michigan), Grand Forks (North Dakota), Havre (Montana), Houlton (Maine), Spokane (Washington), and Swanton (Vermont).
Border Patrol moves away from interior enforcement 
In the 1990s, Congress mandated that the Border Patrol shift agents away from the interior and focus them on the borders.
After the September 11 attacks of 2001, the Department of Homeland Security created two immigration enforcement agencies out of the defunct Immigration and Naturalization Service: U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and the U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP). ICE was tasked with investigations, detention and removal of illegal aliens, and interior enforcement. CBP was tasked with inspections at U.S. ports of entry and with preventing illegal entries between the port of entry, transportation check, and entries on U.S. coastal borders. DHS management decided to align the Border Patrol with CBP. CBP's Office of Field Operations is solely responsible for the nation's ports of entry, while Border Patrol maintains jurisdiction over all locations between ports of entry, giving Border Patrol agents federal arrest authority nationwide.
In July 2004, the Livermore Sector of the United States Border Patrol was closed. Livermore Sector served Northern California and included stations at Dublin (Parks Reserve Forces Training Area), Sacramento, Stockton, Fresno and Bakersfield. The Border Patrol also closed other stations in the interior of the United States including Roseburg, Oregon and Little Rock, Arkansas. The Border Patrol functions in these areas consisted largely of local jail and transportation terminal checks for illegal aliens. These functions were turned over to U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement.
The new strategy 
In November 2005, the U.S. Border Patrol published an updated national strategy. The goal of this updated strategy is operational control of the United States border. The strategy has five main objectives:
- Apprehend terrorists and terrorist weapons illegally entering the United States;
- Deter illegal entries through improved enforcement;
- Detect, apprehend, and deter smugglers of humans, drugs, and other contraband;
- Use "smart border" technology; and
- Reduce crime in border communities, improving quality of life.
The border is a barely discernible line in uninhabited deserts, canyons, or mountains. The Border Patrol utilizes a variety of equipment and methods, such as electronic sensors placed at strategic locations along the border, to detect people or vehicles entering the country illegally. Video monitors and night vision scopes are also used to detect illegal entries. Agents patrol the border in vehicles, boats, aircraft, and afoot. In some areas, the Border Patrol employs horses, all-terrain motorcycles, bicycles, and snowmobiles. Air surveillance capabilities are provided by unmanned aerial vehicles.
The primary activity of a Border Patrol Agent is "Line Watch". Line Watch involves the detection, prevention, and apprehension of terrorists, undocumented aliens and smugglers of aliens at or near the land border by maintaining surveillance from a covert position; following up on leads; responding to electronic sensor, television systems and aircraft sightings; and interpreting and following tracks, marks, and other physical evidence. Major activities include traffic check, traffic observation, city patrol, transportation check, administrative, intelligence, and anti-smuggling activities.
Traffic checks are conducted on major highways leading away from the border to detect and apprehend illegal aliens attempting to travel further into the interior of the United States after evading detection at the border, and to detect illegal narcotics.
Transportation checks are inspections of interior-bound conveyances, which include buses, commercial aircraft, passenger and freight trains, and marine craft.
Marine Patrols are conducted along the coastal waterways of the United States, primarily along the Pacific coast, the Caribbean, the tip of Florida, and Puerto Rico and interior waterways common to the United States and Canada. Border Patrol conducts border control activities from 130 marine craft of various sizes. The Border Patrol maintains watercraft ranging from blue-water craft to inflatable-hull craft, in 16 sectors, in addition to headquarters special operations components.
Horse and bike patrols are used to augment regular vehicle and foot patrols. Horse units patrol remote areas along the international boundary that are inaccessible to standard all-terrain vehicles. Bike patrol aids city patrol and is used over rough terrain to support linewatch. Snowmobiles are used to patrol remote areas along the northern border in the winter.
In 1992 the Border Patrol had approximately 4,139 Patrol Agents on the job. Attrition in the Border Patrol was normally at 5%. From 1995-2001 attrition spiked to above 10%, which was a period when the Border Patrol was undergoing massive hiring. In 2002 the attrition rate climbed to 18%. The 18% attrition was largely attributed to agents transferring to the Federal Air Marshals after 9/11. Since that time the attrition problem has decreased significantly and Congress has increased journeyman Border Patrol Agent pay from GS-9 to GS-11 in 2002. The Border Patrol Marine Position was created in 2009 (BPA-M). This position will be updated to a GS-12 position sometime in 2010 or 2011. Border Patrol Field Training Officers may possibly be updated in 2010 to a temporary GS-12 pay rate. In 2005, Border Patrol attrition dropped to 4% and remains in the area of 4% to 6% as of 2009.
The Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (signed by President Bush on December 17, 2004) authorized hiring an additional 10,000 agents, "subject to appropriation". This authorization nearly doubled the Border Patrol manpower from 11,000 to 20,000 agents by 2010. At the same time, the number of illegals caught dropped from 1.2 million in 2005 to 541,000 in 2009.
In July 2005, Congress signed the Emergency Supplemental Spending Act for military operations in Iraq/Afghanistan and other operations. The act also appropriated funding to increase Border Patrol manpower by 500 Agents. In October 2005, President Bush also signed the DHS FY06 [fiscal year 2006] Appropriation bill, funding an additional 1,000 agents.
