|Home Rule Municipality|
View of Boulder from Bear Peak
Location in Boulder County and the State of Colorado
|Coordinates: Coordinates: |
|Settled||1858 as Boulder City, N.T.|
|• Type||Home Rule Municipality|
|• Mayor||Matthew Appelbaum|
|• Deputy Mayor||Lisa Morzel|
|• Home Rule Municipality||25.7 sq mi (66.5 km2)|
|• Land||24.7 sq mi (63.9 km2)|
|• Water||1.0 sq mi (2.6 km2)|
|Elevation||5,430 ft (1,655 m)|
|• Home Rule Municipality||97,385|
|• Estimate (2013)||103,166|
|• Rank||US: 279th|
|• Density||3,800/sq mi (1,500/km2)|
|• Metro||310,048 (US: 160th)|
|Time zone||MST (UTC-7)|
|• Summer (DST)||MDT (UTC-6)|
|ZIP codes||80301-80310, 80314, 80321-80323, 80328, 80329|
|Area code(s)||Both 303 and 720|
|INCITS place code||0807850|
|GNIS feature ID||0178680|
|Highways||US 36, SH 7, SH 52, SH 93, SH 119, SH 157|
The City of Boulder is the Home Rule Municipality that is the county seat and the most populous municipality of Boulder County, and the 11th most populous municipality in the U.S. state of Colorado. Boulder is located at the base of the foothills of the Rocky Mountains at an elevation of 5,430 feet (1,655 m). The city is 25 miles (40 km) northwest of Denver.
Boulder is famous for its colorful Western history, being a choice destination for hippies in the late 1960s, and as home of the main campus of the University of Colorado, the state's largest university. Furthermore, the city of Boulder frequently acquires top rankings in health, well-being, quality of life, education and art.
- 1 History
- 2 Demographics
- 3 Geography
- 4 Politics and government
- 5 Culture
- 6 Top rankings
- 7 Education
- 8 Economy and industry
- 9 Transportation
- 10 Growth management
- 11 Media
- 12 Notable people
- 13 Shopping
- 14 Sister cities
- 15 In popular culture
- 16 See also
- 17 References
- 18 External links
- 19 Further reading
On November 7, 1861, legislation was passed making way for the state university to be located in Boulder, and on September 20, 1875, the first cornerstone was laid for the first building (Old Main Building) on the C.U. campus. The university officially opened on September 5, 1877.
U.S. Decennial Census
As of the census of 2010, there were 97,385 people, 41,302 households, and 16,694 families residing in the city. The population density is 3,942.7 inhabitants per square mile (1,524.0/km²). There were 43,479 housing units at an average density of 1,760.3 per square mile (680.4/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 88.0% White, 0.9% Black or African American, 0.4% Native American, 4.7% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 3.2% some other race, and 2.6% from two or more races. 8.7% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 41,302 households, out of which 19.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 32.2% were headed by married couples living together, 5.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 59.6% were non-families. 35.8% of all households were made up of individuals, and 7.1% were someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.16, and the average family size was 2.84.
Boulder's population is younger than the national average, largely due to the presence of university students. The median age at the 2010 census was 28.7 years compared to the U.S. median of 37.2 years. In Boulder, 13.9% of the residents were under the age of 18, 29.1% from 18 to 24, 27.6% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, and 8.9% were 65 years of age or older. For every 100 females there were 105.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and older, there were 106.2 males.
In 2011 the estimated median household income in Boulder was $57,112, and the median family income was $113,681. Male full-time workers had a median income of $71,993 versus $47,574 for females. The per capita income for the city was $37,600. 24.8% of the population and 7.6% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 17.4% of those under the age of 18 and 6.0% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.
Boulder housing tends to be priced higher than surrounding areas. For the 2nd quarter of 2006, the median single family home in Boulder sold for $548,000 and the median attached dwelling (condo or town home) sold for $262,000. According to the National Association of Realtors, during the same period the median value of single family homes nationwide was $227,500.
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (October 2012)|
The city of Boulder is in Boulder Valley where the Rocky Mountains meet the Great Plains. West of the city are slabs of sedimentary stone tilted up on the foothills, known as the Flatirons. The Flatirons are a widely recognized symbol of Boulder.
