James Bryce, 1st Viscount Bryce
Background and education
Bryce was born in Arthur Street, Belfast, County Antrim, the son of James Bryce, LL.D., of Glasgow, by his wife Margaret, daughter of James Young of Whiteabbey, County Antrim. The first eight years of his life were spent residing at his grandfather’s Whiteabbey residence, often playing for hours on the tranquil picturesque shoreline. John Annan Bryce was his younger brother. He was educated under his uncle Reuben John Bryce at the Belfast Academy, at Glasgow High School, the University of Glasgow, the University of Heidelberg and Trinity College, Oxford. He was elected a fellow of Oriel College, Oxford, in 1862, and called to the Bar, Lincoln's Inn, in 1867.
Bryce went to the bar and practised in London for a few years, but he was soon called back to Oxford as Regius Professor of Civil Law, a position he held between 1870 and 1893. From 1870 to 1875 he was also Professor of Jurisprudence at Owen's College, Manchester. His reputation as an historian had been made as early as 1864 by his work on the Holy Roman Empire. In 1872 he travelled to Iceland to see the land of the Icelandic sagas as he was a great admirer of Njáls saga. In 1876, he climbed above the tree line on Mount Ararat and found a slab of hand-hewn timber, four feet long and five inches thick, which he believed was from Noah's Ark.
Bryce was an ardent Liberal in politics, and in 1880 he was elected to parliament for the Tower Hamlets constituency in London. In 1885 he was returned for South Aberdeen, where he was re-elected on succeeding occasions and remained a Member of Parliament until 1907.
Bryce's intellectual distinction and political industry made him a valuable member of the Liberal Party. As soon as the late 1860s, he acted as Chairman of the Royal Commission on Secondary Education. In 1885 he was made Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs under William Ewart Gladstone, but he had to leave office after the electoral defeat the same year. In 1892 he joined Gladstone's last cabinet as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster and was sworn of the Privy Council at the same time. In 1894 he was appointed President of the Board of Trade in the new cabinet of Lord Rosebery, but had to leave this office with that whole Liberal cabinet as soon as 1895.
The Liberals were to remain out of office for the next ten years. In 1897, after a visit to South Africa, Bryce published a volume of Impressions of that country, which had considerable weight in Liberal circles when the Second Boer War was being discussed. He was one of the harshest critics of British repressive policy against Boer civilians in the South African partisan War. Taking the risk of being very unpopular for a certain moment, he condemned the systematic burning of farms and the imprisonment of old people, women and children in British concentration camps. The "still radical" Bryce was made Chief Secretary for Ireland in Prime Minister Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman's cabinet in 1905 – in which he remained throughout 1906.
Ambassador to the United States
However, even this time Bryce's cabinet post was held only for a brief period, because as soon as February 1907 he was appointed British Ambassador to the United States of America. He kept this diplomatic office until 1913 and was very efficient in strengthening the Anglo-American friendship. Bryce made many personal friends in American politics, amongst them US President Theodore Roosevelt. The German ambassador in Washington, Graf Heinrich von Bernstorff, later admitted how relieved he felt that Bryce was not his competitor for American sympathies during the World War period, when Bernstorff managed to secure the neutrality of the USA at least until 1917.
As an author, Bryce quickly became well known in America for his 1888 work, The American Commonwealth. The book thoroughly examined the institutions of the United States from the point of view of a historian and constitutional lawyer, and it at once became a classic. In developing material for his book, Bryce painstakingly reproduced the travels of Alexis de Tocqueville, writer of Democracy in America (1835–40). Although Tocqueville emphasized the egalitarian nature of early-19th-century America, Bryce was dismayed to find vast inequality a half-century later, stating "Sixty years ago, there were no great fortunes in America, few large fortunes, no poverty. Now there is some poverty ... and a greater number of gigantic fortunes than in any other country of the world" and "As respects education ... the profusion of…elementary schools tends to raise the mass to a higher point than in Europe ... [but] there is an increasing class that has studied at the best universities. It appears that equality has diminished [in this regard] and will diminish further." The work was heavily used in academia as a result of Bryce's close friendships with men such as President James B. Angell of the University of Michigan and successively Charles W. Eliot and Abbott Lawrence Lowell at Harvard. Against the backdrop of the New Immigration of the late nineteenth century the work also became a key medium for popularizing the view of American History as distinctly Anglo-Saxon, compatible with similarly exceptionalist "Whig" histories written in late Victorian Britain.