In November 2005, President George W. Bush made a trip to southern Arizona to discuss more options that would decrease Mexicans crossings at the U.S. and Mexican border. In his proposed fiscal year 2007 budget he has requested an additional 1,500 Border Patrol Agents. By 2012, the Border Patrol will have over 21,000 more agents. They are excepting 100,000 applications. By 2012, the U.S. Border Patrol will be one of, if not the largest law enforcement agency in America. Customs and Border Protection, (the Border Patrol's parent agency which includes the U.S. Border Patrol, air and marine operations, and the port of entry operations) will by far be the largest L.E.A. (which it already is) in America.
The Secure Fence Act, signed by President George W. Bush on October 26, 2006, has met with much opposition. In October 2007, environmental groups and concerned citizens filed a restraining order hoping to halt the construction of the fence, set to be built between the United States and Mexico. The act mandates that the fence be built by December 2008. Ultimately, the United States seeks to put fencing around the 1,945-mile (3,130 km) border, but the act requires only 700 miles (1,100 km) of fencing. DHS secretary Michael Chertoff has bypassed environmental and other oppositions with a waiver that was granted to him by Congress in Section 102 of the act, which allows DHS to avoid any conflicts that would prevent a speedy assembly of the fence.
This action has led many environment groups and landowners to speak out against the impending construction of the fence. Environment and wildlife groups fear that the plans to clear brush, construct fences, install bright lights, motion sensors, and cameras will scare wildlife and endanger the indigenous species of the area. Environmentalists claim that the ecosystem could be affected because a border fence would restrict movement of all animal species, which in turn would keep them from water and food sources on one side or another. Desert plants would also feel the impact, as they would be uprooted in many areas where the fence is set to occupy.
Property owners in these areas fear a loss of land. Landowners would have to give some of their land over to the government for the fence. Citizens also fear that communities will be split. Many students travel over the border every day to attend classes at the University of Texas at Brownsville. Brownsville mayor Pat Ahumada favors alternative options to a border fence. He suggests that the Rio Grande be widened and deepened to provide for a natural barrier to hinder illegal aliens and drug smugglers.
The United States Border Patrol Academy is located in Artesia, New Mexico.
Special Operations Group 
- Border Patrol Tactical Unit (BORTAC)
- Border Patrol, Search, Trauma and Rescue (BORSTAR)
- Air Mobile Unit (SDC/SOG/AMU)
- Mobile Response Team (MRT)
Other specialized programs 
In 2007, the Border Patrol created the Special Operations Group (SOG) headquartered in El Paso, TX to coordinate the special operations units of the agency. The Border Patrol has a number of other specialized programs and details. Marine Patrol - In the riverine environments of the northern and southwestern borders of the United States, the Border Patrol conducts border control activities from the decks of marine craft of various sizes. Since 2006, the Border Patrol has relinquished its littoral law enforcement missions in the Great Lakes and territorial seas to the Office of Air and Marine. The Border Patrol maintains over 130 vessels, ranging from blue-water craft to inflatable-hull craft, in 16 sectors, in addition to Headquarters special operations components. K9 Units, Mounted Patrol, Bike patrol, Sign-cutting (tracking), Snowmobile unit, Infrared scope unit, Intelligence, Anti-smuggling Investigations Unit (ASU/DISRUPT, Border Criminal Alien Program, Multi-agency Anti-Gang Task Forces (regional & local units), Honor Guard, Pipes and Drums, Chaplain, Peer Support, Mobile Surveillance Unit.
Border Patrol Organization 
The current Chief of the Border Patrol is Michael J. Fisher. Chief Fisher succeeded David V. Aguilar, who was the Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection (Acting) in 2012.
Border Patrol Sectors 
There are 20 Border Patrol sectors, each headed by a Sector Chief Patrol Agent.
Northern Border (West to East) 
- Blaine Sector (Western Washington, Oregon, and Alaska.) - stations; Bellingham, Blaine, Port Angeles, Sumas.
- Spokane Sector (Eastern Washington State, Idaho and Western Montana) - stations: Oroville, WA; Curlew, WA; Colville, WA; Metaline Falls, WA; Bonners Ferry, ID; Eureka, MT; Whitefish, MT
- Havre Sector Eastern (Montana)
- Grand Forks Sector (North Dakota) Stations; Duluth MN, Grand Forks ND, Grand Marais, International Falls, Pembina ND, Portel, Warroad. Grand Forks is the only Sector to Deploy the new Resident Agent Program. This program was launched in late 2009 early 2010. The Resident Agent Program allows Border Patrol agents to work with Local, County, State, and other Federal Agencies to gain maximum effectiveness over such vast area.
- Detroit Sector (Selfridge Air National Guard Base, Michigan) - stations; Downtown Detroit, Marysville, Gibralter, Sault Sainte Marie, Sandusky Bay.
- Buffalo Sector (New York) - stations; Buffalo, NY, Erie, PA, Niagara Falls, Oswego, Rochester, Wellesley Island.
- Swanton Sector (Vermont)
- Houlton Sector (Maine)
Southern Border (West to East) 
- San Diego Sector, stations; Imperial Beach, Chula Vista, Brown Field, El Cajon, Campo, Boulevard sub-station, Temecula, and San Clemente (San Diego County, California)
- El Centro Sector, stations; El Centro, Calexico, (Imperial County, California) Indio, and Riverside (Riverside County, California)
- Yuma Sector (Western Arizona) - stations; Wellton, Yuma, Blythe
- Tucson Sector (Eastern Arizona)Stations; Ajo, Casa Grande, Tucson, Nogales, Sonoita, Naco, Willcox, and Douglas.
