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Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries: 12th century13th century14th century
Decades: 1190s 1200s 1210s1220s1230s 1240s 1250s
Years: 1220 1221 1222 1223 1224 1225 1226 1227 1228 1229
BirthsDeathsBy country


Contents: 1220 1221 1222 1223 1224 1225 1226 1227 1228 1229



The Jews were falsely accused of a ritual murder. A crowd stormed the synagogue where the Jews had gathered. As usual the threat was baptism or death. The Jewish quarter including the synagogue was razed, many Jews were tortured and killed. Among the martyrs were Shem Tov ha-Levi and Rabbi and Mrs. Shmuel Kalonymos, Hy"d.




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  • The University of Naples is founded.
  • September 14 (approximate date) – St. Francis of Assisi, while praying on the mountain of Verna during a 40-day fast, has a vision, as a result of which he receives the stigmata. Brother Leo, who is with Francis at the time, leaves a clear and simple account of the event, the first definite account of the phenomenon of stigmata.[10]



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Arts and culture[edit]
  • In Norway, Brother Robert writes Saga Af Tristram ok Ísodd, one of the rare fully surviving versions of the legend of Tristan and Iseult.[14]



By area[edit]

  • Sukaphaa, the first Ahom king, establishes his rule in Assam. The Ahom kings reign for close to 600 years.

By topic[edit]

  • The city of Tournai emits its first recorded life annuity, thus confirming a trend of consolidation of public debts started ten years earlier in Reims.[19]
  • First evidence of the use of the knights Templar as cashiers by the king of England to transfer safely important sums to the continent using letters of exchange. This shows that large transfers could take place across Europe even before the emergence of important networks of Italian merchant-bankers.[20]


Significant people[edit]




  1. ^ a b Sutton, Ian (1999). Architecture, from Ancient Greece to the Present. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-20316-3. 
  2. ^ Perkins, George W. "Mourning Attire". The Clear Mirror: A Chronicle of the Japanese Court During the Kamakura Period (1185-1333). Stanford University Press. p. 59. ISBN 0804763887. 
  3. ^ George Akropolites. The History. Trans. Ruth Macrides. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007, p. 160.
  4. ^ Jeune, Sir Francis Henry (1867). The Mahometan Power in India: The Arnold Prize Essay for 1867. p. 20. 
  5. ^ Lindsay Brown; Paul Clammer; Rodney Cocks (2008). "North-west Frontier Province". Pakistan and the Karakoram Highway. Lonely Planet. p. 189. ISBN 1741045428. 
  6. ^ Richard Bodley Scott; Graham Briggs; Rudy Scott Nelson (2009). Blood and Gold: The Americas at War. Osprey Publishing. p. 35. ISBN 1846036917. 
  7. ^ Bancroft, Hubert Howe (1883). The native races. 1882-86. British Columbia: History Company. 
  8. ^ Bresc, Henri (2003). "La Sicile et l'espace libyen au Moyen Age" (PDF). Retrieved 17 January 2012. 
  9. ^ a b Linehan, Peter (1999). "Chapter 21: Castile, Portugal and Navarre". In Abulafia, David. The New Cambridge Medieval History c.1198-c.1300. Cambridge University Press. pp. 668–699 [672]. ISBN 0-521-36289-X. 
  10. ^ Robinson, Paschal (1909). "St. Francis of Assisi". The Catholic Encyclopedia. VI. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved 2008-01-21. 
  11. ^ Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 135–137. ISBN 0-304-35730-8. 
  12. ^ Dell'Umbria, Alèssi (2006). Histoire universelle de Marseille. De l'an mil à l'an deux mille. Marseille: Agone. p. 19. ISBN 2-7489-0061-8. 
  13. ^ a b Picard, Christophe (2000). Le Portugal musulman (VIIIe-XIIIe siècle. L'Occident d'al-Andalus sous domination islamique. Paris: Maisonneuve & Larose. p. 110. ISBN 2-7068-1398-9. 
  14. ^ Tristan et Iseult. Paris: Gallimard. 1995. ISBN 2-07-011335-3. 
  15. ^ a b Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 79–81. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2. 
  16. ^ "Attack to Finland in 1226". Laurentian Codex (in Swedish). Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. 
  17. ^ Tanahashi, Kazuaki, ed. (1997). Moon In a Dewdrop: Writings of Zen Master Dogen. New York: North Point Press. ISBN 0-86547-186-X. 
  18. ^ Tanahashi, Kazuaki; Loori, Daido (eds.). The True Dharma Eye. Boston: Shambhala. 
  19. ^ Zuijderduijn, Jaco (2009). Medieval Capital Markets. Markets for renten, state formation and private investment in Holland (1300-1550). Leiden/Boston: Brill. ISBN 978-9-00417565-5. 
  20. ^ Ferris, Eleanor (1902). "The Financial Relations of the Knights Templars to the English Crown". American Historical Review. 8 (1). 
  21. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia.