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|1266 by topic|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births – Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments – Disestablishments|
|Art and literature|
|1266 in poetry|
|Ab urbe condita||2019|
|Balinese saka calendar||1187–1188|
|English Regnal year||50 Hen. 3 – 51 Hen. 3|
|Chinese calendar||乙丑年 (Wood Ox)|
3962 or 3902
— to —
丙寅年 (Fire Tiger)
3963 or 3903
|- Vikram Samvat||1322–1323|
|- Shaka Samvat||1187–1188|
|- Kali Yuga||4366–4367|
|Japanese calendar||Bun'ei 3|
|Minguo calendar||646 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||1808–1809|
1392 or 1011 or 239
— to —
1393 or 1012 or 240
- January 2 – Siege of Murcia: King James I of Aragon ("the Conqueror") marches with his army from Orihuela and lays siege at Murcia on the Segura River. Skirmishes break out between the defenders and the Aragonese forces. The Muslim garrison, realizing that they are outnumbered and cut off from reinforcements, asks for terms. James offers to ask King Alfonso X of Castile ("the Wise") to restore the Murcians' legal rights (see 1244) from before the rebellion: self-government under Castilian suzerainty, freedom of worship, and preservation of lands and properties. They agree to this offer but request Alfonso's explicit agreement rather than just James' promise to ask him. James refuses to get Alfonso's agreement before the city surrenders. Finally, the Moors yield Murcia to James on January 31. Seeing his standard on the walls, James enters the city on February 3, accepting its surrender.
- February 26 – Battle of Benevento: Guelph forces (some 12,000 men) led by Charles of Anjou, brother of King Louis IX of France ("the Saint"), defeat a combined German and Sicilian army under Manfred, King of Sicily, during a long-running power struggle in Italy. Manfred takes up a strong position near Benevento. As the French infantry advances, he unleashes his Saracen archers and light cavalry, which scatters the French. But the Saracens leave themselves exposed to the French heavy cavalry, and are overwhelmed. Manfred orders his heavy cavalry (some 1,200 German mercenary knights) into the attack. But they are defeated by the Ghibelline forces, and take heavy losses. Manfred is killed and Pope Clement IV invests Charles as ruler of Sicily and Naples. Meanwhile, Michael II, despot of Epirus, invades Albania and recovers the lands that Manfred has taken from him.
- June – The Mudéjar Revolt ends. The rebels make their formal submission to Alfonso X of Castile. They recognize the error that the Moors of Murcia have committed against their overlord Alfonso. Representatives of the aljama, or municipal council, renew their allegiance and humbly beg for pardon, mercy and favour. With this the Mudéjar uprising in the Kingdom of Murcia is formally ended.
- June 23 – Battle of Trapani: The Venetian fleet (24 galleys) led by Admiral Jacopo Dondulo moves to Marsala and attacks the larger Genoese fleet anchored at Trapani, capturing all its ships. Some 1,200 Genoese drown and many are killed. Dondulo is acclaimed a hero on his return to Venice in July. He is elected as Captain General of the Sea, Venice's highest naval command position.
- July 2 – Treaty of Perth: King Alexander III of Scotland agrees to a peace settlement with King Magnus VI of Norway ("the Law-mender") in which the Outer Hebrides and Isle of Man are ceded to Scotland in exchange for 4,000 marks. In return, Alexander confirms Norwegian sovereignty over the islands of Shetland and Orkney.
- May 15 – Battle of Chesterfield: English forces led by Henry of Almain, son of Richard of Cornwall, defeat the rebels under Robert de Ferrers at Chesterfield. Robert is taken as a prisoner to London, and at the Parliament of England disinherits. In July, he is forced to surrender land and Liverpool Castle to Edmund, second son of King Henry III.
- October – The Second Barons' War winds down, as supporters of the rebel leader Simon de Montfort make an offer of peace to Henry III, in the Dictum of Kenilworth; after slight modifications to the peace settlement.
- December 13 – Siege of Kenilworth: English forces under Henry III capture Kenilworth Castle after a 6-month siege. During the siege Archbishop William Freney tries to negotiate with the garrison but is refused entry.
- July 23 – Siege of Safed: Mamluk forces capture the castle of Safed, defended by a garrison of 1,700 men (including some 500 Knights Templar), after a 6-week siege. Sultan Baibars promises safe conduct but when the Christians and Templars are on their way towards Acre, they are seized and beheaded.
- August 24 – Battle of Mari: Mamluk forces (some 30,000 men) led by Baibars defeat the Armenian army in Cilicia, in retaliation for the support of the Mongol invasion in Syria. He expands his domain, capturing the city of Byblos (modern Lebanon) and the important castle of Toron from the Crusader States.
- October 28 – A Crusader advance guard is ambushed by the Egyptian garrison of Safed, while local Arabs attack the Crusader camp. The 13-year-old Hugh II, ruler of Cyprus, is advised to retire and withdraw with heavy losses. Meanwhile, Baibars campaigns in Galilee and leads a lightning raid to Tripoli.