- El Paso Sector (El Paso County, Texas and New Mexico) - stations; El Paso, Fabens (Clint), Fort Hancock, Ysleta, Alamogordo, Albuquerque, Deming, Las Cruces, Lordsburg, Santa Teresa, Truth or Consequences.
- Marfa Sector (Big Bend Area of West Texas) - stations; Alpine, Amarillo, Big Bend, Fort Stockton, Lubbock, Marfa, Midland, Pecos, Presidio, Sanderson, Sierra Blanca, Van Horn
- Del Rio Sector (Del Rio, Texas) - stations; Abilene, Brackettville, Carrizo Springs, Comstock, Del Rio, Eagle Pass North, Eagle Pass South, Rocksprings, San Angelo, Uvalde
- Rio Grande Valley Sector (South Texas) - stations; Brownsville, Corpus Christi, Falfurrias, Fort Brown, Harlingen, Kingsville, McAllen, Rio Grande City, Weslaco
- Laredo Sector (South Texas) - stations; Cotulla, Dallas, Freer, Hebbronville, Laredo North, Laredo South, Laredo West, San Antonio, Zapata
- New Orleans Sector (Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and West Florida)
- Miami Sector (Florida East and South)
- Ramey Sector (Aguadilla, Puerto Rico) and the Virgin Islands, it is the only Border Patrol Sector located outside the continental United States
All Border Patrol Agents spend a minimum of 58 training days (8 1/2 weeks) at the Border Patrol Academy (if they are fluent in Spanish) in Artesia, New Mexico, which is a component of the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (FLETC). Those who are not fluent in Spanish spend an additional eight weeks at the Academy for a total of 14 1/2 weeks. Border Patrol Agent Trainees are instructed in courses including; criminal law, nationality law, and administrative immigration law, police sciences, self-defense and arrest techniques, firearms training with pistol, shotgun and rifle, police vehicle driving, and other Border Patrol / federal law enforcement subjects.
Once they arrive back at their duty station, Trainees then must graduate from the Field Training Officer (FTO) program, an on-the-job training program, which varies in length from a minimum of 12 weeks to a maximum of over 16 weeks long, depending on the practical demands of the duty station and local management. They must also successfully complete the Post Academy Training Program, an extension of the Border Patrol Academy where Trainees complete additional classroom-based training over the course of their first nine months back at their duty station.
The Border Patrol currently wears the following types of uniforms:
- Dress uniform – The dress uniform consists of olive-green trousers with a blue stripe, and an olive-green shirt, which may or may not have blue shoulder straps. The campaign hat is worn with uniform.
- Ceremonial uniform – When required, the following items are added to the dress uniform to complete the ceremonial uniform: olive-green Ike jacket or tunic with blue accents (shoulder straps and cuffs), blue tie, brass tie tack, white gloves, and olive-green felt campaign hat with leather hat band. The campaign hat is worn with uniform.
- Rough duty uniform – The rough duty uniform consists of green cargo trousers and work shirt (in short or long sleeves). Usually worn with green baseball cap or tan stetson.
- Highland Uniform - Worn by members of the United States Border Patrol Pipes and Drums in the performance of their official duties. Uniform includes a kilt made of the official Border Patrol Tartan, custom made ceremonial coat, glengarry, sporran and spats.
- Accessories, footwear, and outerwear – Additional items are worn in matching blue or black colors as appropriate.
- Organization patches – The Border Patrol wears two:
- The CBP patch is worn on the right sleeves of the uniform. It contains the DHS seal against a black background with a "keystone" shape. A "keystone" is the central, wedge-shaped stone in an arch, which holds all the other stones in place.
- Border Patrol agents retain the circular legacy Border Patrol patch, which is worn on the left sleeve.
The Border Patrol uniform is getting its first makeover since the 1950s to appear more like military fatigues and less like a police officer's duty garb. Leather belts with brass buckles are being replaced by nylon belts with quick-release plastic buckles, slacks are being replaced by lightweight cargo pants, and shiny badges and nameplates are being replaced by cloth patches.
Border Patrol (OBP) ranks and insignia 
|Location||Title||Collar insignia||Shoulder ornament||Pay grade|
|Border Patrol Headquarters||Chief of the Border Patrol||
||Senior Executive Service (SES)|
|Deputy Chief of the Border Patrol||
|Deputy Division Chief||
||GS-15, General Schedule|
|Border Patrol Sectors||Chief Patrol Agent (CPA)||
|Deputy Chief Patrol Agent (DCPA)||
|Division Chief/ACTT Director||
|Executive Officer/Assistant Chief Patrol Agent (ACPA)||
||GS-15 or GS-14|
|Patrol Agent in Charge (PAIC)||
||GS-15 or GS-14|
|Assistant Patrol Agent in Charge (APAIC)||
||GS-14 or GS-13|
|Watch Commander (WC)||
||GS-14 or GS-13|
|Special Operations Supervisor (SOS)||
|Supervisory Border Patrol Agent (SBPA)||
|Border Patrol Agent (BPA)||
||GL-5, 7, 9, GS-11, 12|
|Border Patrol Academy||Chief Patrol Agent (CPA)||
|Deputy Chief Patrol Agent (DCPA)||
|Assistant Chief Patrol Agent (ACPA)||
|Training Operations Supervisor (TOS)||
|Supervisory Border Patrol Agent (Senior Instructor)||
|Supervisory Border Patrol Agent (Instructor)||
|Border Patrol Agent (Detailed Instructor)||
Border Patrol Shoulder ornaments 
|Newton-Azrak Award for Heroism||Commissioners Distinguished Career Service Award||Commissioners Exceptional Service Medal||Commissioners Meritorious Service Award||Commissioners Special Commendation Award||Chiefs Commendation Medal|
|Commissioners Excellence in Group Achievement Award||Purple Cross Wound Medal||Academy Honor Award Winner||Border Patrol Long Service Medal||75th Anniversary of the Border Patrol Commemorative Medal|
Newton-Azrak Award for Heroism 
The Border Patrol's highest honor is the Newton-Azrak Award for Heroism. This Award is bestowed to Border Patrol Agents for extraordinary actions, service; accomplishments reflecting unusual courage or bravery in the line of duty; or an extraordinarily heroic or humane act committed during times of extreme stress or in an emergency.