First World War
After his retirement as ambassador and his return to Great Britain he was raised to the peerage as Viscount Bryce, of Dechmount in the County of Lanark, in 1914. Thus he became a member of the House of Lords, the powers of which had been curtailed in the Liberal Parliamentary Reform of 1911. Following the outbreak of the First World War, Lord Bryce was commissioned by Prime Minister H. H. Asquith to give the official Bryce Report on alleged German atrocities in Belgium. The report was published in 1915, and was damning of German behaviour against civilians; Lord Bryce's accounts were confirmed by Vernon Lyman Kellogg, director of the American Commission for Relief in Belgium, who told the New York Times that the German military enslaved hundreds of thousands of Belgian workers, and abused and maimed many of them in the process. However, on a considerable scale the contents of the Bryce Report were plain war propaganda using the name of a famous scholar, for example the notorious lie about cut-off children's hands.
Bryce also strongly condemned the Armenian Genocide that took place in the Ottoman Empire mainly in the year 1915. Bryce was the first to speak on that subject in The House of Lords, in July 1915, and later, with the assistance of the historian Arnold J. Toynbee, he produced a documentary record of the massacres, published by the British government in 1916 as the Blue Book. In 1921, Lord Bryce wrote that the Armenian genocide had also claimed half of the population of Assyrians in the Ottoman Empire, as similar cruelties were perpetrated upon them.
During the last years of his life, Bryce served at the International Court at The Hague, supported the establishment of the League of Nations and published a book about Modern Democracy in 1921 that was rather critical of post-war democracy; specifically, he strongly opposed the new right to vote for women.
Honours and other public appointments
Bryce received numerous academic honors from home and foreign universities. In September 1901 he received the degree of Doctor of Laws from Dartmouth College. He became a fellow of the Royal Society in 1894.
In earlier life he was a notable mountain climber, ascending Mount Ararat in 1876, and publishing a volume on Transcaucasia and Ararat in 1877; in 1899–1901 he was president of the Alpine Club. From his Caucasian journey he brought back a deep distrust of Ottoman rule in Asia Minor and a distinct sympathy for the Armenian people.
In 1882, Bryce established the National Liberal Club whose members, in its first three decades, included fellow founder, Prime Minister Gladstone, George Bernard Shaw, David Lloyd George, H. H. Asquith and many other prominent Liberal candidates and MP's such as Winston Churchill and Bertrand Russell.
In 1907 he was made a Member of the Order of Merit by King Edward VII. At the King's death, Lord Bryce arranged his Washington Memorial Service. At the time of Lord Bryce's memorial service at Westminster Abbey his wife, Lady Bryce, received condolences from King George V, who "regarded Lord Bryce as an old friend and trusted counsellor to whom I could always turn." Queen Victoria had said that Bryce was "one of the best informed men on all subjects I have ever met". He was also president of the British Academy from 1913 to 1917. In 2013 the Ulster History Circle unveiled a blue plaque dedicated to him near his birthplace in Belfast.
Lord Bryce married Elizabeth Marion, daughter of Thomas Ashton and sister of Lord Ashton, 1st Baron Ashton of Hyde in 1889. They had no children. He died on 22 January 1922, aged 83, in Sidmouth, Devon, on the last of his lifelong travels, and was cremated at Golders Green Crematorium. A large monument is erected to him in Grange Cemetery in Edinburgh and his ashes are presumed to be here. The viscountcy died with him. Lady Bryce died in December 1939 and is buried with his ashes. In 1965, the James Bryce Chair of Government (changed to Politics in 1970) was endowed in his honour at the University of Glasgow.
- The Flora of the Island of Aran, 1859
- The Holy Roman Empire, 1864
- Report on the Condition of Education in Lancashire, 1867
- The Trade Marks Registration Act, with Introduction and Notes on Trade Mark Law, 1877
- Transcaucasia and Ararat, 1877
- The American Commonwealth, 1888, volume I, volume II, volume III
- Impressions of South Africa, 1897
- Studies in History and Jurisprudence, 1901, volume I, volume II
- Studies in Contemporary Biography, 1903
- The Hindrances to Good Citizenship, 1909
- South America: Observations and Impressions, 1912
- University and Historical Addresses, 1913
- The Treatment of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire 1915–16, 1916
- Essays and Addresses in War Time, 1918
- Modern Democracies, 1921 volume I, volume II
His Studies in History and Jurisprudence (1901) and Studies in Contemporary Biography (1903) were republications of essays.
- "An Ideal University," The Contemporary Review, Vol. XLV, June 1884.
- "The Relations of History and Geography," The Contemporary Review, Vol. XLIX, January/June 1886.
- "The Age of Discontent," The Contemporary Review, Vol. LIX, January 1891.
- "The Migrations of the Races of Men Considered Historically," The Contemporary Review, Vol. LXII, July 1892.
