Weston-super-Mare

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Weston super Mare)
Jump to: navigation, search
"Oldmixon" redirects here. For the writer, see John Oldmixon.

Coordinates: 51°20′46″N 2°58′37″W / 51.346°N 2.977°W / 51.346; -2.977

Weston-super-Mare
Multiple houses and other buildings around a bay into which a pier projects. On the background are hills
A view over Weston-super-Mare
Weston-super-Mare is located in Somerset
Weston-super-Mare
Weston-super-Mare
 Weston-super-Mare shown within Somerset
Population 76,143 (2011 Census)[1]
OS grid reference ST320613
Civil parish Weston-super-Mare
Unitary authority North Somerset
Ceremonial county Somerset
Region South West
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town WESTON-SUPER-MARE
Postcode district BS22–BS24
Dialling code 01934
Police Avon and Somerset
Fire Avon
Ambulance Great Western
EU Parliament South West England
UK Parliament Weston-super-Mare
List of places
UK
England
Somerset

Weston-super-Mare /ˈwɛstən ˌspə ˈmɛər/ is a seaside resort, town and civil parish in North Somerset, England. It is located on the Bristol Channel coast, 18 miles (29 km) south west of Bristol, spanning the coast between the bounding high ground of Worlebury Hill and Bleadon Hill. It includes the suburbs of Oldmixon, West Wick and Worle. Its population according to the 2011 census was 76,143.[1] Since 1983, Weston has been twinned with Hildesheim, Germany.[2][3]

Although there is evidence in the local area of occupation since the Iron Age, it was still a small village until the 19th century when it became a seaside resort, and was connected with local towns and cities by a railway, and two piers were built. The growth continued until the second half of the 20th century, when tourism declined and some local industries closed. During the 21st century a regeneration programme is being undertaken. Attractions include the Helicopter Museum, Weston-super-Mare Museum, a pier and an aquarium. The Paddle Steamer Waverley and MV Balmoral offer day sea trips from Knightstone Island to various destinations along the Bristol Channel and Severn Estuary. Cultural venues include The Playhouse, The Winter Gardens, and The Blakehay Theatre & Community Arts Centre.

Owing to the large tidal range in the Bristol Channel, the low tide mark in Weston Bay is about a mile from the seafront. Although the beach itself is sandy, low tide uncovers areas of thick mud, hence the colloquial name, Weston-super-Mud.[4][5][6] These mudflats are very dangerous to walk in and are crossed by the mouth of the River Axe. Just to the north of the town is Sand Point which marks the lower limit of the Severn Estuary and the start of the Bristol Channel. It is also the site of the Middle Hope biological and geological Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI). In the centre of the town is Ellenborough Park, another SSSI due to the range of plant species found there.

Toponymy[edit]

Weston comes from the Anglo-Saxon for the west tun or settlement. Super Mare is Latin for "upon sea"[7][8] and was added to distinguish it from the many other settlements named Weston.[9]

Prior to 1348 it was known as Weston-Juxta-Mare ("beside the sea"). The name was changed by Ralph of Shrewsbury who was the Bishop of Bath and Wells. Between the 14th and 17th centuries the "super Mare" part of the name disappeared and it was just known as Weston, although in 1610 it was recorded as Weston on the More; môr being the Welsh word for sea.[10]

History[edit]

Early history[edit]

Plan of Worlebury Camp

Weston's oldest structure is Worlebury Camp, on Worlebury Hill, dating from the Iron Age.[11][12] Castle Batch was a castle that once stood overlooking the town. The present site has an earthwork mound of 160 feet (49 m) in diameter which is believed to be the remains of a motte.[13]

The parish was part of the Winterstoke Hundred.[14]

The medieval church of St John has been rebuilt,[15] but its preaching cross survives. The former rectory is an early 19th-century structure with later additions. Though it remains adjacent to the church it has not been a parsonage house since the end of the 19th century. Today it is known as Glebe House and is divided into flats.[16]

The Old Thatched Cottage restaurant on the seafront carries the date 1774; it is the surviving portion of a summer cottage built by the Revd. William Leeves of Wrington.[17]

19th century[edit]

Early in the 19th century, Weston was a small village of about 30 houses, located behind a line of sand dunes fronting the sea, which had been created as an early sea wall after the Bristol Channel floods of 1607.[18] The Pigott family of Brockley, who were the local Lords of the Manor, had a summer residence at Grove House. Weston owes its growth and prosperity to the Victorian era boom in seaside holidays. Construction of the first hotel in the village started in 1808; it was called "Reeves" (now the Royal Hotel).[18] Along with nearby Burnham-on-Sea, Weston benefited from proximity to Bristol, Bath and South Wales. The first attempt at an artificial harbour was made in the late 1820s at the islet of Knightstone and a slipway built from Anchor Head towards Birnbeck Island.[18]

Isambard Kingdom Brunel and his family lived in Weston, at Swiss Villa (towards the north end of Trevelyan road, see map 1901, Weston-super-Mare), while he was supervising the construction of the Bristol and Exeter Railway in the area. With the opening of the railway in 1841, thousands of visitors came to the town from Bristol, the Midlands and further afield, on works outings and Bank holidays. Mining families also came across the Bristol Channel from South Wales by paddle steamer. To cater for them, Birnbeck Pier was completed in 1867, offering in its heyday amusement arcades, tea rooms, funfair rides and a photographic studio. However, it is now in a derelict state and has been added to English Heritage's Buildings at Risk Register,[19] but visitors can still admire its structure from behind barbed wire. It was designed by Eugenius Birch with ironwork by the ISCA Foundry of Newport, Monmouthshire. It is a grade II* listed building.[20]

Large areas of land were released for development from the 1850s onwards. Large detached villas, for the middle classes, were built on the southern slopes of Worlebury Hill. Semi-detached and terraced housing was built on the low "moorland" behind the sea front in an area known as South Ward. Many of these houses have now been converted into bedsits. Most of the houses built in the Victorian era are built from stone and feature details made from Bath Stone, influenced by local architect Hans Price.