Border Patrol Uniform Devices 
|Border Patrol Tactical Unit (BORTAC)||Border Patrol Search, Trauma and Rescue Unit (BORSTAR)||Special Response Team (SRT)||Honor Guard||Border Patrol Pipes and Drums Cap Badge|
|Device No Longer Authorized|
|K-9 Handler||Chaplain||Field Training Officer||Peer Support|
Border Patrol Agents are issued the H&K P2000 double action LEM (Law Enforcement Modification) pistol in .40 S&W caliber. It can contain as many as 13 rounds of ammunition (12 in the magazine and one in the chamber). Up until 1994 the Border Patrol issued its Patrol Agents a .357 Magnum revolver as their duty sidearm, a Smith and Wesson or Ruger model large frame, six shot revolver. The Border Patrol preferred this weapon because it did not jam in harsh conditions, like those of the southwestern border, and also because of the strong "stopping" power of the .357 Magnum cartridge. Although up until 1994 Patrol Agents could purchase a weapon from the agency list of approved authorized personal weapons for duty carry. This list included the Glock Models 17 and 19 pistols in 9mm, the SIG-Sauer P220 pistol in .45 ACP caliber, the Colt Python .357 Magnum revolver, and the Smith & Wesson Model 19/66 .357 Magnum revolver. The Border Patrol adopted the Beretta Model 96D, a .40 S&W caliber semi-automatic pistol (modified for Double-Action Only) (with a 12 round capacity magazines) as its duty issue sidearm in 1995. The .40 S&W caliber jacketed hollow-point cartridge was adopted because of its excellent "stopping" power and its superior ballistic characteristics over the 9mm cartridge. In late 2006 the H&K P2000 pistol was adopted as the Border Patrol's primary duty sidearm. The H&K Model USP Compact pistol, H&K Model P2000SK (sub-compact) and Beretta M96D .40 S&W caliber pistols are authorized as secondary sidearms.
Like many other law enforcement agencies, the 12 gauge Remington Model 870 is the standard pump-action shotgun. The Border Patrol issue Model 870 has been modified by Scattergun Technologies to Border Patrol specifications including: an 14-inch barrel, a five-shot capacity magazine, a composite stock with pistol grip, and night sights with a tactical "ghost-ring" rear sight. The old Border Patrol "anti-bandit" units used to use a 12-gauge, semi-automatic shotgun with a sawed-off barrel. This weapon had the designated name of a "Sidewinder." The USBP anti-bandit units were decommissioned in the late 1980s.
Border Patrol Agents also commonly carry the .223 caliber M4 Carbine (M4A1) and the H&K UMP .40 caliber submachine gun. The .308 caliber M14 rifle is used for mostly ceremonial purposes and by BORTAC in special situations.
As less than lethal options, the Border Patrol uses the FN303. The Border Patrol also uses compressed-air cartridge powered guns that fire plastic pellet balls containing OC (Oleoresin Capsicum) Pepper dust. The plastic pellet balls burst on impact spraying the suspect with OC Pepper dust. This dust stings the eyes, skin, nose and throat and causes the eyes to water severely thus temporarily disabling a suspect. The Border Patrol also issues its agents OC Pepper spray canisters, tasers and a collapsible, telescopic (or telescoping) steel police baton.
Unlike in many other law enforcement agencies in the United States, the Border Patrol operates over 10,000 SUVs and pickup trucks, which are known for their capabilities to move around in any sort of terrain. This vehicles may have individual revolving lights (strobes or LEDs) and/or light bars and sirens. An extensive modernization drive has ensured that these vehicles are equipped with wireless sets in communication with a central control room. Border Patrol vehicles may also have equipment such as emergency first aid kits. Some sectors make use of sedans like the Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptor or the Dodge Charger as patrol cars or high speed "interceptors" on highways. The border patrol has appox 2,000 sedans. The Border Patrol also operates ATVs, motorcycles, snowmobiles, and small boats in riverine environments.
In 2005, all Border Patrol and ICE aircraft operations were combined under CBP's Office of Air and Marine. All CBP vessel operations within the Customs Waters and on the high seas are conducted by Marine Interdiction Agents of the Office of Air and Marine.
Color schemes of Border Patrol vehicles are either a long green stripe running the length of the vehicle (older vehicles) or a broad green diagonal stripe (newer vehicles) on the door. Most Border Patrol vehicles are painted predominantly white. During the 1960s to mid 1980's Border Patrol vehicles were painted a light green.
The Border Patrol also extensively uses horses for remote area patrols. As of 2005[update], the U.S. Border Patrol has 205 horses. Most are employed along the Mexico–United States border. In Arizona, these animals are fed special processed feed pellets so that their wastes do not spread non-native plants in the national parks and wildlife areas they patrol.
