# Orders of magnitude (mass)

(Redirected from 1 E-27 kg)
Iron weights up to 50 kilograms depicted in Dictionnaire encyclopédique de l'épicerie et des industries annexes.

To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following lists describe various mass levels between 10−40kg and 1053 kg.

## Units of mass

Submultiples Multiples Value SI symbol Name Value 10−1 g dg decigram 101 g dag decagram 10−2 g cg centigram 102 g hg hectogram 10−3 g mg milligram 103 g kg kilogram 10−6 g µg microgram (mcg) 106 g Mg megagram (tonne) 10−9 g ng nanogram 109 g Gg gigagram 10−12 g pg picogram 1012 g Tg teragram 10−15 g fg femtogram 1015 g Pg petagram 10−18 g ag attogram 1018 g Eg exagram 10−21 g zg zeptogram 1021 g Zg zettagram 10−24 g yg yoctogram 1024 g Yg yottagram Common prefixes are in bold face.[1]

The table below is based on the kilogram (kg), the base unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI). The kilogram is the only standard unit to include an SI prefix (kilo-) as part of its name. The gram (10−3 kg) is an SI derived unit of mass. However, the names of all SI mass units are based on gram, rather than on kilogram; thus 103 kg is a megagram (106 g), not a "kilokilogram".

The tonne (t) is a SI-compatible unit of mass equal to a megagram, or 103 kg. The unit is in common use for masses above about 103 kg and is often used with SI prefixes.

### Other units

Other units of mass are also in use. Historical units include the stone, the pound, the carat, and the grain.

For subatomic particles, physicists use the mass equivalent to the energy represented by an electronvolt (eV). At the atomic level, chemists use the mass of one-twelfth of a carbon-12 atom (the dalton). Astronomers use the mass of the sun (M).

### Below 10−24 kg

Unlike other physical quantities, mass-energy does not have an a priori expected minimal quantity, as is the case with time or length, or an observed basic quantum as in the case of electric charge. Planck's law allows for the existence of photons with arbitrarily low energies. Consequently, there can only ever be an experimental lower bound on the mass of a supposedly massless particle; in the case of the photon, this confirmed lower bound is of the order of 3×10−27 eV = 10−62 kg.

Factor (kg) Value Item
10−62 1.0×10−62 kg Mass equivalent of the energy of the lightest photon detected[citation needed]
10−40 4.2×10−40 kg Mass equivalent of the energy of a photon at the peak of the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background radiation (0.235 meV/c2)[2]
10−36 1.8×10−36 kg One eV/c2, the mass equivalent of one electronvolt[3]
3.6×10−36 kg Electron neutrino, upper limit on mass (2 eV/c2)[4]
10−31 9.11×10−31 kg Electron (511 keV/c2), the lightest elementary particle with a measured nonzero rest mass[5]
10−30 3.0–5.5×10−30 kg. Up quark (as a current quark) (1.7–3.1 MeV/c2)[6]
10−28 1.9×10−28 kg Muon (106 MeV/c2)[7]
10−27
yoctogram (yg)
1.661×10−27 kg Atomic mass unit (u) or dalton (Da)
1.673×10−27 kg Proton (938.3 MeV/c2)[8][9]
1.674×10−27 kg Hydrogen atom, the lightest atom
1.675×10−27 kg Neutron (939.6 MeV/c2)[10][11]
10−26 1.2×10−26 kg Lithium atom (6.941 u)
3.0×10−26 kg Water molecule (18.015 u)
8.0×10−26 kg Titanium atom (47.867 u)
10−25 1.1×10−25 kg Copper atom (63.546 u)
1.6×10−25 kg Z boson (91.2 GeV/c2)[12]
2.2×10−25 kg Higgs Boson (125 GeV/c2)
3.1×10−25 kg Top quark (173 GeV/c2),[13] the heaviest known elementary particle
3.2×10−25 kg Caffeine molecule (194 u)
3.5×10−25 kg Lead-208 atom, the heaviest known stable nuclide
4.9×10−25 kg Oganesson-294 atom, the heaviest known nuclide

### 10−24 to 10−19 kg

Factor (kg) Value Item
10−24
zeptogram (zg)
1.2×10−24 kg Buckyball molecule (720 u)
10−23 1.4×10−23 kg Ubiquitin, a small protein (8.6 kDa)[14]
5.5×10−23 kg A typical protein (median size of roughly 300 amino acids ~= 33 kDa)[15]
10−22 1.1×10−22 kg Haemoglobin A molecule in blood (64.5 kDa)[16]
10−21
attogram (ag)
1.65×10−21 kg Double-stranded DNA molecule consisting of 1,578 base pairs (995,000 daltons)[17]
4.3×10−21 kg Prokaryotic ribosome (2.6 MDa)[18]
7.1×10−21 kg Eukaryotic ribosome (4.3 MDa)[18]
7.6×10−21 kg Brome mosaic virus, a small virus (4.6 MDa)[19]
10−20 3×10−20 kg Synaptic vesicle in rats (16.1 ± 3.8 MDa)[20]
6.8×10−20 kg Tobacco mosaic virus (41 MDa)[21]
10−19 1.1×10−19 kg Nuclear pore complex in yeast (66 MDa)[22]
2.5×10−19 kg Human adenovirus (150 MDa)[23]