In 1885, the first transatlantic telegraph cable of the Commercial Cable Company was brought ashore and the company started a long association with the town, ending in 1962.[21]

Guglielmo Marconi, the inventor of wireless telegraphy, successfully transmitted radio signals across the Bristol Channel in the spring of 1897, from Penarth (near Cardiff) to Brean Down (just south west of Weston, on the other side of the River Axe).[22]

A second railway, the Weston, Clevedon and Portishead Light Railway, opened on 1 December 1897, connecting Weston to Clevedon.[23] The terminus station was at Ashcombe Road. The railway was extended to Portishead on 7 August 1907 but was closed in 1940.[23][24]

Architecture[edit]

The Mercury Office in Waterloo Street by Hans Price

Much of the character of the buildings in the town derives from the use of local stone, much of it from the Town Quarry. Notable among the architects working in the 19th century was Hans Price (1835–1912). Many examples of his work are still to be seen: the Town Hall, the Mercury Office, the Constitutional Club (originally the Lodge of St Kew), villas and numerous other domestic dwellings. The Odeon Cinema is notable for fully retaining its Art Deco features both internally and externally, and retaining its original theatre organ, a Compton from 1935.

20th century[edit]

Local traders, unhappy that visitors were not coming as far as the centre of the town, built a new pier closer to the main streets. Opened in 1904, and known as the Grand Pier, it was originally planned to be 1.5 miles (2.4 km) long.[25] Further development occurred after World War I, with the Winter Gardens and Pavilion in 1927,[26] the open air pool, with its arched concrete diving board,[27] and an airfield dating from the inter-war period. Art Deco influences can be seen in much of the town's architecture from this period.

During World War II evacuees were accommodated in the town; however the area was also home to war industries, such as aircraft and pump manufacture, and a Royal Air Force station at RAF Locking. The town was also on the return route of bombers targeting Bristol and was itself bombed by the Luftwaffe. The first bombs fell in June 1940, but the worst attacks were in January 1941 and in June 1942. Large areas of the town were destroyed, particularly Orchard Street and the Boulevard. On 3 and 4 January 1941, incendiary bombs fell on the town.[28] The Air Ministry set up a "Q-station" decoy at Bleadon in an attempt to divert the bombers to an unpopulated area.[29] In the later part of the war, United States Army troops were billeted in the area, but they were relocated in the run-up to D-Day.

RAF Weston-super-Mare was opened in 1936 by No. 24 Group, with a single tarmac runway. It served as a flying candidates selection and initial training facility, and as a relief airport during World War II, latterly as the Polish Air Force Staff College from April 1944 to April 1946.[30] After the war it served as a logistics supply station, with helicopter makers Westland Helicopters on site until closure in 1987.[31] Today there is an operational heliport on site used occasionally by the RAF Search and Rescue service. The former Westland site, which closed in 2002, houses the Helicopter Museum featuring examples of Westland aircraft. Pride of place is given to an immaculate Westland Wessex HCC Mk.4, formerly of the Queen's Flight.[32]

Residential areas outside the town centre include the Oldmixon, Coronation, and Bournville housing estates, built in the mid to late 20th century. Newer housing has since been built towards the east of the town in North Worle and Locking Castle, nearer to the M5 motorway.

Weston-super-Mare has expanded to include the established villages of Milton, Worle, Uphill, Oldmixon, West Wick and Wick St. Lawrence, as well as new areas such as St. Georges and Locking Castle.

In 1986, Weston General Hospital was opened on the edge of Uphill village, replacing the Queen Alexandra Memorial Hospital on The Boulevard, which was opened in 1928.[33]

21st century[edit]

A tapering tower, with metal hoops around the upper part.
Silica

A structure known as Silica was installed at Big Lamp Corner during 2006.[34] It is a piece of public art, an advertising sign, a retail kiosk selling newspapers and hot food, as well as a bus shelter. It has been criticised by local residents who liken it to a carrot or a space ship, although it is meant to symbolise man's harmony with the sea. This was part of North Somerset Council's ongoing civic pride initiative that has sought to revitalise Weston-super-Mare's public spaces, which had suffered a period of decline. Other public space improvements have been made throughout the town such as improvements to the street scene in Grove Park Village.[35]

On 28 July 2008, the pavilion at the end of the Grand Pier was completely destroyed by a fire. Eleven fire engines and 80 fire-fighters were unable to contain the blaze which is believed to have started in the north-east tower of the Pavilion.[36] A competition was held to design a new pavilion, and the project awarded to the winning architect Angus Meek Architects of Bristol. Construction work began on the pier and new pavilion in 2009, and was scheduled to re-open in July 2010[37] following a £39 million re-building programme. After continuing problems and set-backs leading to the pier not opening until a formal opening ceremony on 23 October 2010, the overall costs have reached £51 million. During the same period a £34 million redevelopment of the promenade, including refurbishment of the Marine Lake and pedestrianisation of Pier Square. As part of the work, a scour protection apron and splash wall were added as part of flood prevention measures.[38]

At the end of the 20th and start of the 21st centuries, the town saw a growth in residential rehabilitation treatment centres for people with drug and alcohol problems, with attendant crime and social problems. These problems were highlighted by Weston's MP, John Penrose during his maiden speech in the House of Commons in 2005.[39]

By 2009, it was home to around 11% of drug rehabilitation places in the UK and North Somerset council proposed an accreditation system examining the quality of counselling, staff training, transparency of referral arrangements, along with measures of the treatment's effectiveness and site inspections.[40]

Governance[edit]

Stone building with colonnaded entrance. Above is a clock tower.
Weston-super-Mare town hall.

Made an urban district in 1894, Weston-super-Mare became a municipal borough in 1937. In 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, it was merged into the Woodspring district of the County of Avon, and became a Charter trustees town. Weston-super-Mare regained its town council in 2000, becoming a civil parish.[17]

Before 1974, Weston-super-Mare was in the County of Somerset. When Avon was split up in 1996, it became the administrative headquarters of the unitary authority of North Somerset, one of the successor authorities, which remains part of the ceremonial county of Somerset.[41]

The MP for the Weston-super-Mare parliamentary constituency is John Penrose of the Conservative Party, who won the seat in the 2005 General Election.[42]

Weston is within the South West England constituency of the European Parliament which elects six MEPs using the d'Hondt method of party-list proportional representation.

