University of Toronto Faculty of Law
|University of Toronto Faculty of Law|
|Established||1887, 1949 (in current state)|
|Endowment||$68 million CA$|
|Parent endowment||$1.539 billion CA$|
|Enrollment||approximately 600 (515 J.D.; 85 LL.M and S.J.D.)|
|Faculty||60 full-time, 60 adjunct, 15-25 visiting|
The University of Toronto Faculty of Law is a law school at the University of Toronto. Originally founded in 1887, the Faculty is one of the oldest law faculties in Canada, although it was not until 1958 that the faculty was officially recognized as an accredited institution by the Law Society of Upper Canada. The Faculty of Law is particularly renowned in the areas of corporate law, international law, law and economics, and legal theory.
The law school has been ranked the number one law school in Canada by Maclean's for every year in which the magazine has published law school rankings. The median undergraduate GPA of students accepted into the J.D. program is 3.9, and the median Law School Admission Test (LSAT) score is 168 (96th percentile), making the law school the most selective in Canada, and one of the most selective in North America. The Faculty of Law offers its students Canada's most extensive internship program in pro bono work and international human rights law, and supports a range of legal clinics staffed by students as well as practitioners.
The Faculty of Law has close to 60 full-time faculty members, and 600 undergraduate and graduate students, giving it a student-faculty ratio of approximately 10:1, one of the lowest in North America. Its "Distinguished Visitors" program brings 15-25 short-term visiting professors from the world's leading law schools to teach at the school each year. For 2012-13, visiting professors include: Zhenmin Wang, Dean of the Faculty of Law at Tsinghua University; Aharon Barak, former President of the Supreme Court of Israel; and David M. Malone, former Permanent Representative of Canada to the United Nations.
The Faculty of Law lies at the geographic centre of the University of Toronto. It is located at the corner of Queen's Park Crescent and Hoskin Avenue, south of the Royal Ontario Museum and slightly north of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario.
Among its alumni are two Canadian Prime Ministers, three leaders of the Liberal Party of Canada, three Chiefs of Staff to the Prime Minister, two Premiers of Ontario, two Mayors of Toronto, and seven Justices of the Supreme Court of Canada, including three of the nine currently-sitting Justices (Louis LeBel, Rosalie Abella, and Michael J. Moldaver).
The current Dean of the Faculty of Law is Professor Mayo Moran, who was reappointed for a second five-year term as Dean beginning January 2011. Dean Moran is taking up the office of Provost of Trinity College at the University of Toronto beginning July 1, 2014. An interim dean will be appointed to take over from Dean Moran as of May 1, 2014.
- 1 History
- 2 Buildings
- 3 Tuition and financial aid
- 4 Degrees granted
- 5 Grading system
- 6 Student organizations
- 7 Notable alumni
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Although the University of Toronto Faculty of Law was established in 1887, it was not until 1949 that it adopted its current form. In the 1940s, the Faculty played the leading role in making legal education in Ontario into a modern academic degree course, rather than an apprenticeship.
In 1949, Cecil (“Caesar”) Wright assumed the deanship of the Faculty of Law. He first had to resign his post as Dean of Osgoode Hall Law School, the seat of the Law Society of Upper Canada, rejecting the Law Society's apprenticeship model of legal education in favour of the University of Toronto's vision of a full-time legal education, hinging on the professional bachelor of laws degree and embedded within a university. Wright brought with him his colleagues John Willis and Bora Laskin, the latter of whom would go on to become Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Canada.
Despite the Faculty of Law's academic program, the Law Society of Upper Canada refused to recognize it as a degree-granting institution for the purposes of accreditation. In the early 1950s, law students and their supporters petitioned the Law Society, and in 1953, a group of 50 student protesters marched on Osgoode Hall demanding formal recognition for the Faculty of Law. Finally, in 1958, after years of negotiation and discord, the Law Society began to give credit to graduates of the law school seeking admission to the Ontario bar.
Falconer Hall is home to many of the faculty's offices, including the Office of the Dean, and four seminar rooms. The third floor of Falconer Hall currently hosts the offices of most of the Faculty's scholars of law and economics, including one of the field's founders, Michael Trebilcock.
