1230s

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The 1230s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1230, and ended on December 31, 1239.

Events

1230

By place[edit]

Byzantine Empire[edit]
  • March 9Battle of Klokotnitsa: Byzantine forces under Theodore Komnenos (Doukas) invade Bulgaria, breaking the peace treaty with Tsar Ivan Asen II. Theodore gathers a large army, including western mercenaries. The two armies meet near the village of Klokotnitsa. Ivan applies clever tactics and manages to surround the Byzantines. They are completely defeated, only a small force under Theodore's brother Manuel Doukas manages to escape the battlefield. Theodore is taken prisoner and is blinded. In the aftermath, Ivan quickly extends its control over most of Theodore's domains in Thrace, Macedonia and Albania. The Latin Duchy of Philippopolis and the independent principality of Alexius Slav are also captured and annexed into Bulgaria.[1]
Europe[edit]
England[edit]
Middle East[edit]

By topic[edit]

Literature[edit]

1231

By place[edit]

Europe[edit]
England[edit]
Levant[edit]
  • Autumn – Frederick II appoints Marshal Richard Filangieri as his imperial legate, and sends an expeditionary army of mostly Lombards for the defense of Jerusalem. He gathers some 600 knights, 100 "sergeants-at-arms", 700 armed infantrymen, and 3,000 marines. The army is supported by 32 war-galleys.[10]
  • War of the Lombards: Richard Filangieri sails for Beirut, where the town is handed over to him. He occupies Sidon and Tyre – while other Lombard forces appear before Acre. At Acre, Filangieri summons a meeting of the High Court and shows letters from Frederick II appointing him as ambassador (baili).[11]
China[edit]
  • April 9 – A huge fire breaks out at night in the southeast of Hangzhou during the Song Dynasty. Fighting the flames is difficult due to limited visibility. When the fires are extinguished, it is discovered that an entire district of the city, some 10,000 houses has been consumed by the flames.
Mongol Empire[edit]
  • August – Ögedei Khan orders the invasion of Korea. A Mongol army crosses the Yalu River and quickly secures the surrender of the border town of Uiju. The Mongols are joined by Hong Bok-won, a Goryeo general, who takes their side with his subordinates numbering some 1500 families.[12]
  • Siege of Kuju: Mongol forces besiege the city of Kuju. They deploy assault teams who man siege towers and scale ladders. Despite the fact the Goryeo army is heavily outnumbered, the garrison refuses to surrender.

By topic[edit]

Religion[edit]

1232

By place[edit]

Europe[edit]
England[edit]
Africa[edit]
  • The Almohad army besieges the city of Ceuta, where Abu Musa, rebellious brother of Caliph Idris al-Ma'mun, has received shelter and the support of the population. The Genoese rent a part of their fleet to the rebels, who successfully resist the forces of the caliph. The consequences of this revolt are threefold: the city becomes de facto independent from the Almohads, but its reliance on the Italian maritime powers increases, and the Trans-Saharan trade routes begin to shift eastward, due to the local turmoil.[16]
Mongol Empire[edit]
  • February 9Battle of Sanfengshan: The Mongol army (some 50,000 warriors) defeats the Chinese Jin forces near Yuzhou. General Subutai successfully wipes out the last field army of the Jin Dynasty – therefore sealing its fate of falling to the Mongol Empire. During the encounter also called the Battle of the Three-Peak Mountain, Emperor Aizong of Jin orders the Jin army (some 150,000 men) to intercept the Mongols. The Jin soldiers are constantly harassed by small groups of Mongol cavalry on the way. When they arrive at Sanfeng Mountain, the Jin army is hungry and exhausted by heavy snowfall. The Jin forces are quickly defeated by the Mongols and fled in all directions.
  • April 8Mongol–Jin War: The Mongol army led by Ögedei Khan and his brother Tolui begins the siege of Kaifeng, capital of the Chinese Jin Dynasty. During the summer, the Jurchens try to end the siege by negotiating a peace treaty, but the assassination of a Mongol embassy makes further talks impossible. While the negotiations are going on, a plague is devastating the population of the city. In the meantime, supplies stored at Kaifeng are running out, and several residents of the city are executed on the suspicion that they are traitors.[17]
  • June – Mongol invasion of Korea: Choe Woo, Korean military dictator of Goryeo, orders against the pleas of King Gojong and his senior officials, the royal court, and most of Songdo's population to be moved to Ganghwa Island. Woo starts the construction of strong defenses on Ganghwa Island, which becomes a fortress. The government orders the common people to flee the countryside and take refuge in major cities, mountain citadels, or nearby islands. The Mongols occupy much of northern Korea, but fail to capture Ganghwa Island.
  • December 16Battle of Cheoin: Korean forces defeat a Mongol attack at Cheoin (modern-day Yongin). The Mongol Empire concludes a peace treaty with Goryeo and withdraws his forces.
Japan[edit]
  • November 17 – Emperor Go-Horikawa abdicates in favor of his 1-year-old son, Shijō, after a 11-year reign. Because he is very young, most of the actual leadership is held by his relatives.