### 10−18 to 10−13 kg

Factor (kg) Value Item
10−18
femtogram (fg)
1×10−18 kg HIV-1 virus[24][25]
4.7×10−18 kg DNA sequence of length 4.6 Mbp, the weight of the E. coli genome[26]
10−17 ~1×10−17 kg Vaccinia virus, a large virus[27]
1.1×10−17 kg Mass equivalent of 1 joule[28]
10−16 3×10−16 kg Prochlorococcus cyanobacteria, the smallest (and possibly most plentiful)[29] photosynthetic organism on Earth[30][31]
10−15
picogram (pg)
1×10−15 kg E. coli bacterium (wet weight)[32]
6×10−15 kg DNA in a typical diploid human cell (approximate)
10−14 2.2×10−14 kg Human sperm cell[31][33]
6×10−14 kg Yeast cell (quite variable)[34][35]
10−13 1.5×10−13 kg Dunaliella salina, a green algae (dry weight)[36]

### 10−12 to 10−7 kg

Factor (kg) Value Item
10−12
nanogram (ng)
1×10−12 kg Average human cell (1 nanogram)[37]
2–3×10−12 kg HeLa human cell[38][39][40]
8×10−12 kg Grain of birch pollen[41]
10−11
10−10 2.5×10−10 kg Grain of maize pollen[42]
3.5×10−10 kg Very fine grain of sand (0.063 mm diameter, 350 nanograms)
10−9
microgram (µg)
3.6×10−9 kg Human ovum[31][43]
2.4×10−9 kg US RDA for vitamin B12 for adults[44]
10−8 1.5×10−8 kg US RDA for vitamin D for adults[45]
~2×10−8 kg Uncertainty in the mass of the International Prototype Kilogram (IPK) (±~20 µg)[46]
2.2×10−8 kg Planck mass[47]
~7×10−8 kg One eyelash hair (approximate)[48]
10−7 1.5×10−7 kg US RDA for iodine for adults[49]
2–3×10−7 kg Fruit fly (dry weight)[50][51]

### 10×10−6 to 1 kg

Factor (kg) Value Item
10−6
milligram (mg)
2.5×10−6 kg Mosquitoes, common smaller species (about 2.5 milligrams)[52]
10−5
centigram (cg)
1.1×10−5 kg Small granule of quartz (2 mm diameter, 11 milligrams)[53]
2×10−5 kg Adult housefly (Musca domestica, 21.4 milligrams)[54]
10−4
decigram (dg)
0.27–2.0×10−4 kg Range of amounts of caffeine in one cup of coffee (27–200 milligrams)[55]
1.5×10−4 kg A frame of 35mm motion picture film (157 milligrams)[56]
2×10−4 kg Metric carat (200 milligrams)[56]
10−3
gram (g)
1×10−3 kg One cubic centimeter of water (1 gram)[57]
1×10−3 kg US dollar bill (1 gram)[58]
~1×10−3 kg Two raisins (approximately 1 gram)[59]
~8×10−3 kg Coins of one Euro (7.5 grams),[60] one U.S. dollar (8.1 grams)[61] and one Canadian Loonie (7 grams [pre-2012], 6.27 grams [2012-])[62]
10−2
decagram (dag)
2–4×10−2 kg Adult mouse (Mus musculus, 20–40 grams)[63]
1.37×10−2 kg Amount of ethanol defined as one standard drink in the U.S. (13.7 grams)[64]
2.8×10−2 kg Ounce (avoirdupois) (28.35 grams)[56]
4.7×10−2 kg Mass equivalent of the energy that is called 1 megaton of TNT equivalent[56][65]
10−1
hectogram   (hg)
0.1-0.2 kg An orange (100–200 grams)[66]
0.454 kg Pound (avoirdupois) (454 grams)[56]

### 1 kg to 105 kg

Factor (kg) Value Item
1 kg
kilogram (kg)
1 kg One litre (0.001 m3) of water[67]
1–3 kg Smallest breed of dog (Chihuahua)[68]
1–3 kg Typical laptop computer, 2010[69]
2.5–4 kg Newborn human baby[70]
4.0 kg Women's shot[71]
4–5 kg Housecat[72]
7.26 kg Men's shot[71]
101 9–27 kg Medium-sized dog[73][74][75]
10–30 kg A CRT computer monitor or television set[citation needed]
50 kg Large dog breed (Great Dane)
102 130–180 kg Mature lion, female (130 kg) and male (180 kg)[77]
200–250 kg Giant tortoise
240–450 kg Grand piano[78][79]
400–900 kg Dairy cow[80]
500–500,000 kg A teaspoon (5 ml) of white dwarf material (0.5–500 tonnes)[81][82]
635 kg Heaviest human in history (Jon Brower Minnoch)
907.2 kg 1 short ton (2000 pounds - U.S.)[56]
103
megagram (Mg)
1000 kg Metric ton/tonne[56]
1000 kg 1 cubic metre of water[67]
1016.05 kg Ton (British) / 1 long ton (2240 pounds - U.S.)[56]
1300–1600 kg Typical passenger cars[83]
104 1.1×104 kg Hubble Space Telescope (11 tonnes)[85]
1.2×104 kg Largest elephant on record (12 tonnes)[86]
1.4×104 kg Big Ben (bell) (14 tonnes)[87]
2.7×104 kg ENIAC computer, 1946 (30 tonnes)[88]
4×104 kg Maximum gross mass (truck + load combined) of a semi-trailer truck in the EU (40–44 tonnes)[89]
5×104–6×104 kg Tank; Bulldozer (50–60 tonnes)
6.0×104 kg Largest single-piece meteorite, Hoba West Meteorite (60 tonnes)[90]
7.3×104 kg Largest dinosaur, Argentinosaurus (73 tonnes)[91]
105 1.8×105 kg Largest animal ever, a blue whale (180 tonnes)[92]
4.2×105 kg International Space Station (417 tonnes)[93]
6×105 kg World's heaviest aircraft: Antonov An-225 (maximum take-off mass: 600 tonnes, payload: 250 tonnes)[94]