Geography[edit]

Two photographs showing the sea wall and buildings. The left had side is an expanse of sand in the top picture and water covered in the bottom picture.
Low and high tides

The mainly flat landscape of Weston is dominated by Worlebury Hill, 109 metres (357 ft),[43] which borders the entire northern edge of the town, and Bleadon Hill, 176 metres (577 ft)[43] which together with the River Axe, and Brean Down at Uphill form its southern border. In the centre of the town is Ellenborough Park a Site of Special Scientific Interest due to the range of plant species found there.[44]

The beach of Weston Bay lies on the western edge of the town. The upper part is sandy but the sea retreats a long way at low tide exposing large areas of mud flats (hence the colloquial name of Weston-super-Mud).[45] The tidal range in this part of the Bristol Channel is great, and since beach and mud flats are on a gentle slope, attempting to reach the sea at times of low tide is inadvisable as the sand gives way to mud which is very deep and has frequently resulted in loss of life over the years. Driving on the beach (which is permitted in certain areas) occasionally results the drivers of vehicles being caught unawares as they drive too close to the sea and break through the sand into the underlying mud and are then stuck.

The tidal rise and fall in the Severn Estuary and Bristol Channel can be as great as 14.5 m (48 ft),[46] second only to Bay of Fundy in Eastern Canada.[47][48] This tidal movement contributes to the deposition of natural mud in bays such as Weston. There has been concern about pollution levels from industrial areas in Wales and at the eastern end of the Bristol Channel, however this tends to be diluted by the Atlantic waters. There are measurable levels of chemical pollutants and little is known about their effects. Of particular concern are the levels of cadmium and to a lesser degree residual pesticides and hydrocarbons.[49]

Just to the north of the town is Sand Point which marks the lower limit of the Severn Estuary and the start of the Bristol Channel. It is also the site of the Middle Hope 84.1 hectares (208 acres) biological and geological Site of Special Scientific Interest.[50]

Climate[edit]

Along with the rest of South West England, Weston has a temperate climate which is generally wetter and milder than the rest of the country.[51] The annual mean temperature is approximately 10 °C (50.0 °F). Seasonal temperature variation is less extreme than most of the United Kingdom because of the adjacent sea temperatures. The summer months of July and August are the warmest with mean daily maxima of approximately 21 °C (69.8 °F). In winter mean minimum temperatures of 1 °C (33.8 °F) or 2 °C (35.6 °F) are common.[51] In the summer the Azores high pressure affects the south-west of England, however convective cloud sometimes forms inland, reducing the number of hours of sunshine. Annual sunshine rates are slightly less than the regional average of 1,600 hours.[51] In December 1998 there were 20 days without sun recorded at Yeovilton. Most the rainfall in the south-west is caused by Atlantic depressions or by convection. Most of the rainfall in autumn and winter is caused by the Atlantic depressions, which is when they are most active. In summer, a large proportion of the rainfall is caused by sun heating the ground leading to convection and to showers and thunderstorms. Average rainfall is around 700 mm (28 in). About 8–15 days of snowfall is typical. November to March have the highest mean wind speeds, and June to August have the lightest winds. The predominant wind direction is from the south-west.[51]

Demography[edit]

According to the United Kingdom Census 2001, the population of Weston-super-Mare is 76,143.[1] This makes it the largest settlement in North Somerset, which has a total population of 188,564. 20.1% of the town's population are aged 65 or over, compared with the national average of 16.5%.[1] 96.5% of the population are white, compared with 86% nationally.[1] In 1831 the town population was 1,310,[52] and in 1801 just 138.[53] In 2001, the town comprised 34,441 households,[1] while in 1829 it comprised just 250.[54] The vast majority (96.5%) of the population described themselves as white in the 2011 census. 58.2% are Christian, with 32.4% describing themselves as having no religion. No other religious groups achieved as much as 0.5%.[1]

Economy[edit]

Weston-super-Mare beach seen from the Grand Pier, showing the popularity of the town as a tourist destination on the Easter bank holiday weekend

Since the 1970s, Weston has suffered a decline in popularity as a holiday destination, as have most British seaside resorts,[55] due to the advent of cheap foreign holidays and the demise of the traditional "works holidays" of heavy and manufacturing industries elsewhere in UK. The town had become a centre of industries such as helicopter production, and maintenance at the GKN Westland factory until its closure in 2002,[56] however the company still retains a design office under the name GKN Aerospace Engineering Services at the Winterstoke Road site. Road transport links were improved with the M5 motorway running close by, and the town now supports light industries and distribution depots, including Lidl's distribution centre for its southern based stores, and is also a dormitory town for Bristol.[57] Vutrix, one of the largest semiconductor and video/audio distribution equipment companies in the television broadcasting industry, is based in the town.[58] Two of the town's largest employers are the local council and Weston College, which has recently begun to offer university degrees as a secondary campus of Bath Spa University.[59]

Tourism[edit]

Building on stilts above sand.
The SeaQuarium marine aquarium on the beach

Weston-super-Mare is still a popular tourist destination, with attractions such as the long sandy beach, the Helicopter Museum,[60] Weston-super-Mare Museum, the Grand Pier, the SeaQuarium aquarium and the seasonal Wheel of Weston.[61] In 2009 a survey by Visit England placed the pier at Weston amongst the top ten free attractions in the country.[62] On the Beach Lawns was a miniature railway operated by steam and diesel locomotives, which closed in 2012.[63] The Paddle Steamer Waverley and MV Balmoral offer day trips from Knightstone Island to various destinations along the Bristol Channel and Severn estuary.[64]

The Art Deco Tropicana, once a very popular lido on the beach, has suffered years of neglect. It closed to the public in 2000, and despite a number of attempts to reopen it, permission was given to demolish it in 2012.[65]

'International HeliDays', in association with the Helicopter Museum, are staged at the beach lawns over a long weekend around the end of July, when up to 75 helicopters from Europe fly in for a static display. There are frequent Helicopter Air Experience flights from the Museum heliport. There is also an annual display by the Red Arrows.[66]

Since the 1970s the number of visitors staying for several nights in the town has decreased, but the numbers of day visitors has increased.[67] In 1995 there were 4 million visitors but by 2005 this had risen to 5.3 million.[68] In 2007 69% of visitors to the resort were day visitors, compared to 58% in 2005.[69] The 2005 survey showed that day visitors stay in Weston-super-Mare for an average of six hours whilst overnight visitors stay for an average of five nights. The largest percentage of visitors (22%) were from the West Midlands. Weston was found to attract two distinct groups: "grey tourists" over the age of 60 and families with young children.[68]

Weston Bike Nights are motorcycle meetings on the Promenade each Thursday during the summer. They are organised by The Royal British Legion Riders Branch to raise money for the Poppy Appeal.[70]

In July 2011, North Somerset Council gave planning approval to the £50 million Leisure Dome,[71] a 210-metre (690 ft) indoor ski slope to be built on the site of RAF Locking. The site, which had not commenced construction as of August 2012,[72] is planned to include a 40-metre (130 ft) climbing wall, a vertical wind tunnel for indoor skydiving, indoor surfing, a BMX track, a health and fitness club, and a number of shops and restaurants. The ski slope will be the longest in the United Kingdom.