By topic[edit]

Literature[edit]
Markets[edit]
Religion[edit]

1233

By place[edit]

Europe[edit]
England[edit]
  • August – Richard Marshal, 3rd Earl of Pembroke, signs an alliance with Llywelyn the Great, to join forces to revolt against King Henry III. Richard is faced by demands from royal bailiffs in September – where the garrison of Usk Castle is forced to surrender.
  • November – Henry III's army camped at Grosmont Castle is attacked in the night by a force of Welsh and English rebels. Several of Henry's supporters are captured and the castle is returned to Hubert de Burgh, one of the rebels.
Mongol Empire[edit]

By topic[edit]

Cities and Towns[edit]
Religion[edit]

1234

By place[edit]

Europe[edit]
Mongol Empire[edit]
Africa[edit]

By topic[edit]

Religion[edit]

1235

1236

By place[edit]

Byzantine Empire[edit]
Europe[edit]
England[edit]
Mongol Empire[edit]
Asia[edit]
Africa[edit]

By topic[edit]

Literature[edit]
  • The Goryeo court in Korea orders the preparation of another set of woodblocks for printing the Buddhist Tripiṭaka (Triple Basket) – which is intended both to gain protection against the Mongol invaders and to replace the earlier 11th century set that has been destroyed by the Mongols (see 1232).
Religion[edit]

1237

By place[edit]

Europe[edit]
England[edit]
Mongol Empire[edit]
  • Autumn – Mongol invasion of Kievan Rus': The Mongol army commanded by Batu Khan and Subutai, invades the Principality of Ryazan (with representatives of all four khanates leading some 100,000 Mongol, Turkish and Persian forces into Europe). In December, Batu Khan sends envoys to the Rus' court of Grand Prince Yuri Igorevich and demands the submission of the capital Ryazan (or Old Ryazan).
  • Battle of Voronezh River: Grand Prince Yuri II of Vladimir supported with border princes of Ryazan, Murom, and Pronsk gather their forces and make a stand on the Voronezh River, waiting for reinforcements from Vladimir. The Mongols under Batu Khan overrun the Rus' forces, who are scattered. Yuri retreats to Ryazan, while some troops withdraw to Kolomna and join the army of Vladimir-Suzdal.
  • December 1621Siege of Ryazan: The Mongols under Batu Khan lay siege to Ryazan. The townspeople repel the first Mongol attacks but after 5 days the city walls are breached by Chinese catapults. On December 21, the Mongols storm the walls and plunder the capital, killing Yuri Igorevich and all inhabitants. Yuri II of Vladimir stood by and does nothing to intervene while Ryazan burns.
  • December – Siege of Kolomna: Rus' forces under Yuri II of Vladimir are besieged and annihilated at Kolomna by the Mongols. Yuri barely escapes to Yaroslavl. The capital of Vladimir is left defenseless – as it is taken after just 2 days. Yuri's wife Agatha (sister of Michael of Chernigov) and all his family die in Vladimir when a church where they have sought refuge from the fire collapsed.
Levant[edit]
  • Spring – Al-Ashraf Musa, Ayyubid ruler of Damascus, assembles his allies and secures his active support of Kayqubad I, Sejuk ruler of the Sultanate of Rum. A civil war seems inevitable when Kayqubad is poisoned during a feast at Kayseri, on May 31.[49] Meanwhile, the Seljuks strengthen the fortresses in the eastern provinces against the Mongols.
  • August 27 – Al-Ashraf becomes dangerously ill and dies after an 8-year reign. He is succeeded by his brother As-Salih Ismail – who defends Damascus against his elder brother Al-Kamil, Ayyubid ruler of Egypt. In October, Ismail has the suburbs burnt to prevent the Egyptian forces from shelter.[50]

By topic[edit]

Cities and Towns[edit]

1238

By place[edit]

