The second millennium was a period of time that began on January 1, 1001, of the Julian calendar and ended on December 31, 2000[note 1] of the Gregorian calendar. It is distinct from the millennium known as the 1000s which began on January 1, 1000, and ended on December 31, 1999.
It encompassed the High and Late Middle Ages, the Mongol Empire, the Renaissance, the Baroque era, the early Modern Age, the age of Enlightenment, the age of colonialism, industrialization, the rise of nation states, and the 19th and 20th century with the impact of science, widespread education, and universal health care and vaccinations in many nations. The centuries of expanding large-scale warfare with high-tech weaponry (of the World wars and nuclear weapons) were offset by growing peace movements, the United Nations, plus doctors and health workers crossing borders to treat injuries and disease, and the return of the Olympics as contest without combat.
Scientists prevailed in explaining intellectual freedom; humans took their first steps on the Moon during the 20th century; and new technology was developed by governments, industry, and academia across the world, with education shared by many international conferences and journals. The development of movable type, radio, television, and the internet spread information worldwide, within minutes, in audio, video, and print-image format to inform, educate and entertain billions of people by the end of the 20th century.
The Renaissance saw the beginning of the second migration of humans from Europe, Africa, and Asia to the Americas, beginning the ever-accelerating process of globalization. The interwoven international trade led to the formation of multi-national corporations, with home offices in multiple countries. International business ventures reduced the impact of nationalism in popular thought.
The world population doubled over the first seven centuries of the millennium (from 310 million in 1000 to 600 million in 1700) and later increased tenfold over its last three centuries, exceeding six billion in 2000. Consequently, unchecked human activity had considerable social and environmental consequences, giving rise to extreme poverty, climate change and biotic crisis.
The Julian calendar was used in Europe at the beginning of the millennium, and all countries that once used the Julian calendar had adopted the Gregorian calendar by the end of it. So the end date is always calculated according to the Gregorian calendar, but the beginning date is usually according to the Julian calendar (or occasionally the proleptic Gregorian calendar).
Stephen Jay Gould argued that it is not possible to decide if the millennium ended on December 31, 1999, or December 31, 2000. The Associated Press reported that the third millennium began on January 1, 2001, but also reported that celebrations in the US were generally more subdued at the beginning of 2001, compared to the beginning of 2000.
The second millennium is generally viewed as beginning on January 1, 1000, and ending on December 31, 1999. Many public celebrations for the end of the second millennium were held on December 31, 1999 – January 1, 2000—with a few people marking the end of the millennium a year later.
The civilizations in this section are organized according to the UN geoscheme.
The events in this section are organized according to the UN geoscheme.
The people in this section are organized according to the UN geoscheme.
- Lists of people by nationality
- Category:People by century
- Category:People by nationality and period
- Gottlieb, Agnes Hooper; Henry Gottlieb; Barbar Bowers; Brent Bowers (1998). 1,000 Years, 1,000 People: Ranking the Men and Women Who Shaped the Millennium. Kodansha International. ISBN 1-56836-253-6.
Inventions, discoveries, introductions
|Communication and Technology||Science and Mathematics||Manufacturing||Transportation and
Centuries and decades
- "The Sixth Extinction – The Most Recent Extinctions". Archived from the original on 2015-12-18.
- Stephen Jay Gould, Questioning the Millennium: A Rationalist's Guide to a Precisely Arbitrary Countdown (New York: Harmony Books, 1999), ch 2.
- Associated Press, "Y2K It Wasn't, but It Was a Party", Los Angeles Times, January 1, 2001.
- "Millennium FAQs – Frequently Asked Questions". When does the Millennium start?. Greenwich2000.ltd.uk. 2008-08-12. Archived from the original on 12 January 2009. Retrieved 2009-01-29.
- "Africa AD 600–1500". World Timelines. The British Museum. 2005. Retrieved 2008-11-17.
- Toast, Scott (2002-02-19). "Top 100 Events of the Millennium". adapted from LIFE Magazine. Scott Toast. Retrieved 2008-11-14.
- "Americas AD 1000–1492". World Timelines. The British Museum. 2005. Retrieved 2008-11-16.
- nationsonline.org, klaus kästle -. "Portugal – Portuguese Republic – Country Profile – República Portuguesa – Travel and Tourism Portugal". www.nationsonline.org. Retrieved 2015-09-15.
- "www.visitportugal.com". www.visitportugal.com. Retrieved 2015-09-15.
- "Asia AD 1200–1500". World Timelines. The British Museum. 2005. Retrieved 2008-11-23.
- Whitmore, Robbie. "Timeline of events in New Zealand history". New Zealand in History. Retrieved 2008-11-16.
- "Oceania AD 1000–1520". World Timelines. The British Museum. 2005. Archived from the original on 21 November 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-16.
- Society, National Geographic. "Da Gama Discovers a Sea Route to India". Retrieved 2015-09-15.
- "Cabral Discovers Brazil | History Today". www.historytoday.com. Retrieved 2015-09-15.
- "Africa AD 1500–1850". World Timelines. The British Museum. 2005. Retrieved 2008-11-23.
- "Oceania AD 1520–1770". World Timelines. The British Museum. 2005. Archived from the original on 21 November 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-16.
- "Americas 1492–1800". World Timelines. The British Museum. 2005. Retrieved 2008-11-16.
- "Asia AD 1500–1800". World Timelines. The British Museum. 2005. Retrieved 2008-11-23.
- "European discovery of New Zealand". Encyclopedia of New Zealand
- Michael King (2003). The Penguin History of New Zealand. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-301867-1.
- Belich, James (1986). The New Zealand Wars and the Victorian Interpretation of Racial Conflict. Oxford University Press. ISBN 1-86940-002-X.
- "Africa AD 1950–2000". World Timelines. The British Museum. 2005. Retrieved 2008-11-23.
- "New Zealand Nuclear Free Zone, Disarmament, and Arms Control Act". Retrieved 25 November 2008.
- Keeley, Larry (2007-02-16). "The Greatest Innovations of All Time". BusinessWeek. The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Archived from the original on 7 December 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-12.
- "The Big 100: the Science Channels 100 Greatest Discoveries". Discovery Communications, LLC. 2008. Archived from the original on 31 October 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-12.