Transport[edit]

An old photograph of a tram running along a waterfront road.
A "toast rack" tram heading into town at Madeira Cove

The 2.9 miles (4.7 km) long 4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm) gauge Weston-super-Mare Tramways network opened on 12 May 1902. The main route ran from Birnbeck Pier along the sea front to the Sanatorium (now Royal Sands); a branch line ran to the railway station and on to the tram depot in Locking Road. The fleet originally consisted of 12 double deck cars and 4 open-sided "toast rack" cars. The system was bought out by the competing bus company and closed on 18 April 1937, by which time the fleet comprised 8 double deck and 6 "toast racks".[73] An earlier proposal for the Weston and Clevedon Tramway to run along the streets of the town to the sea front had failed to materialise, leaving the line as an ordinary railway with a terminus in Ashcombe Road.[74]

Weston is close to junction 21 of the M5 motorway, to which it is linked by a dual-carriageway relief road built in the 1990s. This replaced Locking Road as the designated A370 route and avoided some of the traffic congestion along that narrower urban road.[75]

The Bristol and Exeter Railway arrived in Weston-super-Mare on 14 June 1841. This was not the route that serves today's Weston-super-Mare railway station, but rather a single-track branch line from Weston Junction, mid way between the present day Worle and Uphill junctions, which terminated at a small station in Regent Street close to the High Street. A second larger station was constructed in 1866 to replace this, when planning permission was gained to create a loop station from the main line. After legal action was taken by residents along the proposed route new route through issues of planning blight, the station on the current site was constructed in 1881.[76][77]

Today the station is situated close to the town centre and less than ten minutes walk from the sea front. It has direct services to London Paddington[78] operated by First Great Western, and also trains to stations such as Bristol, Taunton and Cardiff Central.[79] CrossCountry services run to Birmingham and the North.[80] The station has two platforms.[81] Other stations are located at Weston Milton and Worle. During the middle of the day they are served by the local trains between Taunton, Bristol and Cardiff, but during the peak periods London trains call at both stations.[79] Weston Milton station is on the single track loop and therefore has only one platform, while Worle is on the main line and has two side platforms. The Weston loop diverges just to the southwest of Worle station, and the junction is therefore known as Worle Junction.[81]

Most bus services are provided by First Somerset & Avon[82] or Webberbus.[83] All services call at stops in the Regent Street and Big Lamp Corner area, including some stops in the adjacent High Street. Some town services and those to Sand Bay, Wells, Burnham-on-Sea and Bristol Airport start from or run via the main railway station. The service to Sand Bay is sometimes operated by an open top bus. National Express and Bakers Dolphin operate long distance coach services, mostly from the coach terminal in Locking Road Car Park which is close to the railway station.

The nearest operational airport to Weston is Bristol Airport, located 10 mi (16 km) away at Lulsgate.

Education[edit]

The Unitary authority of North Somerset, provides support for 78 schools, delivering education to approximately 28,000 pupils.[84] Infant and primary schools in Weston include: Ashcombe Primary, Becket Primary, Bournville Primary School, Castle Batch Primary school, Christ Church C of E Primary, Corpus Christi Catholic Primary, Herons Moor Community Primary, Hutton C of E Primary, Kewstoke Primary, Mead Vale Primary, Milton Park Primary, St. Georges V.A. Church Primary, St Mark's VA Church of England/Methodist Ecumenical Primary School, Walliscote Primary, Windwhistle Primary and Worlebury St. Pauls C.E.V.A. First School.

Secondary education is provided by Broadoak Mathematics and Computing College, Churchill Academy, Priory Community School, Worle Community School and Hans Price Academy. Further and higher education is provided by Weston College.[59]

Nigel Leat, a teacher at Hillside First School, was jailed indefinitely in summer 2011 for Paedophile offences that happened over a 14-year period. The school's headmaster lost his job in December 2011 due to the incident.[85][86]

Culture[edit]

White building behind the beach. It has a dome and colonnades to left and right.
The Winter Gardens

The town contains several arts venues. The Playhouse serves both tourists and the local population. The Winter Gardens on the seafront hosts shows, exhibitions and conferences. The Blakehay Theatre & Community Arts Centre is a small venue housed in a former Baptist church.[87] All Saints Church hosts regular concerts, some of high national standing. This church is also used for recording, especially by the Emerald Ensemble and has featured on BBC TV programme Songs of Praise.[88]

Odeon Cinema

The Odeon Cinema was opened in 1935 and is a building in the modernist style designed by Thomas Cecil Howitt. It houses the only Compton theatre pipe organ in an Odeon cinema outside London and is one of only two working theatre organs left in the country still performing in their original location in commercially operating cinemas. This Compton organ was installed in 1935 and is the only one left in the West Country, the next nearest being the Odeon Leicester Square, London. All other models have been either restored and moved elsewhere, or destroyed.[89] Occasional organ concerts continue to be held at the venue. The building has Grade II Listed status.[90]

A large vehicle lit by multi-coloured lamps and carrying people in brightly-coloured coustumes in front of a large crowd on a darkened street.
An illuminated cart passes the Winter Gardens during the annual carnival

