Ring (diacritic)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from )
Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see Ring.

A ring diacritic may appear above or below letters. It may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets in various contexts.

Diacritics in Latin & Greek
acute( ´ )
double acute( ˝ )
grave( ` )
double grave(  ̏ )
breve( ˘ )
inverted breve(  ̑ )
caron, háček( ˇ )
cedilla( ¸ )
circumflex( ˆ )
diaeresis, umlaut( ¨ )
dot( · )
hook, hook above(   ̡   ̢  ̉ )
horn(  ̛ )
iota subscript(  ͅ  )
macron( ¯ )
ogonek, nosinė( ˛ )
perispomene(  ͂  )
ring( ˚, ˳ )
rough breathing( )
smooth breathing( ᾿ )
Marks sometimes used as diacritics
apostrophe( )
bar( ◌̸ )
colon( : )
comma( , )
hyphen( ˗ )
tilde( ~ )
Diacritical marks in other scripts
Arabic diacritics
Early Cyrillic diacritics
kamora(  ҄ )
pokrytie(  ҇ )
titlo(  ҃ )
Gurmukhī diacritics
Hebrew diacritics
Indic diacritics
anusvara( )
chandrabindu( )
nukta( )
virama( )
chandrakkala( )
IPA diacritics
Japanese diacritics
dakuten( )
handakuten( )
Khmer diacritics
Syriac diacritics
Thai diacritics
Dotted circle
Punctuation marks
Logic symbols
Å å
Ǻ ǻ
Å̂ å̂
Å̃ å̃
Å̄ å̄
Å̆ å̆
Ā̊ ā̊
Ą̊ ą̊
Å̱ å̱
E̊̄ e̊̄
Ō̊ ō̊
Ů ů
Ů́ ů́
Ů̃ ů̃
Ũ̊ ũ̊
Ū̊ ū̊
L̥̄ l̥̄
R̥̄ r̥̄

Ring above[edit]

In Unicode, the above encoding is: U+030A ◌̊ combining ring above (HTML ̊).

Though the Danish, Norwegian, Swedish and Walloon character Å (å) is derived from an A with a ring, it is considered a distinct letter in those languages. The letter Å is the symbol of the unit ångström, named after the Swedish physicist Anders Jonas Ångström.

The character Ů (ů; a Latin U with ring above, or kroužek in Czech) is a grapheme in the Czech language preserved for historic reasons, which identifies a vowel shift. For example, the word for "horse" used to be written kóň, which evolved, along with pronunciation, into kuoň. Ultimately, the vowel [o] disappeared completely, and the uo evolved into ů, modern form kůň. The letter ů now has the same pronunciation as the letter ú (long [uː]), but changes to a short o when a word is morphed (e.g. nom. kůň → gen. koně, nom. dům → gen. domu), thus showing the historical evolution of the language. Ů cannot occur in initial position, however, ú occurs almost exclusively in initial position or at the beginning of a word root in a compound. These characters are used also in Steuer's Silesian alphabet. The [uo] pronunciation has prevailed in some Moravian dialects, as well as in the Slovak language, which uses the letter ô instead of ů.

The ring is used in Bolognese (a dialect of Emiliano-Romagnolo language) to distinguish the sound /ɑ/ (å) from /a/ (a).

ů has been used in Old Lithuanian in Lithuania Minor from the 16th till the beginning of the 20th century and for a shorter time in 16th-century Lithuania Major for diphthong [uo].

The ring has been used in the Lithuanian Cyrillic alphabet promoted by Russian authorities in the last quarter of the 19th century with the letter У̊ / у̊ used to represent the /wɔ/ diphthong (now written uo in Lithuanian orthography).

Ring upon e (e̊) is used by certain dialectologists of the Walloon language (especially Jean-Jacques Gaziaux) to note the /ə/ vowel typically replacing /i/ and /y/ in the Brabant province central Walloon dialects. The difficulty of type-writing it has led some writers to prefer ë for the same sound.

Many more characters can be created in Unicode using the "combining ring above" U+030A, including the above-mentioned у̊ (Cyrillic у with ring above) or ń̊ (n with acute and ring above). The standalone ring above symbol has the codepoint U+02DA.

Although similar in appearance, it is not to be confused with the Japanese handakuten (゜ U+309C), a diacritic used with the kana for syllables starting with h to indicate that they should instead be pronounced with [p].

Ring below[edit]

Unicode encodes the ring below at U+0325 ◌̥ combining ring below

The diacritic is used in IPA to indicate voicelessness, and in Indo-European studies or in Sanskrit transliteration (IAST) to indicate syllabicity of r, l, m, n etc. (e.g. corresponding to IPA [ɹ̩]).


  • U+1E00 latin capital letter a with ring below
  • U+1E01 latin small letter a with ring below

Half rings[edit]

Half rings also exist as diacritic marks, these are characters U+0351 ◌͑ combining left half ring above and U+0357 ◌͗ combining right half ring above. These characters may be used in the International Phonetic Alphabet, denoting roundedness. They are here given with the lowercase a: and .

Other, similar signs are in use in Armenian: the U+0559 ◌ՙ armenian modifier letter left half ring and the U+055A ◌՚ armenian apostrophe.

Unicode supports U+031C ◌̜ combining left half ring below and U+0339 ◌̹ combining right half ring below.

Similar marks[edit]

The ring as a diacritic mark should not be confused with the dot or U+0366 ◌ͦ combining latin small letter o diacritic marks, or with the degree sign °.

The half ring as a diacritic mark should not be confused with the comma or ogonek diacritic marks.

External links[edit]