The primary water flow through the city is Boulder Creek. The creek was named well ahead of the city's founding, for all of the large granite boulders that have cascaded into the creek over the eons. It is from Boulder Creek that Boulder city is believed to have taken its name. Boulder Creek has significant water flow, derived primarily from snow melt and minor springs west of the city. The creek is a tributary of the South Platte River.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 25.7 square miles (66.5 km2). 24.7 square miles (63.9 km2) of it is land and 1.0 square mile (2.6 km2) of it (3.97%) is water.
Boulder lies in a wide basin beneath Flagstaff Mountain just a few miles east of the continental divide and about 30 miles (48 km) northwest of Denver. Arapahoe Glacier provides water for the city, along with Boulder Creek, which flows through the center of the city.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Boulder has a dry climate typical of much of the state and receives many sunny or mostly sunny days each year. Under the Köppen climate classification central parts of the city have a semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk). Winter conditions range from generally mild to the occasional bitterly cold, with highs averaging in the mid to upper 40s °F (7–9 °C). There are 4.6 nights annually where the temperature reaches 0 °F (−18 °C). Because of orographic lift the mountains to the west often dry out the air passing over the Front Range, often shielding the city from precipitation in winter, though heavy falls may occur. Snowfall averages 88 inches (220 cm) per season, but snow depth is usually shallow; a strong warming sun due to the high elevation can quickly melt snow cover during the day and Chinook winds bring rapid warm-ups throughout the Winter months. Summers are very warm and dry, with 30 days reaching 90 °F (32 °C) or above. Diurnal temperature variation is large year-round due to the high-elevation dry climate.
The highest recorded temperature in Boulder of 104 °F (40 °C) occurred on June 23 and July 11, 1954. The lowest temperature recorded in Boulder was −33 °F (−36 °C) on January 17, 1930.
|Climate data for Boulder, Colorado (1981–2010 normals)|
|Record high °F (°C)||74
|Average high °F (°C)||46.9
|Average low °F (°C)||22.2
|Record low °F (°C)||−33
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||.71
|Average snowfall inches (cm)||11.6
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||5.3||6.4||8.4||10.0||12.1||10.4||10.4||10.8||8.3||7.2||5.9||5.7||101.0|
|Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||5.2||6.3||6.4||4.2||.6||0||0||0||.5||1.8||4.8||5.4||35.2|
|Source: NOAA (extremes 1893–present)|
Politics and government
Boulder is a Home Rule Municipality, being self-governing under Article XX of the Constitution of the State of Colorado; Title 31, Article 1, Section 202 of the Colorado Revised Statutes.
Politically, Boulder is one of the most liberal and Democratic cities in Colorado. As of April 2012[update], registered voters in Boulder County, which includes Boulder's more conservative suburbs, were 41% Democratic, 20% Republican, 1% in other parties, and 38% unaffiliated. To residents and detractors alike, the city of Boulder is often referred to as the "People's Republic of Boulder."
In 1974, the Boulder City Council passed Colorado's first ordinance prohibiting discrimination based on sexual orientation. Boulder voters, however, repealed the measure by referendum within a year. In 1975, Boulder County Clerk Clela Rorex was the second in the United States to ever grant same-sex marriage licenses, prior to state laws being passed to prevent such issuance.
Boulder is surrounded by thousands of acres of recreational open space, conservation easements, and nature preserves. Almost 60 percent, 35,584 acres (144.00 km2), of open space totaling 61,529 acres (249.00 km2) is open to the public.
Rock climbing is found near the small unincorporated community of Eldorado Springs, south of Boulder. There are also climbing routes available in the city open space, including climbing routes of varying difficulty on the Flatirons themselves (traditional protection). Boulder Canyon (sport), directly west of downtown Boulder, also has many routes. All three of these areas are affected by seasonal closures for wildlife.