Killed in the line of duty 
The Border Patrol has suffered more in the line of duty deaths than any other federal law enforcement agency since the patrolling of the border began in 1904. On a daily basis Patrol Agents often work alone in remote wilderness areas along the United States international border in areas notorious for alien smuggling, narcotics and contraband smuggling, human trafficking and banditry.
Line of duty deaths 
Total line of duty deaths (since 1924): 114
- Aircraft accident: 14
- Assault: 2
- Automobile accident: 29
- Drowned: 4
- Duty related illness: 2
- Fall: 4
- Gunfire: 31
- Gunfire (Accidental): 3
- Heart attack: 6
- Heat exhaustion: 1
- Motorcycle accident: 2
- Stabbed: 2
- Struck by train: 5
- Struck by vehicle: 3
- Vehicle pursuit: 2
- Vehicular assault: 4
Armed incursions 
On August 7, 2008, Mexican troops crossed the border into Arizona and held a U.S. Border Patrol Agent at gunpoint. Agents stationed at Ajo, Arizona said that the Mexican soldiers crossed the border into an isolated area southwest of Tucson and pointed rifles at the agent, who has not been identified. The Mexicans withdrew after other U.S. agents arrived on the scene.
Death threats 
On numerous occasions Patrol Agents have been fired upon from the Mexican side of the international border. Intelligence gathering has discovered bounties being placed on Patrol Agents to be paid by criminal smuggling organizations upon the confirmed murder or kidnapping of a U.S. Border Patrol Agent. In 2008, intelligence learned of a two-million-dollar contract for the murder of a Border Patrol Agent. In 2009 Border Patrol Agent Rosas was murdered in an ambush while on patrol; a bounty may have been paid to the assassins.
Ramos and Compean 
In February 2005, Border Patrol Agents Ignacio Ramos and Jose Compean were involved in an incident while pursuing a van in Fabens, Texas. The driver, later identified as Aldrete Davila, was shot by Agent Ramos during a scuffle. Davila escaped back into Mexico, and the agents discovered that the van contained a million dollars worth of marijuana (about 750 pounds). None of the agents at the scene orally reported the shooting, including two supervisors. The Department of Homeland Security opened up an internal affairs investigation into the incident. Ramos and Compean were charged with multiple crimes. Ramos was convicted of causing serious bodily injury, assault with a deadly weapon, discharge of a firearm in relation to a crime of violence, and a civil rights violation. Compeán was found guilty on 11 counts, including discharging a firearm during the commission of a violent crime, which by itself carries a federally mandated 10-year minimum sentence. Without that charge, both agents involved would have received far shorter sentences. Ramos was sentenced to 11 years and a day in prison and Compean to 12 years. On January 19, 2009, President Bush commuted the sentences of both Ramos and Compean, effectively ending their prison term on March 20, 2009, and they were released on February 17, 2009.
Death of Sergio Hernandez 
Border Patrol agents claimed that there was a mob that was throwing stones at them. They also claimed that Hernandez was trying to cross the U.S. border and that he had already tried to do so in the past.
On June 10 the Mexican president Felipe Calderón called on the United States to launch a "thorough, impartial" probe into the deaths of two Mexican nationals, including the 14-year-old Hernandez, at the hands of U.S. border police: "I demand the United States government conduct a thorough, impartial ... investigation, concluding with an establishment of the facts and punishment of the culprits."
On June 12, 2010 the television network Univision aired cellphone video footage of the incident, after which Mexican legislators called for the extradition of the officer accused of the shooting.
As the Washington Office on Latin America's Border Fact Check site points out, a similar incident occurred in October 2012 when 16-year-old Jose Antonio Elena Rodriguez was killed in downtown Nogales, Mexico when a Border Patrol Agent opened fire at a group of people allegedly throwing rocks at him; Rodriguez was shot seven times. WOLA and other human rights organizations assert that "...[L]aw enforcement experience offers a series of non-lethal responses to rock throwing incidents along the U.S.-Mexico border," such as pepper ball launchers.
In 2006, a documentary called The Illegal Immigration Invasion linked the scale of illegal immigration into the United States chiefly to the ineffectiveness of the Border Patrol. The film claimed that this is due to the lack of judicial powers of the Border Patrol and the effective hamstringing of the agency by the federal government. The film interviews people that deal with illegal immigration on a daily basis, as well as local citizens living in the border areas.
Allegations of abuse 
Various civil society and human rights organizations have alleged that abuses of migrants by Border Patrol agents occur frequently:
- Between 2010 and 2011 excessive use of force by Border Patrol and Field Operations agents led to the death of six Mexican citizens. A PBS report, Crossing the Line, released in July 2012, profiled the case of Anastasio Hernandez-Rojas, who died after being beaten and then shocked by a Taser by a group of CBP officers at the San Ysidro port of entry near San Diego in May 2010. In 2012, in a letter to President Obama posted on the website of the Washington Office on Latin America, 118 civil society organizations criticized the Border Patrol for failing to thoroughly investigate the crime and stated that the Border Patrol "is operating with very little transparency and virtual impunity, especially in the southern border region where Border Patrol and other CBP agents regularly violate the human and civil rights of those who call the border region home."