- Niccolo and Maffeo Polo, father and uncle of Marco Polo, reach the Mongol capital Khanbaliq (modern-day Beijing], setting the stage for Marco's famous expedition 5 years later. Kublai Khan sends the Polos back with a message, requesting that Clement IV dispatch western scholars to teach in the Mongol Empire; however, this request is largely ignored.
- In the modern-day United States, a period of drought begins in the Four Corners Region (this period is up until the year 1299), putting an end to the ancient Puebloans Civilization.
- In France, the gold écu (or crown) and silver grosh coins are minted for the first time during the reign of Louis IX.
- Ode de Pougy, French Abbess of Notre Dame aux Nonnains, sends a gang to attempt to destroy the nearly-completed Church of St. Urbain de Troyes.
- Duns Scotus, Scottish priest and philosopher (d. 1308)
- Gi Ja-oh (or Ki Ja-oh), Korean nobleman (d. 1328)
- Gilbert Segrave, English nobleman and bishop (d. 1316)
- Herman VII ("the Clock"), German nobleman (d. 1291)
- Hethum II (or Het'um), king of Cilician Armenia (d. 1307)
- Jadwiga of Kalisz, queen consort of Poland (d. 1339)
- John of Brittany, English nobleman and knight (d. 1334)
- Margaret of Villehardouin, princess of Achaea (d. 1315)
- Ravivarman Kulaśēkhara, Indian ruler of Venad (d. 1317)
- Rigdzin Kumaradza, Tibetan Dzogchen master (d. 1343)
- January 2 – Simon de Walton, English bishop
- January 11 – Swietopelk II, Duke of Pomerania ("the Great"), Polish nobleman
- February 12 – Walter de Cantilupe, English bishop (b. 1195)
- February 26
- April 14 – Roger of Torre Maggiore, Italian archbishop
- May 7 – Fariduddin Ganjshakar, Ghurid preacher (b. 1179)
- May 27 – Elisabeth of Brunswick-Lüneburg, German-born queen consort and Countess of Holland and Zeeland (b. 1230)
- June 12 – Henry II, German nobleman and prince (b. 1215)
- July 24 – Albrecht II of Meissen, German canon and bishop
- August 4 – Odo, Count of Nevers (or Eudes), Burgundian nobleman and Crusader
- August 8 – Sayyed Ibn Tawus, Abbasid theologian (b. 1193)
- September 20 – Jan Prandota, bishop of Kraków (b. 1200)
- October 21 – Birger Jarl, Swedish nobleman and knight (b. 1210)
- October 28 – Arsenije Sremac, Serbian disciple and archbishop
- October 29 – Margaret of Austria, queen of Germany (b. 1204)
- November 19 – Nasir al-Din Mahmud, Mamluk ruler of Delhi
- December 3 – Henry III the White, duke of Silesia-Wrocław
- Aldonza Alfonso de León, illegitimate daughter of Alfonso IX
- Andronikos II (Megas Komnenos), emperor of Trebizond
- Ariq Böke (or Bukha), Mongol ruler (khagan) and regent
- Berke Khan, Mongol ruler of the Golden Horde (b. 1208)
- Chen Rong, Chinese painter, poet and politician (b. 1200)
- Hugh Bigod, English nobleman and chief justiciar (b. 1211)
- Hugh III of Chalon, French nobleman and knight (b. 1220)
- John of Ibelin, Outremer nobleman and knight (b. 1215)
- Luca Savelli, Italian senator and politician (b. 1190)
- Máel Coluim II, Earl of Fife (Malcolm), Scottish nobleman
- Margaret de Quincy, English noblewoman and heiress
- Mu'ayyad al-Din al-Urdi, Syrian scholar and astronomer
- Philippe Chinard, French nobleman and admiral (b. 1205)
- Richer of Senones, French monk and chronicler (b. 1190)
- O'Callaghan, Joseph F. (2011). The Gibraltar Crusade: Castile and the Battle for the Strait, p. 46. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-0463-6.
- Esposito, Gabriele (2019). Armies of the Medieval Italian Wars 1125–1325, p. 39. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 9781472833426.
- O'Callaghan, Joseph F. (2011). The Gibraltar Crusade: Castile and the Battle of the Strait, p. 47. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-0463-6.
- Stanton, Charles D. (2015). Medieval Maritime Warfare, p. 165. Barnsley, South Yorkshire: Pen and Sword. ISBN 978-1-4738-5643-1.
- "When Hebrideans were offered a new start in Norway". Scotsman. Retrieved April 27, 2018.
- Andrew Roberts (2011). Great Commanders of the Medieval World (454–1582), pp. 194–196. ISBN 978-0-85738-589-5.
- Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol III: The Kingdom of Acre, p. 268. ISBN 978-0-241-29877-0.
- "Manfred - king of Sicily". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved April 27, 2018.
- "Malcolm (II), earl of Fife (d.1266)". db.poms.ac.uk. Retrieved April 27, 2018.