Boulder has hosted a 10 km road run, the Bolder Boulder, on Memorial Day, every year since 1979. The race involves over 50,000 runners, joggers, walkers, and wheelchair racers, making it one of the largest road races in the world. It has the largest non-marathon prize purse in road racing. The race culminates at Folsom Field with a Memorial Day Tribute. The 2007 race featured over 54,000 runners, walkers, and wheelchair racers, making it the largest race in the US in which all participants are timed and the fifth largest road race in the world.
Boulder is home to a variety of music, from classical to jazz to pop, and from informal street performances to concert music performed in Macky Auditorium.
Conference on World Affairs
The Conference on World Affairs, started in 1948, is an annual one-week conference featuring dozens of discussion panels on a variety of contemporary issues.
Polar Bear Plunge
Beginning in 1983, hundreds of people head to the Boulder Reservoir on New Years Day to take part in the annual polar bear plunge. With rescue teams standing by, participants use a variety of techniques to plunge themselves into the freezing reservoir. Once the plunge is complete, swimmers retreat to hot tubs on the reservoir beach to revive themselves from the cold.
Naked Pumpkin Run
Starting in 1998, dozens of people have taken part in a Halloween run down the city's streets wearing only shoes and a hollowed-out pumpkin on their heads. In 2009, local police threatened participants with charges of indecent exposure and no naked runners were reported in official newscasts, although a few naked runners were observed by locals.
April 20 (4/20)
Every year on April 20, thousands of people have gathered on the CU Boulder campus to smoke marijuana at and before 4:20 pm. The 2010 head count was officially between 8,000 and 15,000 with some discrepancy between the local papers and the University administrators (who have been thought to have been attempting to downplay the event). Eleven tickets were given out whereas the year before there were only two. 2011 was the last year of mass 4/20 partying at CU as the university, in 2012, took a hard stance against 4/20 activities, closing the campus to visitors for the day, using smelly fish fertilizer to discourage gathering at the traditional Norlin Quad, and having out-of-town law enforcement agencies help secure the campus. In 2013, 4/20 fell on a Saturday; the university continued the 4/20 party ban and, again, closed the campus to visitors.
Boulder Cruiser Ride
The Boulder Cruiser Ride is a weekly bicycle ride in Boulder Colorado. The Boulder Cruiser Ride grew from a group of friends and friends of friends riding bicycles around Boulder into "an all out public mob". Some enthusiasts gather wearing costumes and decorating their bikes; themes are an integral part of the cruiser tradition. Boulder Police began following the cruiser ride as it gained in popularity. Issues with underage drinking, reckless bicycle riding, and other nuisance complaints led organizers to drop the cruiser ride as a public event. Returning to an underground format, where enthusiasts must become part of the social network before gaining access to event sites, the Boulder Cruiser Ride has continued as a local tradition. On May 30, 2013 over 400 riders attended the Thursday night Cruiser Ride in honor of "Big Boy", an elk that was shot and killed on New Years Day by an on duty Boulder Police officer.
Boulder has gathered many top rankings in recent years for health, well-being, quality of life, education and art. The partial list below shows some of the nominations.
- The 10 Happiest Cities – # 1 – Moneywatch.bnet.com
- Top Brainiest Cities – No. 1 – Portfolio.com
- Ten Best Cities for the Next Decade – 4th – Kiplinger's Personal Finance magazine
- Gallup-Healthways Well-Being Index – No. 1 – USA Today
- Best Cities to Raise an Outdoor Kid – No. 1 – Backpacker Magazine
- America's Top 25 Towns to Live Well – No. 1 – Forbes.com
- Top 10 Healthiest Cities to Live and Retire – No. 6 – AARP magazine
- Top 10 Cities for Artists – No. 8 – Business Week
- Lesser-Known LGBT Family-Friendly Cities – No. 1 – Wearegoodkin.com
- America's Foodiest Town – No. 1 – Bon Appetit magazine
- Queerest Cities in America 2015 — No. 10 — Advocate.com 
The Boulder Valley School District (BVSD) administers the public school system in Boulder and also in the neighboring cities and towns of Broomfield, Lafayette, Louisville, and Nederland. The two largest high schools (grades 9–12) in Boulder are Boulder High School and Fairview High School, both part of BVSD. The District also operates the smaller New Vista High School in the building formerly occupied by Baseline Middle School, specializing in innovative and hands-on education. Boulder Valley also administers several middle and elementary schools in Boulder.