- From 2008-2011, the Arizona organization No More Deaths interviewed nearly 13,000 migrants who had been in Border Patrol custody, in the Arizona border towns of Naco, Nogales, and Agua Prieta. Their report, A Culture of Cruelty, documents abuses including denial of or insufficient water and food; failure to provide medical treatment; verbal, physical and psychological abuse; separation of family members and dangerous repatriation practices. In February 2012, Border Patrol Chief Michael Fisher stated in congressional testimony that the Border Patrol takes allegations of abuse seriously. However, No More Deaths testified before the Inter-American Commission of Human Rights in March 2012 and stated that in spite of raising their concerns for several years, “the agency has taken the position that such abuses simply do not occur.”
- There are allegations of abuse by the United States Border Patrol such as the ones reported by Jesus A. Trevino, that concludes in an article published in the Houston Journal of International Law (2006) with a request to create an independent review commission to oversee the actions of the Border Patrol, and that creating such review board will make the American public aware of the "serious problem of abuse that exists at the border by making this review process public" and that "illegal immigrants deserve the same constitutionally-mandated humane treatment of citizens and legal residents".
- In 1998, Amnesty International investigated allegations of ill-treatment and brutality by officers of the Immigration and Naturalization Service, and particularly the Border Patrol. Their report said they found indications of human rights violations during 1996, 1997 and early 1998.
- An article in Social Justice by Michael Huspek, Leticia Jimenez, Roberto Martinez (1998) cites that in December 1997, John Case, head of the INS Office of Internal Audit, announced at a press conference that public complaints to the INS had risen 29% from 1996, with the "vast majority" of complaints emanating from the southwest border region, but that of the 2,300 cases, the 243 cases of serious allegations of abuse were down in 1997. These serious cases are considered to be distinct from less serious complaints, such as "verbal abuse, discrimination, extended detention without cause."
Incidences of corruption in the U.S. Border Patrol include:
- Pablo Sergio Barry, an agent charged with one count of harboring an illegal alien (8 U.S.C. § 1324), three counts of false statements, and two counts of making a false document. He pled guilty.
- Christopher E. Bernis, an agent indicted on a charge of harboring an illegal alien for nine months while employed as a U.S. Border Patrol agent.
- Jose De Jesus Ruiz, an agent whose girlfriend was an illegal alien, he was put on administrative leave pending an investigation.
- Oscar Antonio Ortiz, an illegal alien who used a fake birth certificate to get into the Border Patrol admitted to smuggling more than 100 illegal aliens into the U.S., some of them in his government truck, and was helping to smuggle illegal aliens and charged with conspiring with another agent to smuggle aliens.
- An unidentified patrol agent who was recorded on a wire tap stating that he helped to smuggle 30 to 50 aliens at a time.
National Border Patrol Council 
National Border Patrol Council (NBPC) is the labor union which represents over 17,000 Border Patrol Agents and support staff. The NBPC was founded on November 1, 1965, and its parent organization is the American Federation of Government Employees, AFL-CIO. The NBPC's executive committee is staffed by current and retired Border Patrol Agents and, along with its constituent locals, employs a staff of a dozen attorneys and field representatives. The NBPC is associated with the Peace Officer Research Association of California Legal Defense Fund|California’s Legal Defense Fund. The president of the NBPC is Christopher J. Bauder.
National Border Patrol Museum 
The National Border Patrol Museum is located in El Paso, Texas. The museum exhibits uniforms, equipment, photographs, guns, vehicles, airplanes, boats, and documents which depict the historical and current sector operations throughout the United States.
Border Patrol Foundation 
The Border Patrol Foundation started in 2009 to respond to the need of the survivors of agents killed in the line of duty. The Border Patrol Foundation assists families monetarily and is attempting to expand its services into area grief education and support of those injured in the line of duty. The Border Patrol Foundation board members are a mixture of retired Border Patrol Agents and supporters.
In popular culture 
- Border Patrol by Alvin Edward Moore
- The Border Patrol by Deborah Wells Salter
- EWI: Entry Without Inspection (Title 8 U.S.C. § 1325 Improper entry by alien) by Fortuna Testarona Valiente
- Tracks in the Sand: A Tale of the Border Patrol by Kent E Lundgren,
- On The Line: Inside the U.S. Border Patrol by Alex Pacheco and Erich Krauss
- Patrolling Chaos: The U.S. Border Patrol in Deep South Texas by Robert Lee Maril
- The U.S. Border Patrol: Guarding the Nation (Blazers) by Connie Collwell Miller
- My Border Patrol Diary: Laredo, Texas by Dale Squint
- Holding the Line: War Stories of the U.S. Border Patrol by Gerald Schumacher
- The Border Patrol Ate My Dust by Alicia Alarcon, Ethriam Cash Brammer, and Ethriam Cash Brammer de Gonzales
- The Border: Exploring the U.S.-Mexican Divide by David J. Danelo
- Beat The Border: An Insider's Guide To How The U.S. Border Works And How To Beat It by Ned Beaumont
- West of the Moon: A Border Patrol Agent's Tale by D. B. Prehoda
- The Journey: U.S. Border Patrol & the Solution to the Illegal Alien Problem by Donald R. Coppock
- Border patrol: With the U.S. Immigration Service on the Mexican boundary, 1910-54 by Clifford Alan Perkins
- Border Patrol: How U.S. Agents Protect Our Borders from Illegal Entry by Carroll B. Colby
- In Mortal Danger: The Battle for America's Border and Security by Tom Tancredo
- Border Songs by Jim Lynch
- Border Patrolman, a 1936 film in which a Border Patrolman Bob Wallace, played by George O'Brien, resigns in protest after being humiliated by the spoiled granddaughter of a millionaire.