### 106 to 1011 kg

Factor (kg) Value Item
106
gigagram (Gg)
1×106 kg Trunk of the giant sequoia tree named General Sherman, largest living tree by trunk volume (1121 tonnes)[95]
2.0×106 kg Launch mass of the Space Shuttle (2041 tonnes)[96]
6×106 kg Largest clonal colony, the quaking aspen named Pando (largest living organism) (6000 tonnes)[97]
7.8×106 kg Virginia-class nuclear submarine (submerged weight)[98]
107 1×107 kg Annual production of Darjeeling tea[99]
5.2×107 kg RMS Titanic when fully loaded (52,000 tonnes)[100]
9.97×107 kg Heaviest train ever: Australia's BHP Iron Ore, 2001 record (99,700 tonnes)[101]
108 6.6×108 kg Largest ship and largest mobile man-made object, Seawise Giant, when fully loaded (660,000 tonnes)[102]
7×108 kg Heaviest (non-pyramid) building, Palace of the Parliament in Bucharest, Romania[103]
109
teragram (Tg)
4.3×109 kg Amount of matter converted into energy by the Sun each second[104]
6×109 kg Great Pyramid of Giza[105]
1010
6×1010 kg Amount of concrete in the Three Gorges Dam, the world's largest concrete structure[106][107]
1011 ~1×1011 kg The mass of a primordial black hole with an evaporation time equal to the age of the universe[108]
2×1011 kg Amount of water stored in London storage reservoirs (0.2 km3)[109]
4×1011 kg Total mass of the world's human population[76][110][111]
5×1011 kg Total biomass of Antarctic krill, probably the most plentiful animal species on the planet[112]

### 1012 to 1017 kg

Factor (kg) Value Item
1012
petagram (Pg)
0.8–2.1×1012 kg Global biomass of fish[113]
4×1012 kg Global annual human food production[114]
4×1012 kg World crude oil production in 2009 (3,843 Mt)[115]
5.5×1012 kg A teaspoon (5 ml) of neutron star material (5000 million tonnes)[116]
1013 1×1013 kg Mass of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko[117]
4×1013 kg Global annual human carbon dioxide emission[118][119]
1014 1.05×1014 kg Global net primary production – the total mass of carbon fixed in organic compounds by photosynthesis each year on Earth[120]
7.2×1014 kg Total carbon stored in Earth's atmosphere[121]
1015
exagram (Eg)
2.0×1015 kg Total carbon stored in the terrestrial biosphere[122]
3.5×1015 kg Total carbon stored in coal deposits worldwide[123]
1016 1×1016 kg 951 Gaspra, the first asteroid ever to be closely approached by a spacecraft (rough estimate)[124]
1×1016 kg Rough estimate of the total carbon content of all organisms on Earth.[125]
3×1016 kg Rough estimate of everything produced by the human species.[126]
3.8×1016 kg Total carbon stored in the oceans.[127]
1017 1.6×1017 kg Prometheus, a shepherd satellite for the inner edge of Saturn's F Ring[128]

### 1018 to 1023 kg

Factor (kg) Value Item
1018
zettagram (Zg)
5.1×1018 kg Earth's atmosphere[129]
5.6×1018 kg Hyperion, a moon of Saturn[128]
1019 3×1019 kg 3 Juno, one of the larger asteroids in the asteroid belt[130]
3×1019 kg The rings of Saturn[131]
1020 9.4×1020 kg Ceres, dwarf planet within the asteroid belt[132]
1021
yottagram (Yg)
1.4×1021 kg Earth's oceans[133]
1.5×1021 kg Charon, the largest moon of Pluto[134]
2.9–3.7×1021 kg The asteroid belt[135]
1022 1.3×1022 kg Pluto[134]
2.1×1022 kg Triton, largest moon of Neptune[136]
7.3×1022 kg Earth's Moon[137]
1023 1.3×1023 kg Titan, largest moon of Saturn[138]
1.5×1023 kg Ganymede, largest moon of Jupiter[139]
3.3×1023 kg Mercury[140]
6.4×1023 kg Mars[141]