Weston-super-Mare has a small number of live music venues of note. "Scally's" hosts more established touring rock bands,[91] while the "Back Bar", "The London", and "The Imperial" hold regular open mic nights which attract a wide array of local musicians, as well as artists from further afield.[92][93] The T4 on the Beach concert had been hosted annually since 2006, up until 2012,[94] by Channel 4 youth programme T4. Well known bands and singers perform four or fewer of their hits. However, the vocals are mimed as the event is being produced for live TV broadcast.[95] Each summer the beach is also used as the venue for the Weston-super-Mare Sand Sculpture Festival.[96]

The town was the subject of a song "Sunny Weston-super-Mare" performed by local band The Wurzels.[97] The last scenes of The Remains of the Day, a James Ivory film of 1993, were shot at locations in the town including the Grand Pier and the Winter Gardens.[98]

The Weston Arts Festival takes place each year during September and October using local venues including the Blakehay Theatre, Playhouse, All Saints, and galleries and offering a wide range of cultural events.[99]

Weston is also the final event on the November West Country Carnival circuit, when a large number of brightly illuminated floats parade through the streets.[100]

The town's weekly newspaper is The Weston & Somerset Mercury, which has been serving the population since 1843. It is now owned by publishing company Archant.[101] There are also two online publications The Weston Echo, and Weston super Mare People.

Weston Super Television is an on-line community television channel set up in 2011.[102][103] Its volunteers make and present studio programmes, including interviews with local councillers, musicians and community leaders, as well as filming local events in and around the town.[104]

The 2011 TV comedy drama series The Cafe was co-written by Michelle Terry who was born in the town and the series was filmed in Weston-super-Mare.[105][106]

Landmarks[edit]

A walkway supported by metal legs arising from the sea, at the end of which is a large a white building with a wave-shaped roof and corner turrets.
The Grand Pier, new pavilion

The Grand Pier, one of the most popular tourist attractions in the town which previously housed funfair style attractions, a go-kart track, cafes, a fudge factory, and a host of arcade games, underwent a £34 million re-development after a fire in 2008 destroyed the main pavilion.[107] After a harsh winter which delayed progress, the new pier pavilion reopened on 23 October 2010.[108]

Weston's first pier, Birnbeck Pier, standing on a small island to the north of the bay is currently closed to the public. The current owners, Manchester-based company Urban Splash purchased the pier in 2006. A competition was held as a means to encourage redevelopment of the site for commercial use. To date, no firm plans are in place, and the future of Birnbeck Pier is uncertain.[109] The pier houses Weston-super-Mare Lifeboat Station.

The Knightstone complex in 2010

Knightstone Island housed a theatre, swimming pool and sauna,[110] after having been purchased by the physician Edward Long Fox in 1830 to create a therapeutic spa with range of hot, cold and chemical baths.[111] After years of disrepair and dereliction, the area has been redeveloped by Redrow Homes. During 2006/2007, luxury apartments and commercial outlets have been built on the site. Consideration has been taken due to the listed building status of much of the site.[112] Boat trips from here include the Waverley and Balmoral and trips to Steep Holm and Flat Holm islands as well as short trips around Weston Bay.[64]

The Tropicana outdoor swimming pool that is located on the southern section of the sea front has not been occupied since 2000.[113] A private developer, Henry Boot, was selected to re-develop the site with a new Life Station leisure complex, which was planned to include a six lane, 25 metres (27 yd) swimming pool, water park, 96-bed hotel, restaurant, eight-screen cinema, 14 retail units, and a 20-lane bowling alley. The redevelopment was beset by delays and controversy.[114] A group of local residents challenged the council over its decision to appoint Henry Boot, asking to put forward their own proposals for the site.[115] In November 2009, the plans were finally abandoned,[116] leaving the future of the site uncertain. In 2010 the council invited submissions from developers for a new, less ambitious, scheme to redevelop the site with a swimming pool at its heart. A decision on a new scheme is expected towards the end of 2010.[117] The local authority announced on 23 August 2011 that it was giving developers six months to propose plans for a smaller development otherwise they will arrange to demolish the Tropicana.[118] In February 2013, North Somerset Council granted planning permission to a consortium of local businesses who intend to build a new swimming pool complex on the site.[119][120]

Religious sites[edit]

Most of the town's churches and chapels are neo-Gothic 19th century structures. The Medieval village church of St John the Baptist was completely demolished in 1824 to make way for a new and larger place of worship.[15]

All Saints Church was built between 1898 and 1902 to a design by George Frederick Bodley and completed by his pupil F.C. Eden in the 14th century style so favoured by Bodley. It is a Grade II* listed building.[121]

There is a Greek Orthodox Church of St Andrew the Apostle in Grove Road, Milton.[122]

Sport[edit]

Football team Weston-super-Mare A.F.C. play in the Conference South at the purpose-built Woodspring Stadium, which opened in August 2004.[123]

There are two rugby clubs in the town; Weston-super-Mare RFC, formed in 1875,[124] and Hornets RFC, formed in 1962.[125] Weston play in National League 3 [South West], whilst Hornets are 2012/13 Champions of the Western Counties North division and will play 2013/14 season in the South West One division. These are national level 5 and level 6 respectively in the English rugby union system.

Somerset County Cricket Club played first class and one-day matches for one week a season on a pitch prepared at Clarence Park, near the sea front. This began in 1914 and continued until the last “festival” in 1996.[126] Weston-super-Mare Cricket Club play at Devonshire Park Ground.[127]

The town is well known amongst motocross enthusiasts for staging the Weston beach race every autumn. In addition, races are also held for youth riders, sidecarcross riders and quad bike competitors.[128] The 2008 winner of the Weston Beach Race was ten time World Motocross Champion Stefan Everts of Belgium.[129]

Notable people[edit]

See also Category:People from Weston-super-Mare

Notable current and former residents of the town include:

Blue Plaque marking the birthplace of A. V. Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Hillsborough