- Border Patrol, a 1943 film starring William C. Boyd, Andy Clyde, George Reeves, and Robert Mitchum
- Borderline, a 1950 film noir starring Fred MacMurray about drug smuggling across the U.S./Mexico border
- Border Patrol, a 1959 syndicated television series, starring Richard Webb as the fictitious deputy chief of the U.S. Border Patrol
- Borderline, a 1980 movie starring Charles Bronson about a Patrol Agent in Charge of a Border Patrol Station located in the hills southeast of San Diego, CA near the U.S./Mexico border. Bronson's character and the Patrol Agents under his command pursue and apprehend a violent human trafficker/smuggler played by Ed Harris who murdered a veteran Patrol Agent, portrayed by Wilford Brimley, who had intercepted the smuggler one evening bringing in a shipment of illegal aliens across the border. Their investigation leads to the breaking up of the vicious human trafficking/smuggling operation run by Harris's character.
- Border Cop a 1980 film starring Telly Savalas
- The Border, a 1982 film starring Jack Nicholson as a Patrol Agent working on the U.S.-Mexico Border.
- El Norte, a 1983 film portraying Central American Indian peasants traveling to the United States.
- Flashpoint, a 1984 film starring Kris Kristofferson, Treat Williams, Rip Torn, and Kurtwood Smith.
- Last Man Standing, a 1996 film starring Bruce Willis as a professional gunman and Ken Jenkins as Texas Ranger Captain Tom Pickett who is investigating the murder of an unnamed Patrol Inspector (played by Larry Holt) in the town where Willis's character is working.
- Men in Black, a 1997 science fiction comedy action film starring Tommy Lee Jones, Will Smith and Vincent D'Onofrio. The Border Patrol was portrayed as Immigration Inspectors in an unkind portrayal.
- The Gatekeeper, a 2002 film by John Carlos Frey about the struggles of migrants at the Mexican/U.S. border.
- The Three Burials of Melquiades Estrada, a 2005 film by Tommy Lee Jones about the accidental killing of an illegal Mexican alien by a Border Patrol Agent.
- The Shepherd: Border Patrol, a 2007 film starring Jean-Claude Van Damme
- Linewatch, a 2008 film starring Cuba Gooding, Jr., as a Border Patrol Agent defending his family from a group of Los Angeles gang members involved in the illegal trade of importing narcotics into the United States.
- Border Patrol: American's Gatekeepers A&E with former United States Attorney General Janet Reno
- Investigative Reports: Border Patrol: America's Gatekeepers A&E Investigates
- History the Enforcers: Border Patrol History Channel
- Border Wars (TV series) National Geographic Channel
See also 
- Border Protection Personnel
- List of United States federal law enforcement agencies
- Immigration and Customs Enforcement
- Diplomatic Security Service (DSS), U.S. State Department
- Border control
- Ignacio Ramos
- Illegal immigration
- H.R. 4437
- Minuteman Project
- MQ-9 Reaper
- National Border Patrol Museum
- No More Deaths
- Operation Gatekeeper
- United States Mexico barrier
- United States-Canadian Border
- "Detroit Welcome". CBP.
- "A History of the United States Border Patrol". National Border Patrol Museum. Retrieved 2013-04-10.
- "Who we are and what we do". CPB.gov. U.S. Customs and Boarder Protection. 2008-09-03. Retrieved 2009-06-01.
- Gaynor, Tim (2008-01-23). "U.S. turns to horses to secure borders". Reuters. Retrieved 2008-01-24.
- Starr, Tina (28 April 2010). "Mexican farmworker's life like living in a "golden cage"". Barton, Vermont: the Chronicle. p. 13.
- http://www.cbp.gov/linkhandler/cgov/border_security/border_patrol/national_bp_strategy.ctt/national_bp_strategy.pdf[dead link]
- "Boarder Patrol overview". CPB.gov. U.S. Customs and Boarder Protection. 2008-08-22. Retrieved 2009-06-01.
- Woodard, Colin (January 9, 2011), "Far From Border, U.S. Detains Foreign Students", The Chronicle of Higher Education
- Nuñez-Neto, Blas (2006-010-25). Border security: The role of the U.S. Border Patrol (PDF). Congressional Research Service. p. 35. Retrieved 2009-06-01.
- Kelly, Erin (3 June 2010). "Governor:Ariz. besieged". Melbourne, Florida: Florida Today. pp. 5A.
- Coyle, Marcia (2008-03-03). "Waivers for border fence challenged: Environmental groups take their complaints to Supreme Court". The Recorder.
- Archibold, Randal C. (2008-04-02). "Government issues waiver for fencing along border". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-04-02.
- "Conservation groups call for an immediate halt to construction of border fence in San Pedro National Conservation Area". US Newswire. 2007-10-05.
- Gordon, David George (May 2000). "A 'grande' dispute". National Geographic World. p. 4.
- Cohn, Jeffrey P. (2007). "The environmental impacts of a border fence". BioScience 57 (1): 96. doi:10.1641/B570116. Retrieved 2009-06-01.
- "Expansive border fence stirs fights over land". Tell Me More. 2008-03-03. NPR. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=87854099.
- 2007 State of the Border Patrol video[dead link]
- Spagat, Elliot (2007-08-16). "Border Patrol uniform gets first makeover since the 1950s". North County Times. Retrieved 2009-06-01.