### 1024 to 1029 kg

Factor (kg) Value Item
1024 4.9×1024 kg Venus[142]
6.0×1024 kg Earth[143]
1025 3×1025 kg Oort cloud[144]
8.7×1025 kg Uranus[145]
1026 1.0×1026 kg Neptune[146]
5.7×1026 kg Saturn[147]
1027 1.9×1027 kg Jupiter[148]
1028 2–14×1028 kg Brown dwarfs (approximate)[149]
1029 3×1029 kg Barnard's Star, a nearby red dwarf[150]

### 1030 to 1035 kg

Factor (kg) Value Item
1030 2×1030 kg The Sun[151] (one solar mass or M = 1.989×1030 kg)
2.8×1030 kg Chandrasekhar limit (1.4 M)[152][153]
1031 4×1031 kg Betelgeuse, a red supergiant star (20 M)[154]
1032 4–7×1032 kg R136a1, the most massive of known stars (230 to 345 M)[155]
6–8×1032 kg Hyades star cluster (300 to 400 M)[156]
1033 1.6×1033 kg Pleiades star cluster (800 M)[157]
1034
1035 ~1035 kg Typical globular cluster in the Milky Way (overall range: 3×103 to 3×106 M)[158]
2×1035 kg Low end of mass range for giant molecular clouds (1×105 to 1×107 M)[159][160]
7.3×1035 kg Jeans mass of a giant molecular cloud at 100K and density 30 atoms per cc;[161]
possible example: Orion Molecular Cloud Complex

### 1036 to 1041 kg

Factor (kg) Value Item
1036 1.79×1036 kg The entire Carina complex.
2.4×1036 kg The Gould Belt of stars, including the Sun (1.2×106 M)[162]
7–8×1036 kg The supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way, associated with the radio source Sagittarius A* (3.7±0.2×106 M)[163]
1037
1038
1039
1040 4.17×1040 kg NGC 4889, the largest measured supermassive black hole, weighing 21 billion solar masses (2.1×1010 M)
1041 4×1041 kg Visible mass of the Milky Way galaxy[164]

### 1042 kg and greater

Factor (kg) Value Item
1042 1.2×1042 kg Milky Way galaxy (5.8×1011 M)[165]
2–3×1042 kg Local Group of galaxies, including the Milky Way (1.29±0.14×1012 M)[165]
1043
1044
1045 1–2×1045 kg Local or Virgo Supercluster of galaxies, including the Local Group (1×1015 M)[166]
1046
1047
1048
1049
1050
1051
1052 4.4506×1052 kg Mass of the observable universe as estimated by NASA
1052 6×1052 kg Mass of the observable universe as estimated by the National Solar Observatory[167]