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g "2011 Census Profile" (Excel). North Somerset Council. Retrieved 4 January 2014. 
  2. ^ "Special service on burnt-out pier". BBC News. 16 August 2008. Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  3. ^ "Weston Hildesheim Exchange". Weston-super-Mare People. 4 September 2009. Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  4. ^ "Weston super Mare". Vision of Britain. University of Portsmouth. Retrieved 10 June 2012. 
  5. ^ "Weston super Mare". Bristol Nomads. Retrieved 10 June 2012. 
  6. ^ "Miles of Golden Sands". Weston super Mare. Retrieved 10 June 2012. 
  7. ^ Robinson, Stephen (1992). Somerset Place Names. Wimbourne: Dovecote Press. p. 142. ISBN 1-874336-03-2. 
  8. ^ Field, John (2008). Discovering Place-names: A Pocket Guide to Over 1500 Place-names in England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales. Osprey Publishing. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-7478-0617-2. 
  9. ^ Mugglestone, Lynda (2006). The Oxford history of English. Oxford University Press. p. 336. ISBN 978-0-19-924931-2. 
  10. ^ Clinch, Rosemary (1985). Unknown Somerset. Bodmin: Bossiney Books. p. 103. ISBN 0-906456-98-3. 
  11. ^ "Worlebury Camp". Megalithic Portal. Retrieved 24 January 2010. 
  12. ^ "Worlebury Residents' Association.". Worlebury Residents Association. Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  13. ^ "Castle Batch". Pastscape national Monument Record. English Heritage. Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  14. ^ "Somerset Hundreds". GENUKI. Retrieved 9 September 2011. 
  15. ^ a b "Parish Church of Saint John the Baptist". Images of England. English Heritage. Retrieved 24 January 2010. 
  16. ^ "Glebe House". Images of England. English Heritage. Retrieved 24 January 2010. 
  17. ^ a b "Brief history of Weston-super-Mare". Weston-super-Mare. Retrieved 29 November 2009. 
  18. ^ a b c Farr, Grahame Edgar (1954). Somerset harbours, including the port of Bristol. London: Christopher Johnson. pp. 76–79. 
  19. ^ "Birnbeck Pier". Heritage at Risk. English Heritage. Retrieved 24 January 2010. 
  20. ^ "Birnbeck Pier". Images of England. Retrieved 2 December 2006. 
  21. ^ "The Commercial Cable Company, early development as told by the president and others". John Crellin. Retrieved 20 March 2010. 
  22. ^ Phillips, Barrie (1996). "Marconi — the Father of Radio". Supplement to Histalec News NO.3. South Western Electricity Historical Society. Retrieved 20 March 2010. 
  23. ^ a b Maggs, Colin G. (1990). The Weston Clevedon & Portishead Light Railway: The Oakwood Press. ISBN 0-85361-388-5.
  24. ^ Holland, Julian (2007). Amazing and Extraordinary Railway Facts. David & Charles. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-7153-2582-7. 
  25. ^ "Grand Pier". Images of England. Retrieved 2 December 2006. 
  26. ^ "History". Winter Gardens. Retrieved 24 January 2010. 
  27. ^ Rose, Steve (17 July 2006). "Just add water". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 24 January 2010. 
  28. ^ "bombing in the Bristol area". Century of Flight. Retrieved 24 January 2010. 
  29. ^ "Severn Estuary RCZAS NMP". english-heritage.org.uk. Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  30. ^ "RAF Weston-super-Mare". rafweb.org. Retrieved 12 July 2009. 
  31. ^ "RAF Weston-super-Mare". controltowers.co.uk. Retrieved 12 July 2009. 
  32. ^ "Westland Wessex". flugzeuginfo.net. Retrieved 21 March 2010. 
  33. ^ "History & Figures". Weston Area Health NHS Trust. Retrieved 28 August 2007. 
  34. ^ "Silica artwork". North Somerset Council. Archived from the original on 28 September 2011. Retrieved 2 June 2007. 
  35. ^ "Grove Village improvements". North Somerset Council. 9 March 2006. Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  36. ^ "Huge fire destroys historic pier". BBC News. 28 July 2008. Retrieved 29 November 2009. 
  37. ^ "The Weston Mercury — Video exclusive: Inside the new Grand Pier". 
  38. ^ "Stunning £34m seafront improvements wow visitors". North Somerset Life (North Somerset Council) (71): 10–11. September 2010. 
  39. ^ "Hansard Debates". House of Commons of the United Kingdom. 6 June 2005. Retrieved 22 July 2009. 
  40. ^ Bowcott, Owen (22 July 2009). "Turning the tide". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 22 July 2009. 
  41. ^ "Avon Structural Change order". Parliament UK. Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  42. ^ "John Penrose". They Work for You. Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  43. ^ a b Mark Jackson. "P100m HILLS of ENGLAND, Region 41 South Central England, Section 41A Hills of Somerset". peaklist.org. Retrieved 24 March 2010. 
  44. ^ "Citation — Ellenborough Park West" (PDF). English Nature. Retrieved 6 September 2007. 
  45. ^ "Weston Super Mare". Bristol Nomads windsurfing club. Retrieved 21 March 2010. 
  46. ^ "Severn River Basin District". Envioprnment Agency. p. 3. Archived from the original on 7 February 2009. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  47. ^ Chan, Marjorie A.; Archer, Allen William (2003). Extreme Depositional Environments: Mega End Members in Geologic Time. Boulder, Colorado: Geological Society of America. p. 151. ISBN 0-8137-2370-1. 
  48. ^ "Coast: Bristol Channel". BBC. Retrieved 27 August 2007. 
  49. ^ "State of the park report. Chapter 5 Coasts". Exmoor National Park. Archived from the original on 28 July 2008. Retrieved 5 August 2008. 
  50. ^ "Middle Hope". SSSI citation sheet. English Nature. Retrieved 31 October 2008. 
  51. ^ a b c d "South West England: climate". Met Office. Retrieved 14 March 2010. 
  52. ^ The Penny Cyclopaedia for the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. Volume XXII Sigonio–Steam-Vessel. London: Charles Knight & Co. 1842. p. 229. 