Charter schools (receiving public funding but under private management) within the city of Boulder include Preparatory High School (9–12), Summit Middle School (6–8), and Horizons Alternative School (K–8).
A variety of private high schools, middle schools and elementary schools operate in Boulder.
Colleges and universities
- University of Colorado Boulder, public university which contributes roughly 46,000 residents (30,000 undergraduate students, 7,000 graduate students and 10,000 staff/faculty) to the population.
- Naropa University is a private university based on Buddhist principles. It has approximately 400 undergraduate and over 600 graduate students.
- Culinary School of the Rockies
- Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES)
- Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy (CASA)
- Colorado Center for Astrodynamics Research (CCAR)
- Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research (INSTAAR)
- Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics (JILA)
- Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP)
- Geological Society of America, headquartered at 3300 Penrose Place.
- National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON)
- National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) / University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)
- National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
- National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL)
- National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC)
- National Telecommunications and Information Administration(NTIA) – Institute for Telecommunication Sciences Boulder
- Rocky Mountain Institute
- Southwest Research Institute Department of Space Studies
- Space Science Institute
- Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC)
Economy and industry
The Boulder MSA had a gross metropolitan product of $18.3 billion in 2010, the 110th largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Since Boulder has operated under residential growth control ordinances since 1976, the growth of employment in the city has far outstripped population growth. Considerable road traffic enters the city each morning and leaves each afternoon, since many employees live in Longmont, Lafayette, Louisville, Broomfield, Westminster, and Denver. Boulder is served by US 36 and a variety of state highways. Parking regulations in Boulder have been explicitly designed to discourage parking by commuters and to encourage the use of mass transit, with mixed results.
Boulder has an extensive bus system operated by the Regional Transportation District (RTD). The HOP, SKIP, JUMP, Bound, DASH and Stampede routes run throughout the city and connect to nearby communities with departures every ten minutes during peak hours, Monday-Friday. Other routes, such as the 204, 205, 206, 208 and 209 depart every 15 to 30 minutes. Regional routes, traveling between nearby cities such as Longmont (BOLT, J), Golden (GS), and Denver (BMX/BV/BX/DM/HX/S/T), as well as Denver International Airport (AB), are also available. There are over 100 scheduled daily bus trips on seven routes that run between Boulder and Denver on weekdays.
Future transit plans
A 41-mile RTD commuter rail route called the Northwest Rail Line is proposed to run from Denver through Boulder to Longmont, with stops in major communities along the way. The Boulder station is to be north of Pearl Street and east of 30th Street. At one time this commuter rail service was scheduled to commence in 2014, but major delays have ensued. As of 2012[update], the plan is to open in 2016 a 6-mile segment from downtown Denver to southern Westminster, at 71st Avenue and Lowell Boulevard. The remaining 35 miles of the Northwest Rail Line is planned to be completed by 2044, depending upon funding.
These future transit projects are part of FasTracks, an RTD transit improvement plan funded by a 0.4% increase in the sales tax throughout the Denver metro area. RTD, the developer of FasTracks, is partnering with the city of Boulder to plan a transit-oriented development near Pearl and 33rd Streets in association with the proposed Boulder commuter rail station. The development is to feature the Boulder Railroad Depot, already relocated to that site, which may be returned to a transit-related use.
Boulder, well known for its bicycle culture, boasts hundreds of miles of bicycle-pedestrian paths, lanes, and routes that interconnect to create a renowned network of bikeways usable year-round. Boulder has 74 bike and pedestrian underpasses that facilitate safer and uninterrupted travel throughout much of the city. The city offers a route-finding website that allows users to map personalized bike routes around the city.
Boulder Municipal Airport is located 3 miles (4.8 km) from central Boulder, is owned by the City of Boulder and is used exclusively for general aviation, with most traffic consisting of single-engine airplanes and glider aircraft.