- "Border Patrol Inspector Theodore L. Newton Jr.". The Officer Down Memorial Page. Retrieved 2009-06-01.
- "Border Patrol Inspector George F. Azrak". The Officer Down Memorial Page. Retrieved 2009-06-01.
- Rostien, Arthur H. (2005-06-09). "Border Patrol horses get special feed that helps protect desert ecosystem". Environmental News Network. Retrieved 2009-06-01.
- "United States Department of Homeland Security - Customs and Border Protection - Border Patrol". The Officer Down Memorial Page. Retrieved 2010-12-15.
- Meyers, Jim (2008-08-06). "Mexican troops cross border, hold border agent". Newsmax.com. Archived from the original on August 22, 2008. Retrieved 2009-06-01.
- "Glenn Beck: Ramos & Compean - the whole story". The Glenn Beck Program. Premiere Radio Networks. 2008-07-29. Retrieved 2009-06-01.
- "Uproar over U.S. Border Patrol shooting". UPI. 2006-08-28. Retrieved 2012-03-08.
- "Ramos and Campean - court appeal". Retrieved 2009-06-01.
- Seper, Jerry (2006-08-23). "Lawmakers seek review of border agent case". The Washington Times. Retrieved 2006-12-14.
- Gilot, Louis (2006-10-20). "Sentence handed to border agents; free until Jan. 17". El Paso Times. Retrieved 2006-12-14.
- Riechmann, Deb. "Bush commutes prison sentences of 2 former U.S. border agents", Associated Press, January 19, 2009.
- Breaking News: Former El Paso Border Patrol Agents Released From Prison
- "U.S. border agent kills Mexican teen". Toronto Sun. 2010-06-09. Retrieved 2010-07-01.
- "Mexico urges U.S. probe of border deaths". Sydney Morning Herald. 2010-06-11. Retrieved 2010-07-01.
- "Video Fuels Anger Over Mexico Border Shooting". Sky News. 2010-06-12. Retrieved 2010-07-01.
- "U.S. Border Patrol shooting (new video) threatens Mexico drug war cooperation". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 2010-07-01.
- Meyer, Maureen. "Is firing bullets at rock throwers a justified use of force by the Border Patrol?". Border Fact Check. Washington Office on Latin America. Retrieved 23 October 2012.
- The illegal immigration invasion (Google video). October Sun Films. 2006-04-06. Retrieved 2009-06-01.
- Meyer, Maureen. "Are migrants routinely abused by Customs and Border Protection agents?". Border Fact Check. Washington Office on Latin America. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
- "U.S. Organizations Urge President Obama to Address Border Patrol Abuses". Washington Office on Latin America. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
- Fisher, Michael. "Testimony of Chief Michael Fisher". Transcript of House Appropriations Subcommittee on Homeland Security Hearing on the Proposed Fiscal 2013 Appropriations for the U.S. Customs and Border Protection. House Appropriations Subcommittee on Homeland Security. Retrieved August 23, 2012.
- Jesus A. Trevino (1998). "Border violence against illegal immigrants and the need to change the border patrol's current complaint review process" (PDF). Houston Journal of International Law 21 (1): 85–114. ISSN 0194-1879. Retrieved 2009-06-01.
- United States of America: Human rights concerns in the border region with Mexico. Amnesty International. 1998-05-19. Archived from the original on October 21, 2007. Retrieved 2009-06-01.
- Huspek, Michael; Roberto Martinez, and Leticia Jimenez (1998). "Violations of human and civil rights on the U.S.-Mexico border, 1995 to 1997: a report" (Reprint). Social Justice 25 (2). ISSN 1043-1578. Retrieved 2009-06-01.
The data compiled in this report suggest that law enforcement in the southwest region of the United States may be verging on lawlessness. This statement receives fuller support from announcements emanating from the INS. In December 1997, John Chase, head of the INS Office of Internal Audit, announced at a press conference that public complaints to the INS had risen 29% from 1996, with the "vast majority" of complaints emanating from the southwest border region. Over 2,300 complaints were filed in 1997 as opposed to the 1,813 complaints filed in 1996. Another 400 reports of "minor misconduct" were placed in a new category. Chase was quick to emphasize, however, that the 243 "serious" allegations of abuse and use of excessive force that could warrant criminal prosecution were down in 1997, as compared with the 328 in 1996. These "serious" cases are considered to be distinct from less serious complaints, such as "verbal abuse, discrimination, extended detention without cause.
- "Border agent accused of hiding an illegal entrant". Arizona Daily Star. 2005-06-23. Retrieved 2009-06-01.
- "Border agent pleads guilty to harboring illegal entrant". Arizona Daily Star. 2005-09-22. Retrieved 2009-06-01.
- "U.S. border agent indicted". Arizona Daily Star. 2005-03-11. Retrieved 2009-06-01.
- "Boarder agent said to also be smuggler". SignOnSanDiego.com. Union-Tribune Publishing. 2005-08-05. Retrieved 2009-06-01.[dead link]
- Spagat, Elliot (2006-07-28). "Border agent gets 5 years for smuggling". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2009-06-01.
- "About NBPC". National Border Patrol Council. 2008-08-14. Retrieved 2009-06-01.
Further reading 
- Kelly Lytle Hernandez. Migra! A History of the U.S. Border Patrol (University of California Press; 2010) 274 pages; draws on previously lost and untapped records in a history of the force since its beginnings in 1924.
- Official U.S. Border Patrol website
- Border Patrol official recruiting page