This series on orders of magnitude does not have a range of larger masses

## Notes

1. ^ Criterion: A combined total of at least 250,000 Google hits on both the modern spelling (‑gram) and the traditional British spelling (‑gramme).
2. ^ Fixsen, D. J. (2009). "The Temperature of the Cosmic Microwave Background". The Astrophysical Journal. 707 (2): 916–920. arXiv:. Bibcode:2009ApJ...707..916F. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/707/2/916.
3. ^ "Conversion from eV to kg". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. Retrieved 2011-10-19.
4. ^ "The most sensitive analysis on the neutrino mass [...] is compatible with a neutrino mass of zero. Considering its uncertainties this value corresponds to an upper limit on the electron neutrino mass of m<2.2 eV/c2 (95% Confidence Level)" The Mainz Neutrino Mass Experiment
5. ^ "CODATA Value: electron mass". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. Retrieved 2011-08-21.
6. ^ K. Nakamura; Particle Data Group (2011). "PDGLive Particle Summary 'Quarks (u, d, s, c, b, t, b', t', Free)'" (PDF). Particle Data Group. Retrieved 2011-08-08.
7. ^ "CODATA Value: muon mass". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. Retrieved 2011-08-23.
8. ^ "CODATA Value: proton mass". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. Retrieved 2011-08-23.
9. ^ "CODATA Value: proton mass energy equivalent in MeV". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. Retrieved 2011-08-23.
10. ^ "CODATA Value: neutron mass". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. Retrieved 2011-08-23.
11. ^ "CODATA Value: neutron mass energy equivalent in MeV". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. Retrieved 2011-08-23.
12. ^ Amsler, C.; Doser, M.; Antonelli, M.; Asner, D.; Babu, K.; Baer, H.; Band, H.; Barnett, R.; Bergren, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernardi, G.; Bertl, W.; Bichsel, H.; Biebel, O.; Bloch, P.; Blucher, E.; Blusk, S.; Cahn, R. N.; Carena, M.; Caso, C.; Ceccucci, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chen, M. -C.; Chivukula, R. S.; Cowan, G.; Dahl, O.; d'Ambrosio, G.; Damour, T.; De Gouvêa, A.; Degrand, T. (2008). "Review of Particle Physics⁎". Physics Letters B. 667: 1. Bibcode:2008PhLB..667....1A. doi:10.1016/j.physletb.2008.07.018.
13. ^ K. Nakamura; Particle Data Group (2011). "PDGLive Particle Summary 'Quarks (u, d, s, c, b, t, b', t', Free)'" (PDF). Particle Data Group. Retrieved 2011-08-08.
14. ^ "Ubiquitin". Channel Proteomes. Retrieved 2011-10-12.
15. ^ Ron Milo. "How big is the "average" protein?" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-10-13.
16. ^ Van Beekvelt MC; Colier WN; Wevers RA; Van Engelen BG (Feb 2001). "Performance of near-infrared spectroscopy in measuring local O2 consumption and blood flow in skeletal muscle". J Appl Physiol. 90 (2): 511–519. ISSN 8750-7587. PMID 11160049.
17. ^ From attograms to Daltons: Cornell NEMS device detects the mass of a single DNA molecule [1]. Retrieved 2010-10-14
18. ^ a b "Eukaryotic Ribosome". ETH Zurich. Retrieved 2011-10-09.
19. ^ Bockstahler, L.; Kaesberg, P. (1962). "The Molecular Weight and Other Biophysical Properties of Bromegrass Mosaic Virus". Biophysical Journal. 2 (1): 1–9. Bibcode:1962BpJ.....2....1B. doi:10.1016/S0006-3495(62)86836-2. PMC . PMID 19431313.
20. ^ "Atomic mass of synaptic vesicle - Rat Rattus". BioNumbers. Retrieved 2011-10-09.
21. ^ "Molecular weight - Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) - BNID 105958". BioNumbers. Retrieved 2011-10-09.
22. ^ Rout, M. P.; Blobel, G. (1993). "Isolation of the yeast nuclear pore complex". The Journal of Cell Biology. 123 (4): 771–783. doi:10.1083/jcb.123.4.771. PMC . PMID 8227139.
23. ^ Liu, H.; Jin, L.; Koh, S. B. S.; Atanasov, I.; Schein, S.; Wu, L.; Zhou, Z. H. (2010). "Atomic Structure of Human Adenovirus by Cryo-EM Reveals Interactions Among Protein Networks" (PDF). Science. 329 (5995): 1038–1043. Bibcode:2010Sci...329.1038L. doi:10.1126/science.1187433. PMC . PMID 20798312.
24. ^ "Virus diameter of HIV-1 - HIV". BioNumbers. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
25. ^ Calculated : volume = 4/3 × π × (126e−9 m / 2)³ = 1.05e−21 m³. Assume density = 1 g/cm³ => mass = 1.05e−21 m³ × 1e3 kg/m³ = 1.05e−18 kg
26. ^ Frederick R. Blattner; Guy Plunkett III; et al. (1997). "The Complete Genome Sequence of Escherichia coli K-12". Science. 277 (5331): 1453–1462. doi:10.1126/science.277.5331.1453. PMID 9278503.
27. ^ "Mass of virion - Virus Vaccinia". BioNumbers. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
28. ^ "Conversion from J to kg". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. Retrieved 2011-08-23.
29. ^ "Prochlorococcus marinus MIT 9313 - Home". Joint Genome Institute. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
30. ^ "Size (diameter) of most abundant cyanobacteri - Prochlorococcus - BNID 101520". BioNumbers. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
31. ^ a b c Mass calculated from volume assuming density of 1 g/mL
32. ^ "E. coli Statistics". The CyberCell Database. Retrieved 2011-09-11.
33. ^ "Surface area and volume of spermatozoa - Human Homo sapiens". BioNumbers. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