Flavelle House contains the faculty's principal classrooms, faculty and student common rooms, the Rosalie Silberman Abella Moot Court, as well as the Bora Laskin Law Library. The building was constructed in 1902 as the private residence of Sir Joseph Flavelle, and was left to the University of Toronto upon his death in 1939. It backs onto Philosopher's Walk (Toronto), which can be seen from many of the south and west-facing rooms.
In 2011 the Faculty of Law launched a campaign to raise money for the renovation and expansion of Flavelle House, with a goal of raising $53 million. The new building will be named the Jackman Law Building in honour of Henry N.R. "Hal" Jackman, who donated $11 million to the faculty's building campaign in 2012, the largest single gift the faculty has ever received.
The renovations are planned to begin in the summer of 2013, and construction will last until 2015. During the construction, students at the faculty will attend classes at Victoria University's campus, across the street from Flavelle House.
Tuition and financial aid
Tuition fees for entering Juris Doctor (J.D.) students as of 2012 are $27,420 per annum (excluding incidental fees). Although the Faculty of Law has the highest tuition fees of any law school in Canada, it also has a generous financial aid program.
All students who have eligible unmet need according to the financial aid policies will receive assistance in the form of bursaries and interest-free loans. The most controversial part of the faculty's financial aid program, which was initially designed by students and administration collaboratively, is that it uses a "deemed parental contribution" as part of determining a student's unmet need. There is no deemed parental contribution below an income threshold that is around the average Canadian household income. The deemed parental contribution phases out with the age of the student.
The Faculty of Law is the only law school in Canada with a back-end debt relief program for graduates who choose to pursue low income employment. The "back end debt relief program" is targeted to relieve debt with respect to financial aid/interest-free loans that are recognized by the faculty; most third-party debt (lines of credit; credit cards; mortgage debt) is not recognized and is not eligible for faculty support.
The Faculty of Law was the first law school in Canada to offer the Juris Doctor (J.D.) rather than the Bachelor of Laws (LL.B). The J.D. designation is intended to reflect the fact that the vast majority of the law school’s graduates enter the law school with at least one university degree. (In fact, approximately one quarter enter with one or more graduate degrees.) The J.D. designation does not, however, reflect significant changes in the law school's curriculum. The move to the J.D. was controversial at the time it was announced, though it has now gained wide acceptance and has been emulated by almost all Canadian law schools.
The JD program uses a modified honours-pass-fail grading system. The grades awarded are High Honours (HH), Honours (H), Pass with Merit (P), Low Pass (LP) and Fail (F). The most commonly awarded grade is Pass with Merit. Honours and High Honours grades are reserved for work that exceeds the high standard set by the majority of the class, with approximately 15% of the class earning High Honours and 30% earning Honours grades in any given course. Students beginning law school prior to 2012 are grand-parented and continue to be graded under a modified letter grade system.
Students manage a wide range of organizations and activities at the Faculty of Law. Activities include free legal clinics such as Downtown Legal Services, mooting, law journals, and interest oriented clubs. The umbrella organization for JD students at the Faculty of Law is the Students' Law Society. The umbrella organization for graduate students is the Graduate Students' Law Society. The student societies act as student governments, providing funding to student organizations and advocating on behalf of students to the faculty and administration.
The four student-run law journals at the Faculty are:
- University of Toronto Faculty of Law Review
- Journal of International Law and International Relations
- Journal of Law and Equality
- Indigenous Law Journal
Justices of the Supreme Court of Canada
- Bora Laskin (1933) - Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Canada (1973–1984)
- John C. Major (1957) - Puisne Justice of Supreme Court of Canada (1992–2005), Commissioner for the Air India Inquiry
- John Sopinka (1958) - Puisne Justice of the Supreme Court, (1988–1997)
- Ian Binnie (1965) - Puisne Justice of Supreme Court of Canada, (1998–2011)
- Louis LeBel (1966) - Puisne Justice of Supreme Court of Canada, (2000–Present)
- Rosalie Silberman Abella (1970) - Puisne Justice of Supreme Court of Canada (2004–Present)
- Michael J. Moldaver (1971) - Puisne Justice of Supreme Court of Canada (2011–Present)
- William Lyon Mackenzie King (1896) - Prime Minister of Canada (1921-26, 1926-30, 1935–1948)
- Jerry Grafstein (1954) - Senator (1984–2010)
- Karl Jaffary (1962) - Vice-President of the New Democratic Party (1969–1973), Toronto city alderman (1969–1974), and noted urban reformist.
