United States House of Representatives elections, 1870

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United States House of Representatives elections, 1870
United States
1868 ←
June 6, 1870 - October 6, 1871[Note 1] → 1872

All 243 seats to the United States House of Representatives
122 seats were needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  JamesGBlaine.png George W. Morgan - Brady-Handy.jpg
Leader James Blaine George Morgan
Party Republican Democratic
Leader's seat Maine-3rd Ohio-13th
Last election 171 seats 67 seats
Seats won 137[Note 2] 104[Note 3]
Seat change Decrease 34 Increase 37
Popular vote 2,560,655[citation needed] 2,408,655[citation needed]
Percentage 48.2% 45.4%
Swing Decrease 4.1% Decrease 0.1%

  Third party
 
Party Liberal Republican
Last election 0 seats
Seats won 2[Note 4]
Seat change Increase 2

Speaker before election

James Blaine
Republican

Elected Speaker

James Blaine
Republican

Elections to the United States House of Representatives were held in 1870 and 1871 to elect Representatives for the 42nd Congress, and were held in the middle of President Ulysses S. Grant's first term.

With Grant's administration rocked by a number of scandals (including a shady deal for gold speculation that led to a crash in the market and several business deals that saw high-ranking governmental officials gain kickbacks) and Reconstruction winding down, his Republican Party lost seats to the opposition Democratic Party but retained an overall majority. Also, since the Democratic Party controlled governments were reestablishing themselves in some portions of the South, the Democrats were able to make huge gains in this election.

Overall results[edit]

Party Total
seats
Seat
change
Seat
percentage
Vote
percentage
Popular
vote
Republican 139[Note 5] Decrease 32 57.2% 48.2% 2,560,655
Democratic 104 Increase 37 42.8% 45.4% 2,408,655
Others 0.0% 6.4% 341,794
Totals 243 Steady 100.0% 100.0% 5,311,104

Election summaries[edit]

137 2 104
Republican LR Democratic
State Type Total
seats
Republican Democratic
Seats Change Seats Change
Mississippi[Note 6][Note 7] District 5 5 Steady 0 Steady
Alabama District 6 3 Decrease 1 3 Increase 1
Arkansas District 3 2 Steady 1 Steady
California[Note 8] District 3 3 Increase 2 0 Decrease 2
Connecticut[Note 8] District 4 3 Steady 1 Steady
Delaware At-large 1 0 Steady 1 Steady
Florida At-large 1 0 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1
Georgia District 7 3 Steady 4 Steady
Illinois District
+ 1 at-large
14 8 Decrease 2 6 Increase 2
Indiana[Note 6] District 11 6 Decrease 1 5 Increase 1
Iowa[Note 6] District 6 6 Steady 0 Steady
Kansas At-large 1 1 Steady 0 Steady
Kentucky District 9 0 Steady 9 Steady
Louisiana District 5 5 Steady 0 Steady
Maine[Note 6] District 5 5 Steady 0 Steady
Maryland District 5 0 Steady 5 Steady
Massachusetts District 10 10 Steady 0 Steady
Michigan District 6 5 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1
Minnesota District 2 2 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1
Missouri District 9 5[Note 9] Decrease 2 4 Increase 2
Nebraska[Note 6] At-large 1 1 Steady 0 Steady
Nevada At-large 1 0 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1
New Hampshire[Note 8] District 3 0 Decrease 3 3 Increase 3
New Jersey District 5 3 Increase 1 2 Decrease 1
New York District 31 15 Decrease 3 16 Increase 3
North Carolina[Note 6] District 7 2 Decrease 4 5 Increase 4
Ohio[Note 6] District 19 14 Increase 1 5 Decrease 1
Oregon[Note 6] At-large 1 0 Steady 1 Steady
Pennsylvania[Note 6] District 24 13[Note 10] Decrease 3 11 Increase 3
Rhode Island District 2 2 Steady 0 Steady
South Carolina[Note 6] District 4 4 Steady 0 Steady
Tennessee District 8 2 Decrease 6 6 Increase 6
Texas[Note 8] District 4 0 Decrease 3 4 Increase 3
Vermont[Note 6] District 3 3 Steady 0 Steady
Virginia District 8 3 Steady 5 Increase 5[Note 11]
West Virginia[Note 6] District 3 1 Decrease 2 2 Increase 2
Wisconsin District 6 4 Decrease 1 2 Increase 1
Total 243 139[Note 5]
57.2%
Decrease 32 104
42.8%
Increase 37
House seats
Republican
  
