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Millennium: 2nd millennium
1232 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1232
Ab urbe condita1985
Armenian calendar681
Assyrian calendar5982
Balinese saka calendar1153–1154
Bengali calendar639
Berber calendar2182
English Regnal year16 Hen. 3 – 17 Hen. 3
Buddhist calendar1776
Burmese calendar594
Byzantine calendar6740–6741
Chinese calendar辛卯年 (Metal Rabbit)
3929 or 3722
    — to —
壬辰年 (Water Dragon)
3930 or 3723
Coptic calendar948–949
Discordian calendar2398
Ethiopian calendar1224–1225
Hebrew calendar4992–4993
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1288–1289
 - Shaka Samvat1153–1154
 - Kali Yuga4332–4333
Holocene calendar11232
Igbo calendar232–233
Iranian calendar610–611
Islamic calendar629–630
Japanese calendarKangi 4 / Jōei 1
Javanese calendar1141–1142
Julian calendar1232
Korean calendar3565
Minguo calendar680 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar−236
Thai solar calendar1774–1775
Tibetan calendar阴金兔年
(female Iron-Rabbit)
1358 or 977 or 205
    — to —
(male Water-Dragon)
1359 or 978 or 206
Hubert de Burgh kneeling at an altar, by Matthew of Paris.

Year 1232 (MCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.


By place[edit]




  • The Almohad army besieges the city of Ceuta, where Abu Musa, rebellious brother of Caliph Idris al-Ma'mun, has received shelter and the support of the population. The Genoese rent a part of their fleet to the rebels, who successfully resist the forces of the caliph. The consequences of this revolt are threefold: the city becomes de facto independent from the Almohads, but its reliance on the Italian maritime powers increases, and the Trans-Saharan trade routes begin to shift eastward, due to the local turmoil.[5]

Mongol Empire[edit]

  • February 9Battle of Sanfengshan: The Mongol army (some 50,000 warriors) defeats the Chinese Jin forces near Yuzhou. General Subutai successfully wipes out the last field army of the Jin dynasty – therefore sealing its fate of falling to the Mongol Empire. During the encounter, also called the Battle of the Three-Peak Mountain, Emperor Aizong of Jin orders the Jin army (some 150,000 men) to intercept the Mongols. The Jin soldiers are constantly harassed by small groups of Mongol cavalry on the way. When they arrive at Sanfeng Mountain, the Jin army is hungry and exhausted by heavy snowfall. The Jin forces are quickly defeated by the Mongols and flee in all directions.
  • April 8Mongol–Jin War: The Mongol army led by Ögedei Khan and his brother Tolui begins the siege of Kaifeng, capital of the Chinese Jin dynasty. During the summer, the Jurchens try to end the siege by negotiating a peace treaty, but the assassination of a Mongol embassy makes further talks impossible. While the negotiations are going on, a plague is devastating the population of the city. In the meantime, supplies stored at Kaifeng are running out, and several residents of the city are executed on the suspicion that they are traitors.[6]
  • June – Mongol invasion of Korea: Choe Woo, Korean military dictator of Goryeo, orders against the pleas of King Gojong and his senior officials, the royal court, and most of Songdo's population to be moved to Ganghwa Island. Woo starts the construction of strong defenses on Ganghwa Island, which becomes a fortress. The government orders the common people to flee the countryside and take refuge in major cities, mountain citadels, or nearby islands. The Mongols occupy much of northern Korea, but fail to capture Ganghwa Island.
  • December 16Battle of Cheoin: Korean forces defeat a Mongol attack at Cheoin (modern-day Yongin). The Mongol Empire concludes a peace treaty with Goryeo and withdraws its forces.


  • November 17 – Emperor Go-Horikawa abdicates in favor of his 1-year-old son, Shijō, after an 11-year reign. Because he is very young, most of the actual leadership is held by his relatives.

By topic[edit]







  1. ^ Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol III: The Kingdom of Acre, p. 168. ISBN 978-0-241-29877-0.
  2. ^ Linehan, Peter (1999). "Chapter 21: Castile, Portugal and Navarre". In Abulafia, David (ed.). The New Cambridge Medieval History c.1198–c.1300. Cambridge University Press. pp. 668–673. ISBN 0-521-36289-X.
  3. ^ Hywel Williams (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History, p. 138. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
  4. ^ Page, William, ed. (1909). "Hospitals: Domus conversorum". A History of the County of London: Volume 1, London Within the Bars, Westminster and Southwark. London. pp. 551–4. Retrieved March 21, 2023 – via British History Online.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  5. ^ Picard, Christophe (1997). La mer et les musulmans d'Occident VIIIe–XIIIe siècle. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
  6. ^ Franke, Herbert (1994). The Cambridge History of China: Volume 6, Allien Regimes and Border States, 710–1368, p. 263. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-24331-5.
  7. ^ Zuijderduijn, Jaco (2009). Medieval Capital Markets. Markets for renten, state formation and private investment in Holland (1300-1550). Leiden/Boston: Brill. ISBN 978-9-00417565-5.
  8. ^ Dal-Gal, Niccolò (1907). "St. Anthony of Padua". The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 1. Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved June 13, 2011.
  9. ^ Gregorovius, Ferdinand. History of the City of Rome in the Middle Ages. 9. p. 164.
  10. ^ Smith, Thomas W. (2017). "The Use of the Bible in the Arengae of Pope Gregory IX's Crusade Calls". In Lapina, Elizabeth; Morton, Nicholas (eds.). The Uses of the Bible in Crusader Sources. Brill. pp. 206–235.
  11. ^ Koller, Walter (2007). "MANFREDI, re di Sicilia". Dizionario Biografico (in Italian). Vol. 68. Rome.{{cite encyclopedia}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  12. ^ Saisset 1232 at the Encyclopædia Britannica