  53. ^ Havinden, Michael (1982). The Somerset Landscape. The making of the English landscape. London: Hodder and Stoughton. p. 169. ISBN 0-340-20116-9. 
  54. ^ Rutter, John (1829). Delineations of the North Western Division of the County of Somerset, and of Its Antediluvian Bone Caverns, with a Geological Sketch of the District. Longman, Rees, and co. p. 42. 
  55. ^ "The Weston Vision". CPRE Avonside. Retrieved 20 September 2010. 
  56. ^ "GKN confirms Westland sale talks". BBC News. 20 May 2004. 
  57. ^ "Can Weston-super-Mare cope with development?". BBC Somerset. BBC. 6 February 2008. Retrieved 21 March 2010. 
  58. ^ "Vutrix". Vutrix. Retrieved 21 March 2010. 
  59. ^ a b "Higher Education". Weston College. Retrieved 20 March 2010. 
  60. ^ "Helicopter Museum". Culture24. Retrieved 21 March 2010. 
  61. ^ "Wheel of Weston". North Somerset Council. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 7 November 2010. 
  62. ^ "England visitor numbers 'rising'". BBC News. 29 August 2009. Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  63. ^ "Weston Miniature Railway". Weston Miniature Railway. Retrieved 21 October 2012. 
  64. ^ a b "Knightstone". Ports and Harbours of the UK. Retrieved 21 March 2010. 
  65. ^ Evans, Alex (8 August 2012). "Tropicana: Government approves demolition". Weston, Worle & Somerset Mercury. Retrieved 2 July 2014. 
  66. ^ "Crowds turn out for Red Arrows at Weston-super-Mare". Western Daily Press (This is Western daily Press). 28 August 2008. Retrieved 21 March 2010. 
  67. ^ "Introduction and brief tourism economy history and influences". Weston super Mare chamber of trade and commerce. Archived from the original on 23 December 2007. Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  68. ^ a b "Introductory Section". Weston Town Centre Area Action Plan — Issues and Options Stage. North Somerset Council. Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  69. ^ "Tourism Strategy". Core Strategy — Consultation Draft. North Somerset Council. Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  70. ^ "Weston Bike Night — Bigger and Better for 2009". Motorcycle News. 5 May 2009. Retrieved 10 July 2010. 
  71. ^ Ross, Alex (22 July 2011). "£50million Leisuredome gets planning approval". The Weston Mercury. Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  72. ^ Angear, Simon (4 August 2012). "Ski centre buy-out ‘won’t block Leisuredome’". The Weston Mercury. Retrieved 4 December 2012. 
  73. ^ Oppitz, Leslie (1990). Tramways Remembered: West and South West England. Countryside Books. ISBN 1-85306-095-X. 
  74. ^ Redwood, Christopher (1981). The Weston Clevedon and Portishead Light Railway. Weston-super-Mare: Sequoia Publishing. ISBN 0-905466-42-X. 
  75. ^ "A 370". SABRE. Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  76. ^ MacDermot, E T (1931). History of the Great Western Railway, volume II 1863–1921. London: Great Western Railway. 
  77. ^ District of Woodspring (1991). Steam to the Seaside. Weston-super-Mare: Woodspring Museum Service. 
  78. ^ "Table 125: London and Oxford to Swindon, Cheltenham Spa, Bristol, Weston-super-Mare and South Wales" (PDF). Electronic National Rail Timetable. Network Rail. December 2009. Retrieved 14 December 2009. 
  79. ^ a b "Table 134: Gloucester to Taunton" (PDF). Electronic National Rail Timetable. Network Rail. December 2009. Retrieved 14 December 2009. 
  80. ^ "Table 135: London and Birmingham to Devon and Cornwall" (PDF). Electronic National Rail Timetable. Network Rail. December 2009. Retrieved 14 December 2009. 
  81. ^ a b Jacobs, Gerald (2005). Railway Track Diagrams Book 3: Western. Bradford-on-Avon: Trackmaps. ISBN 0-9549866-1-X. 
  82. ^ "Bus Timetables". North Somerset Council. Archived from the original on 26 September 2011. Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  83. ^ "Bus Service Timetables". Webberbus. Retrieved 6 May 2011. 
  84. ^ "Schools". North Somerset. Archived from the original on 26 September 2011. Retrieved 19 December 2008. 
  85. ^ Morris, Steven (26 January 2012). "Nigel Leat school 'failed on every level' to prevent his sexual abuse of pupils". The Guardian (London). 
  86. ^ "Paedophile teacher Nigel Leat 'too cuddly'". BBC News. 26 January 2012. 
  87. ^ "Our History". Clarence Park Baptist Church. Retrieved 4 July 2007. 
  88. ^ "Songs of Praise factsheet for Sunday 23 November 2008". BBC. Retrieved 20 March 2010. 
  89. ^ "Odeon Weston-super-Mare". Cinema Treasures. Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  90. ^ "Odeon Cinema". Images of England. English Heritage. Retrieved 23 January 2010. 
  91. ^ "Scally's". Scally's. Retrieved 21 March 2010. 
  92. ^ "Live Music Venues in Weston Super Mare, Somerset". The Knowhere Guide. Retrieved 21 March 2010. 
  93. ^ "Gig Guide". This is Somerset. Retrieved 21 March 2010. 
  94. ^ T4 on the Beach#T4 on the Beach 2012
  95. ^ "Bands threaten to pull out of T4 event". digital spy. Retrieved 29 November 2009. 
  96. ^ "Weston super Mare sand sculpture festival". Weston super Mare sand sculpture festival. Retrieved 5 May 2014. 
  97. ^ "Wurzelmania". Somerset Made. Retrieved 20 March 2010. 
  98. ^ "The Remains of the Day film locations". The Worldwide Guide to Movie Locations. Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  99. ^ "Weston super Mare Arts Festival". Weston super Mare Arts Festival. Retrieved 20 March 2010. 
  100. ^ "Weston super Mare Carnival". Weston super Mare Carnival. Retrieved 20 March 2010. 
  101. ^ "Weston & Somerset Mercury". British Newspapers Online. Retrieved 2 April 2009. 
  102. ^ Henzell, Beth (17 February 2011). "TV station for Town". Weston, Worle & Somerset Mercury. Retrieved 15 November 2011. 
  103. ^ "Have you heard about Weston Super Television?". Western and North Somerset Echo. 31 October 2011. Retrieved 15 November 2011. 
  104. ^ "Weston Super Television". Weston Super Television. Retrieved 15 November 2011. 