Mongol Empire[edit]
  • January 1520Siege of Moscow: The Mongols under Batu Khan and Subutai campaign across the northern heartland of the Kievan Rus', committing numerous atrocities across multiple settlements, including the sacking of an irrelevant little town known as Moscow. According to the Chronicle of Novgorod, Moscow is a fortified village, a trading post "on a crossroads of four rivers". The village is taken by the Mongols after 5 days of siege.
  • March 4Battle of the Sit River: The Mongols defeat a Kievan Rus' army (some 4,000 men) under Grand Prince Yuri II of Vladimir in an engagement at the Sit River (located in the Sonkovsky District). With Yuri's death, so too dies the hope of any united Rus' resistance against the Mongols. Batu Khan split his forces up into several contingents – ordering each to wreak havoc across the Rus' territories (modern-day Russia and Ukraine).
  • March – Siege of Kozelsk: The 12-year-old Prince Vasily of Chernigov (grandson of Mstislav II Svyatoslavich), manages against all the odds, to hold out in his capital of Kozelsk for nearly two months with only citizen militia. He leads a successful sortie outside of the walls – where the garrison slaughter thousands of Mongols and destroys siege equipment. Finally, Kozelsk is conquered and Vasily is slaughtered alongside the inhabitants.
  • Evpaty Kolovrat, Kievan knight (bogatyr), returns to his hometown of Ryazan, which is burnt to the ground by the Mongols (see 1237). He gathers some 1,700 survivors and pursues Batu Khan, attacking his rearguard, and annihilating thousands of Mongols. Finally, Kolovrat is slain from afar by siege-weaponry. Batu Khan shows admiration for his bravery and as a sign of respect, returns his body and allows his soldiers to return home.
  • Autumn – The Mongols under Batu Khan retire, leaving behind the ruined northern Rus' territories. He spends the rest of the year to suppress the last resistance of the Kipchaks, while his cousin Möngke (son of Tolui Khan) conquer the Alans and the northern Caucasian tribes. Later, Möngke makes a raid of reconnaissance as far as Kiev.[51]
Europe[edit]
England[edit]
  • January – Simon de Montfort marries the 23-year-old Eleanor, sister of King Henry III. While the marriage takes place with the king's approval, the act itself is performed secretly and without consulting the barons. Eleanor has previously been married to William Marshal and has sworn a vow of perpetual chastity upon his death, which she breaks by marrying Montfort. Archbishop Edmund of Abingdon condemns the marriage for this reason.
Middle East[edit]

1239

By place[edit]

Europe[edit]
England[edit]
Levant[edit]
  • September 1Barons' Crusade: A Crusader force (some 1,500 knights) under King Theobald I of Navarre arrives at Acre. At a council of local barons – most prominently: Walter of Brienne, Odo of Montbéliard, Balian of Beirut, John of Arsuf, and Balian of Sidon, plans are made to prepare an expedition against the Ayyubids in Egypt. Later, Theobald is also joined by some Crusaders from Cyprus.[57]
  • November 2 – A expeditionary force (some 4,000 knights) under Theobald I sets out from Acre for the Egyptian frontier, detachments from the military orders and several local barons accompanying the Crusaders. While marching to Jaffa, a Crusader column led by Peter of Brittany and his lieutenant Raoul de Soissons with two hundred knights, lays an ambush and attacks a rich Muslim caravan.[58]
  • November 12 – Sultan as-Salih Ayyub sends an Ayyubid army to Gaza to protect the Egyptian border. At nightfall, Henry of Bar, jealous of the successful ambush of Peter of Brittany, decides with a Crusader force (some 500 knights and 1,000 soldiers) to march out towards Gaza. Although warned by Theobald I, Henry orders to set up camp in a flat terrain surrounded by sand dunes near Gaza.[59]
  • November 13Battle of Gaza: The Crusader army led by Henry of Bar is defeated by the Egyptians near Gaza. More than a thousand men are slaughtered, including Henry himself. Six hundred more are captured and carried off to Egypt. Among them are Amaury VI de Montfort and Philippe de Nanteuil – who writes in the dungeons of Cairo a Crusade song about the failure of the expedition.[60]
  • December 7 – Ayyubid forces under An-Nasir Dawud march on Jerusalem, which is largely undefended. The garrison of the city surrenders to Dawud, after accepting his offer for a safe-conduct to Acre. Dawud destroys Jerusalem's fortifications, including the Tower of David. Meanwhile, Theobald I moves with the remnants (losing many men underway) of the Crusader army northward to Acre.[61]
Mongol Empire[edit]

By topic[edit]

Arts and Humanities[edit]
Religion[edit]

Significant people[edit]

Births[edit]

1230

1231

1232

1233

1234

1235

1236

1237

1238

1239

Deaths[edit]

1230

1231

1232

1233

1234

1235

1236

1237

1238

1239

References[edit]

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