Government preservation of open space around Boulder began with the Congress of the United States approving the allocation of 1,800 acres (7.3 km2) of mountain backdrop/watershed extending from South Boulder Creek to Sunshine Canyon in 1899.
Since then, Boulder has adopted a policy of controlled urban expansion. In 1959, city voters approved the "Blue Line" city-charter amendment which restricted city water service to altitudes below 5,750 feet (1,750 m), in an effort to protect the mountain backdrop from development. In 1967, city voters approved a dedicated sales tax for the acquisition of open space in an effort to contain urban sprawl. In 1970, Boulder created a "comprehensive plan" that would dictate future zoning, transportation, and urban planning decisions. Hoping to preserve residents' views of the mountains, in 1972, the city enacted an ordinance limiting the height of newly constructed buildings. A Historic-Preservation Code was passed in 1974, and a residential-growth management ordinance (the Danish Plan) in 1976.
The City of Boulder has created an Urban Wildlife Management Plan which sets policies for managing and protecting urban wildlife. Also, the city's parks department has volunteers who monitor parks (including wetlands, lakes, etc.) to protect ecosystems. From time to time, parks and hiking trails are closed to conserve or restore ecosystems. Traditionally, Boulder has avoided the use of chemical pesticides for controlling the insect population. However, with the threat of West Nile Virus, the city began an integrative plan to control the mosquito population in 2003 that includes chemical pesticides. Residents can opt-out of the program by contacting the city and asking that their areas not be sprayed.
Also in 2005, the city experimented with using goats for weed control in environmentally sensitive areas. Goats naturally consume diffuse knapweed and Canada thistle, and although the program was not as effective as it was hoped, goats will still be considered in the future weed control projects. In 2010, goats were used to keep weeds under control at the Boulder Reservoir.
Boulder's main daily newspaper, the Daily Camera, was founded in 1890 as the weekly Boulder Camera, and became a daily newspaper the following year. The Colorado Daily was started in 1892 as a university newspaper for CU-Boulder. Following many heated controversies over Colorado Daily's political coverage, it severed its ties to the university in 1971. Newspaper conglomerate Scripps acquired the Colorado Daily in 2005 after its acquisition of the Camera in 1997, leaving the Boulder Weekly as the only locally owned newspaper in Boulder. Scripps relinquished its 50 percent ownership in both daily papers in early 2009 to Media News Group. Boulder Magazine, a lifestyle magazine, was founded in 1978. Boulder Magazine is published three times per year.
Boulder is part of the Denver market for television stations, and it also receives many radio stations based in Denver or Ft. Collins. For cable television, Boulder is served by Comcast Cable. Over-the-air television reception is poor in the western part of the city because of interference from mountains.
Paladin Press book/video publishers and Soldier of Fortune magazine both have their headquarters in Boulder. Paladin Press was founded in September 1970 by Peder Lund and Robert K. Brown. In 1974, Lund bought out Brown's share of the press, and Brown moved on to found Soldier of Fortune magazine the following year.
Non-commercial community radio station KGNU was founded in 1978 and commercial music station KBCO in 1977. KBCO programs an adult album alternative format and is owned and operated by Clear Channel Communications. KBCO transmits from atop Eldorado Mountain south of Boulder.
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (November 2011)|
Notable births in Boulder include: John Fante (writer), Scott Carpenter (Project Mercury astronaut), Arleigh Burke (United States Navy Admiral, Chief of Naval Operations), Kristin Davis (Sex and the City actress), Tony Boselli (five-time Pro Bowl offensive tackle), Chuck Pagano (Indianapolis Colts head coach) and Dead Kennedys frontman Jello Biafra.
Chief Niwot or Left Hand, a tribal leader of the Arapaho, lived at the site of Boulder. In 1858, Captain Thomas Aikins and some would-be goldminers camped at present-day Setter's Park—in the midst of Arapaho territory. The chief and his people were camped at Valmont Butte: then and now a sacred site to the tribe. Niwot and his war party rode to the settler's camp whereupon he pronounced his legendary curse:
|“||People seeing the beauty of this valley will want to stay, and their staying will be the undoing of the beauty.||”|
Albert Allen Bartlett, emeritus professor of physics, frequent lecturer on the dangers of compound growth, and one of the principal backers of the Blue Line in the late 1950s. Boulder is also home to Paul Danish, author of the Danish Plan of residential growth control and editor and publisher of the former weekly Boulder County newspaper Town and Country Review.