34. ^ Ron Milo. "How big is a yeast cell" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-10-09.
35. ^ ""Rule of thumb" for cell mass". BioNumbers. Retrieved 2011-10-09.
36. ^ "Cell dry weight - Green algae Dunaliella salina". BioNumbers. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
37. ^ "A quick introduction to elements of biology - cells, molecules, genes, functional genomics, microarrays". European Bioinformatics Institute. if we estimate the average weight of a human cell as about 10^-9 g
38. ^ "Measured HeLa cell mass". BioNumbers. Retrieved 2011-10-09.
39. ^ "Estimated HeLa cell mass". BioNumbers. Retrieved 2011-10-09.
40. ^ Phillips, Kevin G.; Jacques, Steven L.; McCarty, Owen J. T. (13 September 2012). "Measurement of Single Cell Refractive Index, Dry Mass, Volume, and Density Using a Transillumination Microscope". 109 (11). Bibcode:2012PhRvL.109k8105P. doi:10.1103/physrevlett.109.118105.
41. ^ Schäppi, G. F.; Suphioglu, C.; Taylor, P. E.; Knox, R. B. (1997). "Concentrations of the major birch tree allergen Bet v 1 in pollen and respirable fine particles in the atmosphere". Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 100 (5): 656–661. doi:10.1016/S0091-6749(97)70170-2. PMID 9389296. "the total pollen grain mass of approximately 7.85 ng"
42. ^ Fonseca, A. E.; Westgate, M. E.; Grass, L.; Dornbos, J. (2003). "Tassel Morphology as an Indicator of Potential Pollen Production in Maize". Crop Management. doi:10.1094/CM-2003-0804-01-RS. "The dry weight of individual pollen grains has been estimated at 250 ng"
43. ^ "Volume of human oocyte - Human Homo sapiens". BioNumbers. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
44. ^ "Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Vitamin B12". Office of Dietary Supplements. Retrieved 2011-10-02.
45. ^ "Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Vitamin D". Office of Dietary Supplements. Retrieved 2011-10-02.
46. ^ Report to the CGPM, 14th meeting of the Consultative Committee for Units (CCU), April 2001, 2. (ii); General Conference on Weights and Measures, 22nd Meeting, October 2003, which stated "The kilogram is in need of a new definition because the mass of the prototype is known to vary by several parts in 108 over periods of time of the order of a month ..." (3.2 MB ZIP file, here).
47. ^ "CODATA Value: Planck mass". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
48. ^ "Weigh An Eyelash". National Semiconductor. Retrieved 2011-10-02.
49. ^ "Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Iodine". Office of Dietary Supplements. Retrieved 2011-10-02.
50. ^ "Mean dry mass (male) - Fruit fly". BioNumbers. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
51. ^ "Mean dry mass (female) - Fruit fly". BioNumbers. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
52. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". American Mosquito Control Association. Retrieved 2011-08-23. Smaller species found around houses commonly weigh about 2.5 milligrams.
53. ^ Quartz has a density of 2.65. Mass = Volume × Density = (4/3 × π × (1e−3 m)³) × (2.65 × 1e3 kg/m³) = 1.1e−5 kg.
54. ^ Price, G. M. (1961). "Some Aspects of Amino Acid Metabolism in the Adult Housefly, Musca domestica". Biochem. J. 80 (2): 420–8. PMC . PMID 16748919.
55. ^ "Caffeine content for coffee, tea, soda and more". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 2011-08-23.
56. "Appendix B8—Factors for Units Listed Alphabetically". NIST Guide for the Use of the International System of Units (SI). NIST. Retrieved 29 October 2011.
57. ^ "Mass, Weight, Density or Specific Gravity of Water at Various Temperatures". SiMetric. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
58. ^ "FAQ Library". U.S. Bureau of Engraving and Printing. Retrieved 2011-08-21.
59. ^ "Raisins, seedless (NDB No. 09298)". USDA Nutrient Database. USDA. Retrieved 2011-10-19.
60. ^ "Denominations and technical specifications of Euro coins". Retrieved 2013-06-22. weight (g): 7.5
61. ^ "Coin specifications". United States Mint. Retrieved 2011-08-23.
62. ^ "the 1-dollar coin - Royal Canadian Mint". Royal Canadian Mint. Retrieved 2014-05-24.
63. ^ "Biomethodology of the Mouse". Animal Research, The University of Iowa. Retrieved 2011-10-17.
64. ^ "Alcohol and Public Health: Frequently Asked Questions". CDC. Retrieved 2011-08-23.
65. ^ Calculated: 1e6 tons of TNT-equivalent × 4.184e9 J/ton of TNT-equivalent × 1.1e−17 kg of mass-equivalent/J = 4.7e−2 kg of mass-equivalent
66. ^ "Oranges, raw, with peel (NDB No. 09205 and 09200)". USDA Nutrient Database. USDA. Retrieved 2011-10-18.
67. ^ a b "Water - Density and Specific Weight". The Engineering Tool Box.
68. ^ "Chihuahua Weight Chart". Retrieved 14 December 2011. 907 g ... 2722 g
69. ^ "Laptop Buyer's Guide". About.com. Retrieved 14 December 2011. 2.0 lbs ... > 6 lbs
70. ^ "Baby birth weight Information". Retrieved 14 December 2011. 2500 g ... 4000 g
71. ^ a b "Shot Put - Introduction". IAAF. Retrieved 12 December 2011.
72. ^ Mattern, Michelle Y.; McLennan, Deborah A. (2000). "Phylogeny and Speciation of Felids". Cladistics. 16 (2): 232–253. doi:10.1111/j.1096-0031.2000.tb00354.x.