  105. ^ "Somerset seafront sitcom The Cafe ready for airing on Sky One". This is Somerset. Retrieved 26 December 2011. 
  106. ^ "Michelle is right at home for new Sky comedy show". Weston Mercury. Retrieved 26 December 2011. 
  107. ^ "Pier blaze 'probably electrical'". BBC News. 22 October 2008. Retrieved 23 October 2008. 
  108. ^ "Weston-super-Mare pier reopens two years after fire". BBC News. 23 October 2010. Retrieved 23 October 2010. 
  109. ^ "In the dark over pier future". The Weston Mercury. 3 September 2010. Retrieved 6 September 2010. 
  110. ^ "Heritage Matters". Mendip District Council. 19 November 2008. Retrieved 20 September 2010. 
  111. ^ Smith, Leonard (June 2008). "A Gentleman's mad-doctor in Georgian England: Edward Long Fox and Brislington House". History of psychiatry (England) 19 (74 Pt 2): 163–84. doi:10.1177/0957154X07081136. ISSN 0957-154X. PMID 19127837. 
  112. ^ "Sauna and Solarium". Images of England. English Heritage. Retrieved 20 March 2010. 
  113. ^ "Weston-super-Mare Tropicana demolition". Bristol Evening Post (This is Bristol). 8 June 2012. Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  114. ^ "Council seeks Tropicana partner". BBC News. 8 March 2005. Retrieved 8 January 2007. 
  115. ^ "Group wants to buy derelict pool". BBC News. 10 October 2006. Retrieved 8 January 2007. 
  116. ^ "Cash crisis ends Tropicana plans". BBC News. 13 November 2009. Retrieved 19 November 2009. 
  117. ^ "New plans for Weston-super-Mare's Tropicana site". BBC. 31 August 2010. Retrieved 7 November 2010. 
  118. ^ "Weston Tropicana could be demolished by spring". ITV The West Tonight. 23 August 2011. 
  119. ^ "Plans for Tropicana in Weston-super-Mare given green light". BBC News. 21 February 2013. Retrieved 23 February 2012. 
  120. ^ "Plans for Tropicana in Weston recommended for approval". BBC News. 14 February 2013. Retrieved 23 February 2012. 
  121. ^ "Church of All Saints". Images of England. English Heritage. Retrieved 20 March 2010. 
  122. ^ "Orthodox churches in the UK". The Hellenic Book Service. Retrieved 20 March 2010. 
  123. ^ "History". Weston super Mare AFC. Retrieved 4 July 2009. 
  124. ^ "History". Weston super Mare RFC. Retrieved 24 January 2010. 
  125. ^ "Hornets History". Hornets RFC. Retrieved 24 January 2010. 
  126. ^ "Campaign to bring back cricket festival". Weston & Somerset Mercury. 19 March 2010. Retrieved 20 March 2010. 
  127. ^ "Devonshire Park Ground, Weston-super-Mare". CricketArchive. Retrieved 13 July 2010. 
  128. ^ "Weston Beach race cancelled after pile-up injures 21 riders". London: The Telegraph. 11 October 2009. Retrieved 24 January 2010. 
  129. ^ Mullins, Bob. "Weston Beach Race". Enduro News. Retrieved 20 March 2010. 
  130. ^ "Big Brother winner’s new bar venture". Weston, Worle & Somerset Mercury. Retrieved 15 January 2013. 
  131. ^ "The Papers of A V Alexander". Cambridge University. Retrieved 24 January 2010. 
  132. ^ Hough, Andrew (7 December 2009). "Jeffrey Archer lands ‘record £18 m deal for modern Forsyte Saga’". London: The Telegraph. Retrieved 24 January 2010. 
  133. ^ "Obituary for Peter Christopherson". The Vinyl Factory. Retrieved 11 August 2011. 
  134. ^ "Ritchie Blackmore". Ritchie Blackmore.com. Retrieved 24 January 2010. 
  135. ^ "Interview in 'The Wire'". The Wire. 
  136. ^ "John Cleese Biography (1939–)". 
  137. ^ Barker, Dennis (27 April 1999). "Jill Dando Obituary". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 23 June 2007. 
  138. ^ Mehra, Jagdish; Rechenberg, Helmut (2000). The Historical Development of Quantum Theory: Pt. 1, the Fundamental Equations of Quantum Mechanics, 1925–1926, Jagdish Mehra. Springer. p. 38. ISBN 978-0-387-95178-2. 
  139. ^ Daphne Fowler – Quiz Players
  140. ^ "Tatem,William James". Casualty Details. Commenwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 7 November 2012. 
  141. ^ "Biography". Rupert Graves Online. Retrieved 24 January 2010. 
  142. ^ "Bob (and Dolores) Hope". adoption.com. Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  143. ^ "Sean Martin". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 24 January 2010. 
  144. ^ "20 Questions With... Con O'Neill". Whats on Stage. 19 March 2007. Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  145. ^ "John Oldmixon". Encyclopædia Britannica. Volume XX (11th ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911. p. 74. Retrieved 24 January 2010. 
  146. ^ "John Polkinghorne". Gifford Lectures. Retrieved 24 January 2010. 
  147. ^ "The History of the Blakehay". Weston super Mare Town Council. Archived from the original on 20 January 2010. Retrieved 20 March 2010. 
  148. ^ "Britain's first great Olympian honoured". This is Bristol. 21 August 2008. Retrieved 24 January 2010. 
  149. ^ "Gareth Taylor". Soccerbase. Retrieved 24 January 2010. 
  150. ^ "Gareth Taylor". Sky Sports. 7 May 2009. Retrieved 24 January 2010. 
  151. ^ "The Cafe: Hoping for a big splash". The Stage. 18 November 2011. Retrieved 11 July 2013. 
  152. ^ "Peter Trego". Cricinfo. Retrieved 24 January 2010. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Beisly, Philip (1996). Northmarsh of Somerset. Weston-super-Mare: Weston Heritage Centre. ISBN 978-0-9510368-2-2. 
  • Beisly, Philip (1988). Weston-super-Mare: A History and Guide. Sutton Publishing Ltd. ISBN 978-0-86299-440-2. 
  • Beisly, Philip (2001). Weston-super-Mare Past. Phillimore & Co Ltd. ISBN 978-1-86077-174-3. 
  • Poole, Sharon (2002). Weston-super-Mare. Tempus History & Guide. The History Press. ISBN 978-0-7524-2631-0. 
  • Crockford-Hawley, John (2004). Weston-super-Mare: a History and Celebration of the Town. Frith Book Company. ISBN 978-1-904938-54-5. 
  • Crockford-Hawley, John (1990). History of the Parish Church of All Saints, Weston-super-Mare. ISBN 978-1-872732-00-8. 

External links[edit]