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Millennium: 2nd millennium
1299 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1299
Ab urbe condita2052
Armenian calendar748
Assyrian calendar6049
Balinese saka calendar1220–1221
Bengali calendar706
Berber calendar2249
English Regnal year27 Edw. 1 – 28 Edw. 1
Buddhist calendar1843
Burmese calendar661
Byzantine calendar6807–6808
Chinese calendar戊戌年 (Earth Dog)
3996 or 3789
    — to —
己亥年 (Earth Pig)
3997 or 3790
Coptic calendar1015–1016
Discordian calendar2465
Ethiopian calendar1291–1292
Hebrew calendar5059–5060
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1355–1356
 - Shaka Samvat1220–1221
 - Kali Yuga4399–4400
Holocene calendar11299
Igbo calendar299–300
Iranian calendar677–678
Islamic calendar698–699
Japanese calendarEinin 7 / Shōan 1
Javanese calendar1210–1211
Julian calendar1299
Korean calendar3632
Minguo calendar613 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar−169
Thai solar calendar1841–1842
Tibetan calendar阳土狗年
(male Earth-Dog)
1425 or 1044 or 272
    — to —
(female Earth-Pig)
1426 or 1045 or 273
Sultan Osman I (r. 1299–1324)
Mongol invasions of the Levant (1299–1303). Battle of Wadi al-Khaznadar is located at 3rd Homs (Homs), in Syria.

Year 1299 (MCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.


By place[edit]





  • Spring – Mongol invasion of India: Duwa Khan, Mongol ruler of the Chagatai Khanate, sends his sons Qutlugh Khwaja and Duwa Temür with an army of some 50,000 horsemen over the border. The Mongols bypass villages to maximize speed, intending to strike directly at Delhi itself. At the Jumna River, Mongol forces under Qutlugh defeated Zafar Khan, and are forced to retreat to Delhi. News of the defeat causes thousands to abandon their homes, the capital is soon flooded with refugees. The streets, the markets and the mosques become overcrowded. Meanwhile, the merchant caravans headed for Delhi are interrupted by the Mongols.[9]
  • February 25 – Sultan Alauddin Khalji orders the army (some 35,000 men) to prepare for the march to Gujarat. One part of the army under Nusrat Khan starts its march from Delhi. Another part, led by Ulugh Khan, marches from Sindh and attacks Jaisalmer along the way. When the army returns from raiding Gujarat, Mongol soldiers stage a mutiny over payment of khums (one-fifth of the share of loot). The mutiny is crushed, the mutineer families in Delhi are punished and executed.[10][11]
  • Battle of Kili: Alauddin Khalji raises forces (some 70,000 men with 700 elephants) and attacks the Mongols under Qutlugh Khwaja north of Delhi. Zafar Khan, looking to avenge his defeat on the River Jumna, leads the first charge, attacking the Mongol left flank, which breaks before him. Zafar gives chase to drive them from the field – but he is ambushed by a feigned retreat. He is captured and executed with all his men. Qutlugh is wounded in battle and dies during the return journey.[12]
  • May 10 – King Kyawswa of Pagan and his son, Crown Prince Theingapati, are executed at Myinsaing, by the three brothers of the Myinsaing Kingdom (nominally Kyawswa's viceroys), for submitting and being a vassal to the Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty (since 1297).
  • July 27Osman I (or Othman) declares the Anatolian beylik (principality) to be independent of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum, originating the Ottoman Empire. Osman becomes the founder and the first ruler, with Söğüt as the capital, which will last until the 1920s.
  • The Kingdom of Singapura is founded by Sang Nila Utama, a Srivijaya prince. Upon his coronation, he adopts the official title Sri Tri Buana (translated as "Lord of Three Worlds").[13]

By topic[edit]

Cities and towns[edit]


Science and technology[edit]




  1. ^ Rodgers, William Ledyard (1967). Naval Warfare Under Oars, 4th to 16th Centuries: A Study of Strategy, Tactics and Ship Design, p. 141. Naval Institute Press.
  2. ^ Cancelleri, J.-A. "Sinucello della Rocca". Dizionario biografico. Retrieved December 20, 2011.
  3. ^ Ferris, Eleanor (1902). "The Financial Relations of the Knights Templars to the English Crown". American Historical Review. 8 (1): 1–17. doi:10.2307/1832571. JSTOR 1832571.
  4. ^ Armstrong, Pete (2003). Osprey: Stirling Bridge & Falkirk 1297–98, p. 80. ISBN 1-84176-510-4.
  5. ^ "720 years on Southampton Old Bowling Green rolls on!". The Leader. Spain. October 23, 2019. Retrieved July 17, 2022. "The Southampton Old Bowling Green was established during the reign of Richard I, and first used for a game of bowls in 1299," said Margaret, who has played at the Lower Canal Walk and Platform Road club.
  6. ^ On The World's Oldest Bowling Green (Motion picture). British Pathé. July 18, 1927. Retrieved July 17, 2022. On the World's oldest bowling green (AD 1299). Sir John Russell installs "Sir" W. Day, 1927's winner over 350 year old competition for honour of knighthood of the Green.
  7. ^ Kurkjian, Vahan M. (1958). A History of Armenia, pp. 204–205. Indo-European Publishing. ISBN 978-1-60444-012-6.
  8. ^ Demurger, Alain (2007). Jacques de Molay (in French), p. 142. Editions Payot & Rivages. ISBN 978-2-228-90235-9.
  9. ^ Kishori Saran Lal (1968). History of the Khaljis (1290–1320), p. 156. Allahabad: The Indian Press. OCLC 685167335.
  10. ^ Jackson, Peter (2003). The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History, p. 195. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-54329-3.
  11. ^ Kishori Saran Lal (1968). History of the Khaljis (1290–1320), p. 88. Allahabad: The Indian Press. OCLC 685167335.
  12. ^ Jackson, Peter (2003). The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History, pp. 221–222. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-54329-3.
  13. ^ Miksic John N. (2013). Singapore and the Silk Road of the Sea, 1300–1800, p. 148. NUS Press. ISBN 978-9971695743.
  14. ^ Brown, Michael (2004). The Wars of Scotland 1214–1371. Edinburgh University Press. pp. 192, 280. ISBN 0748612378.
  15. ^ Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History, p. 152. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.