- John Sewell (1964) - Mayor of Toronto (1978–1980), columnist
- Paul Martin (1964) - Prime Minister of Canada (2003–2006)
- Bill Graham (1964) - former Minister of Foreign Affairs, Minister of Defence, and interim Leader of the Opposition
- David Kilgour (1966) - democracy activist and former MP (who represented both the Progressive Conservative and Liberal parties)
- David Peterson (1967) - Premier of Ontario (1985–1990)
- Bob Rae (1977) - Premier of Ontario (1990–1995), Member of Parliament (1978–1982, 2008–present), Liberal Party of Canada foreign affairs critic
- David Miller (1984) - Mayor of Toronto (2003–2010)
- Tony Clement (1986) - Progressive Conservative MPP (1995–2003), Conservative Party MP (since 2006), and President of the Treasury Board (since 2011)
- John A. Tory (1952) - co-founder of Torys LLP
- Alan Borovoy (1956) - general counsel for the Canadian Civil Liberties Association (1968–2009)
- Clayton Ruby (1969) - criminal lawyer
- Martin Friedland (1958) - professor of criminal law, author
- Ernest Weinrib (1972) - professor and noted private law theorist
- Robert Prichard (1975) - Dean of the Faculty of Law (1984–1990), President of the University of Toronto (1990–2000)
- George Triantis (1983) - Harvard professor and specialist in corporate law
- Patrick Macklem (1984) - professor and specialist in labour, indigenous, and constitutional law
- Ronald J. Daniels (1986) - Dean of the Faculty of Law (1995–2005), current President of Johns Hopkins University
- Kent Roach (1987) - professor and specialist in criminal and constitutional law
- Stephen Waddams (1967) - professor and noted private law theorist
- Herbert Solway, QC (1955) - Chair of the Toronto Blue Jays
- Hal Jackman (1956) - Lieutenant Governor of Ontario (1991–1997), Chancellor of the University of Toronto (1997–2002)
- Allan Leibel (1970) - Canadian Olympic Sailor
- Stephen Stohn (1977) - television producer (Degrassi franchise)
- David Shore (1982) - television writer (House)
- Guy Giorno (1989) - chief of staff for Premier of Ontario Mike Harris, chief of staff for Prime Minister Stephen Harper
- Ed Morgan (1984) - Judge and former professor
- Andrea St. Bernard (2005) - Grenadian Olympic taekwondo competitor
- Ralph Lloyd Simmonds, justice of the Supreme Court of Western Australia
- University of Toronto Faculty of Law, Gifts that have Made a Difference, retrieved August 5, 2012
- Figure does not include separate endowment funds maintained by individual colleges. U of T Endowments - Annual Financial Reports, Financial Services Department, 2011
- Maclean's Law School Ranking 2007
- Maclean's Law School Ranking 2008
- Maclean's Law School Ranking 2009
- Maclean's Law School Ranking 2010
- Maclean's Law School Ranking 2011
- Maclean's Law School Ranking 2012
- University of Toronto Admission Policies (including 2011-12 entrance statistics)
- Law School Admission Council
- Top Law Schools Ranking
- "Faculty of Law Building Campaign Fact Sheet". Retrieved November 2, 2012.
- Ciccocioppo, Lucianna (October 1, 2012). "Henry N. R. Jackman’s $11M Campaign gift is the largest donation in the history of the Faculty of Law". University of Toronto Faculty of Law. Retrieved November 2, 2012.
- "Victora Campus is the Law School's Temporary Home". Ultra Vires. October 17, 2012. Retrieved November 2, 2012.
- Financial Aid
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to University of Toronto Faculty of Law.|
- University of Toronto Faculty of Law
- Ultra Vires - the independent student newspaper of the UofT Faculty of Law
- Students' Law Society - the student government of UofT Faculty of Law
- University of Toronto Law School Faculty Blog
- University of Toronto Law School Alumni Network
- Bora Laskin Law Library, University of Toronto Faculty of Law