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Millennium: 2nd millennium
1266 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1266
Ab urbe condita2019
Armenian calendar715
Assyrian calendar6016
Balinese saka calendar1187–1188
Bengali calendar673
Berber calendar2216
English Regnal year50 Hen. 3 – 51 Hen. 3
Buddhist calendar1810
Burmese calendar628
Byzantine calendar6774–6775
Chinese calendar乙丑年 (Wood Ox)
3963 or 3756
    — to —
丙寅年 (Fire Tiger)
3964 or 3757
Coptic calendar982–983
Discordian calendar2432
Ethiopian calendar1258–1259
Hebrew calendar5026–5027
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1322–1323
 - Shaka Samvat1187–1188
 - Kali Yuga4366–4367
Holocene calendar11266
Igbo calendar266–267
Iranian calendar644–645
Islamic calendar664–665
Japanese calendarBun'ei 3
Javanese calendar1176–1177
Julian calendar1266
Korean calendar3599
Minguo calendar646 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar−202
Thai solar calendar1808–1809
Tibetan calendar阴木牛年
(female Wood-Ox)
1392 or 1011 or 239
    — to —
(male Fire-Tiger)
1393 or 1012 or 240
Charles of Anjou (left) defeats Manfred of Sicily at the Battle of Benevento.

Year 1266 (MCCLXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.


By place[edit]


  • January 2Siege of Murcia: King James I of Aragon (the Conqueror) marches with his army from Orihuela and lays siege at Murcia on the Segura River. Skirmishes break out between the defenders and the Aragonese forces. The Muslim garrison, realizing that they are outnumbered and cut off from reinforcements, asks for terms. James offers to ask King Alfonso X of Castile (the Wise) to restore the Murcians' legal rights (see 1244) from before the rebellion: self-government under Castilian suzerainty, freedom of worship, and preservation of lands and properties. They agree to this offer but request Alfonso's explicit agreement rather than just James' promise to ask him. James refuses to get Alfonso's agreement before the city surrenders. Finally, the Moors yield Murcia to James on January 31. Seeing his standard on the walls, James enters the city on February 3, accepting its surrender.[1]
  • February 26Battle of Benevento: Guelph forces (some 12,000 men), led by Charles of Anjou, brother of King Louis IX (the Saint), defeat a combined German and Sicilian army under King Manfred of Sicily, during a long-running power struggle in Italy. Manfred takes up a strong position near Benevento. As the French infantry advances, he unleashes his Saracen archers and light cavalry, which scatters the French. But the Saracens leave themselves exposed to the French heavy cavalry, and are overwhelmed. Manfred orders his heavy cavalry (some 1,200 German mercenary knights) into the attack, but they are defeated by the Guelph forces, and take heavy losses. Manfred is killed, and Pope Clement IV invests Charles as ruler of Sicily and Naples. Meanwhile, Michael II, despot of Epirus, invades Albania, and recovers the lands that Manfred has taken from him.[2]
  • June – The Mudéjar Revolt ends. The rebels make their formal submission to Alfonso X (the Wise). They recognize the error that the Moors of Murcia have committed against their overlord Alfonso. Representatives of the aljama, or municipal council, renew their allegiance and humbly beg for pardon, mercy and favour. With this, the Mudéjar uprising in the Kingdom of Murcia is formally ended.[3]
  • June 23Battle of Trapani: The Venetian fleet (24 galleys) led by Admiral Jacopo Dondulo moves to Marsala and attacks the larger Genoese fleet anchored at Trapani, capturing all its ships. Some 1,200 Genoese drown and many are killed. Dondulo is acclaimed a hero on his return to Venice in July. He is elected as Captain General of the Sea, Venice's highest naval command position.[4]
  • July 2Treaty of Perth: King Alexander III agrees to a peace settlement with King Magnus VI (the Law-mender) in which the Outer Hebrides and Isle of Man are ceded to Scotland in exchange for 4,000 marks. In return, Alexander confirms Norwegian sovereignty over the islands of Shetland and Orkney.[5]





By topic[edit]


  • In France, the gold écu (or crown) and silver grosh coins are minted for the first time during the reign of Louis IX (the Saint).





  1. ^ O'Callaghan, Joseph F. (2011). The Gibraltar Crusade: Castile and the Battle for the Strait, p. 46. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-0463-6.
  2. ^ Esposito, Gabriele (2019). Armies of the Medieval Italian Wars 1125–1325, p. 39. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 9781472833426.
  3. ^ O'Callaghan, Joseph F. (2011). The Gibraltar Crusade: Castile and the Battle of the Strait, p. 47. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-0463-6.
  4. ^ Stanton, Charles D. (2015). Medieval Maritime Warfare, p. 165. Barnsley, South Yorkshire: Pen and Sword. ISBN 978-1-4738-5643-1.
  5. ^ "When Hebrideans were offered a new start in Norway". Scotsman. Retrieved April 27, 2018.
  6. ^ Andrew Roberts (2011). Great Commanders of the Medieval World (454–1582), pp. 194–196. ISBN 978-0-85738-589-5.
  7. ^ Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol III: The Kingdom of Acre, p. 268. ISBN 978-0-241-29877-0.
  8. ^ "Manfred - king of Sicily". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved April 27, 2018.
  9. ^ "Malcolm (II), earl of Fife (d.1266)". db.poms.ac.uk. Retrieved April 27, 2018.