JonBenét Ramsey, when she was murdered in December 1996. The made-for-TV movie Perfect Murder, Perfect Town: JonBenét and the City of Boulder, based on the book of the same title, was released in 2000. It dramatized the investigation into the murder. It was filmed on location in Boulder.
One of the most popular sections of Boulder is the famous Pearl Street Mall, home to numerous shops and restaurants. This four-block pedestrian mall is a social hotspot in Boulder, with dozens of restaurants of all kinds and specialty stores that include artisan shops and unique gadget shops. In the summer and on weekends, many street shows and acts can be found throughout the mall, along with street vendors and henna tattoo artists.
Boulder's traditional Downtown area, including the Pearl Street Mall, is in the western part of present-day Boulder. During the 1950s and 1960s, the city grew to the east, since the west side is bounded by the foothills. Downtown is host to a variety of restaurants, bars, and boutique stores. However, it has few grocery, hardware, or department stores and is therefore more of a "shopping destination" than a neighborhood with stores supporting the local population.
South of Pearl Street and adjacent to the CU-Boulder campus is another historic shopping center, The Hill. Featuring some of the city's landmark stores and venues, such as Albums on the Hill and the Fox Theatre, The Hill has been the center of college life for many of the nearby sororities and fraternities.
Near the Pearl Street Mall the Farmers' Market opens every Saturday morning and Wednesday evening, April through October on 13th Street next to Central Park. The market was started in 1986 by regional farmers.
- Dushanbe, Tajikistan (May 8, 1987)
- Jalapa, Nicaragua
- Lhasa, China (1987)
- Ciudad Mante, Mexico
- Yamagata, Japan (1994)
- Yateras, Cuba
- Kisumu, Kenya
Landmarks representing Boulder's connection with its various sister cities can be found throughout the city. Boulder's Sister City Plaza – dedicated on May 17, 2007 – is located on the east lawn of Boulder's Municipal Building. The plaza was built to honor all of Boulder's sister city relationships. The Dushanbe Tea House is located on 13th Street just south of the Pearl Street Mall. Dushanbe presented its distinctive tea house as a gift to Boulder in 1987. It was completed in Tajikistan in 1990, then shipped to Boulder where it was reassembled and opened to the public in 1998. A mural representing the relationship between Boulder and Mante, Mexico was dedicated in August 2001. The mural, which was painted by Mante muralist Florian Lopez, is located on the north-facing wall of the Dairy Center for the Performing Arts.
More information about Boulder's sister city relationships can be found at Boulder's official website.
In popular culture
Boulder was a setting for Stephen King's book The Stand (1978), as the gathering point for the survivors of the superflu. King lived in Boulder for a little less than a year, beginning in the autumn of 1974, and wrote The Shining (1977) during this period.
The sitcom Mork & Mindy (1978–1982) was set in Boulder, with 1619 Pine St. serving as the exterior shot of Mindy's home, and the New York Deli, a restaurant on the Pearl Street Mall, was also featured prominently.
- Outline of Colorado
- State of Colorado
- 2013 Colorado floods
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Boulder, Colorado.|
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Boulder (Colorado).|
- City of Boulder website
- CDOT map of the City of Boulder
- Boulder History Museum
- Climate information
- DailyCamera.com – Local Newspaper
- ColoradoDaily.com – Local Newspaper
- Find Businesses, Directions & Shop locally in Boulder
- Boulder Convention and Visitors Bureau – Official Visitor Information
- Deloria, Philip J. "Drain the Lake! Tear Down the Butte! Build Paradise!: The Environmental Dimensions of Social and Economic Power in Boulder, Colorado, and Benzie, Michigan," Southern California Quarterly (2007): 65-88. in JSTOR
- Pettem, Silvia. Boulder: Evolution of a City (University Press of Colorado, 1994)