73. ^ "Search for Medium Dogs By Looking at Pictures, Dogs that Can get to 20-50 Pounds". Retrieved 2 July 2013. Roughly ranging from 20-50 pounds (9-23 kg)
74. ^ "Dog Services - Adoptable Dogs". Retrieved 2 July 2013. medium (30lbs to 60lbs)
75. ^ "Dog Groups - Medium Sized Dogs - Only Dog Breeds". Retrieved 2 July 2013. 25 to 50 pounds
76. ^ a b "Mass of an Adult". The Physics Factbook. Retrieved 13 December 2011. 70 kg
77. ^ Nowell, Kristin; Jackson, Peter (1996). "Panthera Leo". Wild Cats: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan (PDF). Gland, Switzerland: IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group. p. 17. ISBN 2-8317-0045-0. adult males (>4 years) 181 kg (n=14) and females 126 kg (n=25)
78. ^ "GRAND PIANO GUIDE TO STEINWAY AND INDUSTRY STANDARD SIZES". Bluebook of Pianos. Retrieved 13 December 2011. 540 lbs ... 990 lbs
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81. ^ Jennifer Johnson. "Lecture 22: Extreme Stars: White Dwarfs & Neutron Stars". Ohio State Department of Astronomy. Retrieved 2011-10-17.
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86. ^ Ward, Rowland (1935). Records of Big Game (10th ed.). London.
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89. ^ "Council Directive 96/53/EC of 25 July 1996" (PDF). p. 12. Retrieved 2011-10-18.
90. ^ Meteoritical Bulletin Database: Hoba
91. ^ Mazzetta, Gerardo V.; Christiansen, Per; Fariña, Richard A. (2004). "Giants and Bizarres: Body Size of Some Southern South American Cretaceous Dinosaurs" (PDF). Historical Biology. 16: 71–83. doi:10.1080/08912960410001715132. Retrieved 2009-01-23.
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93. ^ "International Space Station: The ISS to Date". NASA. Retrieved 2011-08-23.
94. ^ Greg Goebel. "The Antonov Giants: An-22, An-124, & An-225". Air Vectors. Archived from the original on June 29, 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-17.
95. ^ Fry, Walter; White, John Roberts (1942). Big Trees. Palo Alto, California: Stanford University Press.
96. ^ "Space Shuttle Basics". NASA. Retrieved 2011-08-24.
97. ^ David Hershey. "Re: What is the biggest tree in the world?". MadSci Network. Retrieved 2011-10-17.
98. ^ "The US Navy". US Navy. Retrieved 17 December 2011.
99. ^ "Darjeeling Tea: Questions and Answers". Darjeeling Tea Association. Retrieved 2011-09-11.
100. ^ "THE 66,000 TON MYTH". Mark Chirnside. Retrieved 2011-08-24.
101. ^ "Hamersley Freight Line - Railway Technology". Railway Technology. Retrieved 2011-10-17.
102. ^ "Knock Nevis - The world's largest ship ever". Container-Transportation. Retrieved 19 October 2011.
103. ^ "Heaviest building". Guinness World Records. Retrieved 13 March 2015.
104. ^ "Is the Sun Shrinking?". Stanford Solar Center. Retrieved 2011-08-24.
105. ^ Levy, Janey (2005). The Great Pyramid of Giza: Measuring Length, Area, Volume, and Angles. Rosen Publishing Group. ISBN 1-4042-6059-5.
106. ^ Richard R. Wertz. "The Three Gorges Dam Project". Retrieved 2011-10-17.
107. ^ "Density of Concrete". The Physics Factbook. Retrieved 2011-10-17.
108. ^ Andrew Hamilton. "Hawking Radiation". University of Colorado at Boulder. Retrieved 2011-10-17.
109. ^ Chris Birks; Mike Owen; Brian Arkell (2001). "London's Water Resources: Threat or Opportunity". Area. 33 (1): 95–97. JSTOR 20004131.
110. ^ "World POPClock Projection". U.S. Census Bureau. 13 Dec 2011. Retrieved 13 December 2011. 6,981,057,639
111. ^ Calculated: adult men have a weight of 70 kg, use 55 kg to account for smaller weights of women and children. 7.0e9 people × 55 kg/person = 4e11 kg
112. ^ Stephen Nicol & Yoshinari Endo (1997). Krill Fisheries of the World. Fisheries Technical Paper 367. Food and Agriculture Organization. ISBN 92-5-104012-5.
113. ^ Wilson, R. W.; Millero, F. J.; Taylor, J. R.; Walsh, P. J.; Christensen, V.; Jennings, S.; Grosell, M. (2009). "Contribution of Fish to the Marine Inorganic Carbon Cycle" (PDF). Science. 323 (5912): 359–362. Bibcode:2009Sci...323..359W. doi:10.1126/science.1157972. PMID 19150840.
114. ^ "World Environment Day - Food Waste Facts". Retrieved 13 March 2015.
115. ^ "Key World Energy Statistics 2010" (PDF). International Energy Agency. 2010. p. 10. Retrieved 2011-09-13.
116. ^ The average density of material in a neutron star of radius 10 km is 1.1×1012 kg cm−3. Therefore, 5 ml of such material is 5.5×1012 kg, or 5 500 000 000 metric tons. This is about 15 times the total mass of the human world population. Alternatively, 5 ml from a neutron star of radius 20 km radius (average density 8.35×1010 kg cm−3) has a mass of about 400 million metric tons, or about the mass of all humans.
117. ^ Pätzold, M.; Andert, T.; Hahn, M.; Asmar, S. W.; Barriot, J.-P.; Bird, M. K.; Häusler, B.; Peter, K.; Tellmann, S.; Grün, E.; Weissman, P. R.; Sierks, H.; Jorda, L.; Gaskell, R.; Preusker, F.; Scholten, F. (4 February 2016). "A homogeneous nucleus for comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko from its gravity field". Nature. 530 (7588): 63–65. Bibcode:2016Natur.530...63P. doi:10.1038/nature16535 – via www.nature.com.
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119. ^
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122. ^ "Total carbon stored in the terrestrial biosphere". BioNumbers. Retrieved 2011-10-19.