57.20%
Democratic
  
42.80%

The previous election included 5 Conservatives

Election dates[edit]

In 1845, Congress passed a law providing for a uniform nationwide date for choosing Presidential electors.[1] This law did not affect election dates for Congress, which remained within the jurisdiction of State governments, but over time, the States moved their Congressional elections to this date as well. In 1870, there remained 12 States that held elections before Election Day, and 4 that held it after at this time:

All Races[edit]

California[edit]

District Incumbent Party Elected Status Opponent
California 1 Samuel Beach Axtell Democratic 1867 Retired
Republican Gain
Sherman O. Houghton (R) 51.6%
Lawrence Archer (D) 48.4%
California 2 Aaron Augustus Sargent Republican 1868 Incumbent re-elected Aaron Augustus Sargent (R) 54%
James W. Coffroth (D) 46%
California 3 James A. Johnson Democratic 1867 Retired
Republican gain
John M. Coghlan (R) 51.7%
George Pearce (D) 48.3%

Florida[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Florida at-large Charles M. Hamilton Republican 1868 Retired
Republican hold
Josiah T. Walls (R) 51.3%
Silas L. Niblack (D) 48.7%

Niblack subsequently successfully challenged Walls' election, and took Florida's at-large seat on January 29, 1873.[2]

Ohio[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates[3]
Ohio 1 Peter W. Strader Democratic 1868 Retired
Republican gain
Ohio 2 Job E. Stevenson Republican 1868 Re-elected
Ohio 3 Robert C. Schenck Republican 1862 Lost Re-election
Democratic gain
Ohio 4 William Lawrence Republican 1864 Retired
Democratic gain
Ohio 5 William Mungen Democratic 1866 Retired
Democratic hold
Ohio 6 John Armstrong Smith Republican 1868 Re-elected
Ohio 7 James J. Winans Republican 1868 Lost Re-nomination
Republican hold
Ohio 8 John Beatty Republican 1868 (s) Re-elected
Ohio 9 Edward F. Dickinson Democratic 1868 Lost Re-election
Republican gain
Ohio 10 Erasmus D. Peck Republican 1870 (s) Re-elected
Ohio 11 John Thomas Wilson Republican 1866 Re-elected
Ohio 12 Philadelph Van Trump Democratic 1866 Re-elected
Ohio 13 George W. Morgan Democratic 1868 Re-elected
Ohio 14 Martin Welker Republican 1864 Retired
Republican hold
Ohio 15 Eliakim H. Moore Republican 1868 Retired
Republican hold
Ohio 16 John Bingham Republican 1864 Re-elected
Ohio 17 Jacob A. Ambler Republican 1868 Re-elected
Ohio 18 William H. Upson Republican 1868 Re-elected
Ohio 19 James A. Garfield Republican 1862 Re-elected

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Majority of states held elections on November 8, 1870 (i.e. Election Day).
  2. ^ Includes 1 Independent Republican.
  3. ^ Note that Dubin (p. 221) records 9–10 "Conservatives", and approximately 94 Democrats, as being elected to the 42nd Congress. This contrasts with Martis (pp. 124–125) which offers no separate accounting of "Conservatives" from Democrats and thus records a total of 104 Democratic members of the 42nd Congress.
  4. ^ Two Liberal Republicans were elected: Gustavus A. Finkelnburg elected to MO-02, and James G. Blair elected to MO-08.
  5. ^ a b Includes 2 Liberal Republicans and 1 Independent Republican.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Elections held early.
  7. ^ Elections held at the same time as elections for 41st Congress.
  8. ^ a b c d Elections held late.
  9. ^ Includes 2 Liberal Republicans: Gustavus A. Finkelnburg elected to MO-02, and James G. Blair elected to MO-08.
  10. ^ Includes 1 Independent Republican, John V. Creely, elected to PA-02.
  11. ^ Previous election had 5 Conservatives.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Statutes at Large, 28th Congress, 2nd Session, p. 721.
  2. ^ Forty-Second Congress (membership roster)
  3. ^ Smith, Joseph P, ed. (1898). History of the Republican Party in Ohio I. Chicago: the Lewis Publishing Company. pp. 277, 278. 

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]