- "Equality," The Century; A Popular Quarterly, Volume 56, Issue 3, July 1898.
- "Patriotism consists not in waving the flag, but in striving that our country shall be righteous as well as strong."
- "No government demands so much from the citizen as Democracy and none gives back so much."
- "Life is too short for reading inferior books."
- James Bryce, 1st and last Viscount Bryce. thepeerage.com
- Fisher, H. A. L. (1927) James Bryce: Viscount Bryce of Dechmont, O.M., Vol. 2, London resp. New York. p. 13
- James Bryce. noahsarksearch.com
- Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "T" (part 2)[self-published source][better source needed]
- Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "A" (part 1)[self-published source][better source needed]
- The London Gazette: . 23 August 1892.
- The London Gazette: . 19 August 1892.
- The London Gazette: . 1 June 1894.
- Harvie, Christopher. "James Bryce, 1st Viscount Bryce (1838–1922)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 3 January 2014.
- The London Gazette: . 15 February 1907.
- Viscount James Bryce Bryce, The American Commonwealth, p. 745
- Viscount James Bryce Bryce, The American Commonwealth, p. 746
- Frank Prochaska, Eminent Victorians on American Democracy: The View from Albion (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012), 97-98, 102.
- "Patrick M. Kirkwood, "'Michigan Men' in the Philippines and the Limits of Self-Determination in the Progressive Era," Michigan Historical Review Vol. 40, No. 2 (Fall 2014): 80.". Retrieved 2014-11-04.
- The London Gazette: . 30 January 1914.
- Travis, Hannibal. "Genocide in the Middle East: The Ottoman Empire, Iraq, and Sudan." Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press, 2010, 2007, pp. 237–77, 293–294.
- Travis, Hannibal. "'Native Christians Massacred': The Ottoman Genocide of the Assyrians During World War I." Genocide Studies and Prevention, Vol. 1, No. 3, December 2006, pp. 327–371. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- "Court Circular" The Times (London). Thursday, 26 September 1901. (36570),
- "General Correspondence – Meeting at National Liberal Club – 1914. Ref No. Dell/2/3. British Library of Political and Economical Science". British Library (of Economical and Political Science). Retrieved 14 January 2014.
- "James Bryce, 1st Viscount Bryce". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press Pty. Ltd. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
- Lord Bryce, Viscount James. "Telegram British Embassy, Washington". Telegram British Embassy, Washington. Retrieved 8 May 1910.
- New York Times (28 January 1922). "Britain offers American President Bust of Lord Bryce". New York Times (New York Times). Retrieved 23 May 2013.
- Martin, Stanley. One Hundred Years of Matchless Honour – The Order of Merit. I.B.Tauris. p. 315.
- The London Gazette: . 12 February 1907.
- The Complete Peerage, Volume XIII – Peerage Creations 1901–1938. St Catherine's Press. 1949. p. 187.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- Seaman Jr., John T. A Citizen of the World: The Life of James Bryce, London/New York (2006).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to James Bryce, 1st Viscount Bryce.|
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Bryce, James.|
|Wikisource has original works written by or about:
- Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by James Bryce
- James Bryce, Two Historical Studies: The Ancient Roman Empire and the British Empire in India; Diffusion of Roman and English Law Throughout the World (1914)
- Text of the Bryce report on German atrocities
- Works by James Bryce, 1st Viscount Bryce at Project Gutenberg
- Viscount James Bryce at The Online Library of Liberty
- James Bryce, preface to Shall This Nation Die?, by Joseph Naayem, New York: 1921, quoted in Native Christians Massacred, The Ottoman Genocide of the Assyrians during World War I, 1.3 Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal 326 (2006)
- Atrocities Cured Pacifist, The New York Times, 20 April 1918, at 11
- The American Commonwealth, with an Introduction by Gary L. McDowell (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 1995). 2 Vols. See original text in The Online Library of Liberty.
- Portraits of James Bryce, at the National Portrait Gallery
- Works by or about James Bryce, 1st Viscount Bryce in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
|Parliament of the United Kingdom|
Joseph d'Aguilar Samuda
|Member of Parliament for Tower Hamlets
|New constituency||Member of Parliament for Aberdeen South
George Birnie Esslemont
Hon. Robert Bourke
|Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
Sir James Fergusson, Bt
The Duke of Rutland
|Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
The Lord Tweedmouth
A. J. Mundella
|President of the Board of Trade
Charles Thomson Ritchie
|Chief Secretary for Ireland
Sir Henry Mortimer Durand
|British Ambassador to the United States
Sir Cecil Spring Rice
|Peerage of the United Kingdom|
|New creation||Viscount Bryce