123. ^ "Total carbon stored in coal deposits worldwide". BioNumbers. Retrieved 2011-10-19.
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126. ^ "Scale and diversity of the physical technosphere: A geological perspective" (PDF). The Anthropocene Review. Retrieved 2016-12-04.
127. ^ "Total carbon stored in the oceans (mostly inorganic)". BioNumbers. Retrieved 2011-10-19.
128. ^ a b Thomas, P. C. (July 2010). "Sizes, shapes, and derived properties of the saturnian satellites after the Cassini nominal mission" (PDF). Icarus. 208 (1): 395–401. Bibcode:2010Icar..208..395T. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2010.01.025.
129. ^ Trenberth, Kevin E.; Smith, Lesley. "The Mass of the Atmosphere: a Constraint on Global Analyses". National Center for Atmospheric Research. Retrieved 2011-09-09.
130. ^ Jim Baer (2010). "Recent Asteroid Mass Determinations". Personal Website. Retrieved 2011-10-16.
131. ^ Brainerd, Jerome James. "Saturn's Rings". The Astrophysics Spectator. Retrieved 2011-09-09.
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134. ^ a b Buie, Marc W.; Grundy, William M.; Young, Eliot F.; Young, Leslie A.; Stern, S. Alan (2006). "Orbits and Photometry of Pluto's Satellites: Charon, S/2005 P1, and S/2005 P2". The Astronomical Journal. 132 (1): 290. arXiv:. Bibcode:2006AJ....132..290B. doi:10.1086/504422.
135. ^ Krasinsky, G. A.; Pitjeva, E. V.; Vasilyev, M. V.; Yagudina, E. I. (July 2002). "Hidden Mass in the Asteroid Belt". Icarus. 158 (1): 98–105. Bibcode:2002Icar..158...98K. doi:10.1006/icar.2002.6837.
136. ^ "Solar System Exploration: Triton: Overview". Solar System Exploration. NASA. Retrieved 2011-09-22.
137. ^ "Earth's Moon: Facts & Figures". Solar System Exploration. NASA. Retrieved 2011-10-13.
138. ^ Jacobson, R. A.; Antreasian, P. G.; Bordi, J. J.; Criddle, K. E.; Ionasescu, R.; Jones, J. B.; Mackenzie, R. A.; Meek, M. C.; Parcher, D.; Pelletier, F. J.; Owen, Jr., W. M.; Roth, D. C.; Roundhill, I. M.; Stauch, J. R. (December 2006). "The Gravity Field of the Saturnian System from Satellite Observations and Spacecraft Tracking Data". The Astronomical Journal. 132 (6): 2520–2526. Bibcode:2006AJ....132.2520J. doi:10.1086/508812.
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142. ^ "Venus: Facts & Figures". Solar System Exploration. NASA. Retrieved 2011-09-22.
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145. ^ "Uranus: Facts & Figures". Solar System Exploration. NASA. Retrieved 2011-09-22.
146. ^ "Neptune: Facts & Figures". Solar System Exploration. NASA. Retrieved 2011-09-22.
147. ^ "Saturn: Facts & Figures". Solar System Exploration. NASA. Retrieved 2011-09-22.
148. ^ "Jupiter: Facts & Figures". Solar System Exploration. NASA. Retrieved 2011-09-22.
149. ^ Boss, Alan (2001-04-03). "Are They Planets or What?". Carnegie Institution of Washington. Archived from the original on 2006-09-28. Retrieved 2006-06-08.
150. ^ Dawson, P. C.; De Robertis, M. M. (2004). "Barnard's Star and the M Dwarf Temperature Scale". The Astronomical Journal. 127 (5): 2909. Bibcode:2004AJ....127.2909D. doi:10.1086/383289.
151. ^ "Sun Fact Sheet". NASA. Retrieved 2011-10-15.
152. ^ p. 55, How A Supernova Explodes, Hans A. Bethe and Gerald Brown, pp. 51–62 in Formation And Evolution of Black Holes in the Galaxy: Selected Papers with Commentary, Hans Albrecht Bethe, Gerald Edward Brown, and Chang-Hwan Lee, River Edge, NJ: World Scientific: 2003. ISBN 981-238-250-X.
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155. ^ Crowther, Paul A.; Schnurr, Olivier; Hirschi, Raphael; Yusof, Norhasliza; et al. (2010). "The R136 star cluster hosts several stars whose individual masses greatly exceed the accepted 150 M stellar mass limit". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 408 (2): 731–751. arXiv:. Bibcode:2010MNRAS.408..731C. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.17167.x.
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159. ^ "Cool Cosmos". Infrared Processing and Analysis Center. Retrieved 2011-10-16.
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162. ^ Olano, C. A. (1982). "On a model of local gas related to Gould's belt". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 112 (2): 195–208. Bibcode:1982A&A...112..195O.
163. ^ Ghez, A. M.; Salim, S.; Hornstein, S. D.; Tanner, A.; Lu, J. R.; Morris, M.; Becklin, E. E.; Duchene, G. (2005). "Stellar Orbits around the Galactic Center Black Hole". The Astrophysical Journal. 620 (2): 744. arXiv:. Bibcode:2005ApJ...620..744G. doi:10.1086/427175.
164. ^ Jim Brau. "The Milky Way Galaxy". Retrieved 2011-09-12. total mass (within 15 kpc) = 2 x 10^11 solar masses
165. ^ a b Karachentsev, I. D.; Kashibadze, O. G. (2006). "Masses of the local group and of the M81 group estimated from distortions in the local velocity field". Astrophysics. 49 (1): 3–18. Bibcode:2006Ap.....49....3K. doi:10.1007/s10511-006-0002-6.
166. ^ Einasto, M.; Saar, E.; Liivamägi, L. J.; Einasto, J.; et al. (2007). "The richest superclusters: I. Morphology". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 476 (2): 697–711. arXiv:. Bibcode:2007A&A...476..697E. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20078037.
167. ^