|1232 by topic|
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- The Almohad army besieges Ceuta, where Abu Musa, the rebellious brother of the caliph, has received shelter and the support of the population. The Genoese rent a part of their fleet to the rebels, who successfully resist the forces of the caliph. The consequences of this revolt are threefold: the city becomes de facto independent from the Almohads, but its reliance on the Italian maritime powers increases, and the trans-Saharan trade routes begin to shift eastward, due to the local turmoil.
- The first edition of Tripitaka Koreana is destroyed by Mongol invaders.
- April 8 – The Jin Dynasty in China defends their capital against the Mongol siege of Kaifeng, during the Mongol–Jin War. The battle involves the use of rockets.
- June 15 – Battle of Agridi: Henry I of Cyprus defeats the armies of Frederick II.
- Spain: Muhammad Ibn Yusuf Ibn Nasr rebels against the independent ruler of al-Andalus, Ibn Hud al-Yadami, and takes control of the city of Arjona. This is the foundation of the Nasrid Dynasty.
- Italy: Pope Gregory IX, driven from Rome by a revolt, takes refuge at Anagni.
- Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II promulgates the Statutum in favorem principum.
- The northern French city of Troyes issues its first recorded life annuities, confirming the trend of consolidation of local public debts initiated in 1218, by the neighboring city of Reims.
- May 30 – Anthony of Padua is canonized by Pope Gregory IX at Spoleto, less than a year after his death; he becomes the patron saint of lost items.
- Arnolfo di Cambio, Florentine architect (d. 1310)
- Manfred of Sicily (approximate date; d. 1266)
- Elisabeth of Wrocław, duchess consort of Greater Poland (approximate date; d. 1265)
- Bernard Saisset, Occitan bishop of Pamiers (d. 1311)
- Ramon Llull, Majorcan missionary (d. 1316)
- July 18 – John de Braose, Marcher Lord of Bramber and Gower
- Michael Scot, Scottish mathematician and astrologer (b. 1175)
- Azalaïs of Montferrat, marchioness regent of Saluzzo (b. 1150)
- Tolui, son of Genghis Khan (b. c. 1190)
- Picard, Christophe (1997). La mer et les musulmans d'Occident VIIIe-XIIIe siècle. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
- Peter Linehan (1999). "Chapter 21: Castile, Portugal and Navarre". In David Abulafia. The New Cambridge Medieval History c.1198-c.1300. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 668–673. ISBN 0-521-36289-X.
- Zuijderduijn, Jaco (2009). Medieval Capital Markets. Markets for renten, state formation and private investment in Holland (1300-1550). Leiden/Boston: Brill. ISBN 978-9-00417565-5.
- Dal-Gal, Niccolò (1907). "St. Anthony of Padua". The Catholic Encyclopedia. 1. Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved 2011-06-13.