Under the Whyte notation for the classification of steam locomotives by wheel arrangement, 4-6-0 represents the configuration of four leading wheels on two axles in a leading bogie, six powered and coupled driving wheels on three axles, and no trailing wheels. This wheel arrangement became the second most popular configuration for new steam locomotives in the United States of America (USA) in the mid 19th century. In the USA this type is commonly referred to as a ten-wheeler.
Other equivalent classifications are:
- UIC classification: 2'C' (also known as German and Italian classifications)
- French classification: 230
- Turkish classification: 35
- Swiss classification: 3/5
- Russian classification: 2-3-0
- 1 Overview
- 2 Usage
- 2.1 Angola
- 2.2 Bechuanaland
- 2.3 Finland
- 2.4 France
- 2.5 Germany
- 2.6 Ireland
- 2.7 New Zealand
- 2.8 Norway
- 2.9 Poland
- 2.10 Russia
- 2.11 South Africa
- 2.12 Sudan
- 2.13 United Kingdom
- 2.14 United States of America
- 3 References
During the second half of the nineteenth and first half of the twentieth centuries the 4-6-0 was constructed in large numbers for passenger and mixed traffic service. A natural extension of the venerable 4-4-0 American, the four-wheel leading bogie gave good stability at speed and allowed a longer boiler to be supported, while the lack of trailing wheels gave a high adhesive weight.
The primary limitation of the type was the small size of the firebox, which limited power output. In passenger service it was eventually superseded by the 4-6-2 Pacific type whose trailing truck allowed it to carry a greatly enlarged firebox. For freight service the addition of a fourth driving axle created the 4-8-0 Mastodon type, but these were rare in North America.
The 4-6-0T tank locomotive version was a far less common type. It was used for passenger duties during the first decade of the twentieth century, but was soon superseded by the 4-6-2T Pacific, 4-6-4T Baltic and 2-6-4T Adriatic types on which larger fire grates were possible. During the First World War the type was also used on narrow gauge military railways.
In 1907 five 6th Class locomotives of the Cape Government Railways were sold to the 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) Benguela Railway (CFB). These included one of the Dübs built locomotives of 1897 and two each of the Neilson and Company and Neilson, Reid and Company built locomotives of 1897 and 1898. (Also see South Africa - Cape gauge)
In the mid 1930s, in order to ease maintenance, modifications were made to the running boards and brake gear of the CFB locomotives. The former involved mounting the running boards higher, thereby getting rid of the driving wheel fairings. This gave the locomotives a much more American rather than British appearance.
In April 1951 three Class NG9 locomotives were purchased from the South African Railways for the Caminhos de Ferro de Moçâmedes (CFM). They were placed in service on the Ramal da Chibía, a 600 mm (1 ft 11 5⁄8 in) gauge branch line across 116 kilometres (72 miles) from Sá da Bandeira (now Lubango) to Chiange. The locomotives were observed dumped at the Sá da Bandeira shops by 1969 and the branch line itself was closed in 1970. (Also see South Africa - Narrow gauge)
In 1897 three Class 6 4-6-0 locomotives were ordered by the Cape Government Railways (CGR) from Neilson and Company for use on the new Vryburg to Bulawayo line of the fledgling Bechuanaland Railway Company (BR). The line through Bechuanaland Protectorate (Botswana) was still under construction and was operated by the CGR on behalf of the BR at the time. The locomotives were eventually returned to the CGR.:41–44:7–8
The Finnish State Railways (Suomen Valtion Rautatiet or SVR, later the Valtionrautatiet or VR) operated the Classes Hk1, Hk2, Hk3, Hk5, Hv1, Hv2, Hv3, Hv4, Hr2 and Hr3 locomotives with a 4-6-0 wheel arrangement.
Numbers 291 to 300 and 322 to 333 were built by the Richmond Locomotive Works in 1900 and 1901. The twenty-two Richmond locomotives were originally designated H2 class and were nicknamed "Big-Wheel Kaanari". One of them, no. 293, the locomotive that brought Lenin from exile in August–September 1917 prior to the Russian Revolution, was presented by Finland to the Soviet Union on 13 June 1957 and is preserved at the Finland Station in St. Petersburg, Russia.
Another one hundred of these locomotives were manufactured in Finland from 1903 to 1916, numbered in the range from 437 to 574 and initially designated H3 to H8 classes.
The Class Hk5 was numbered from 439 to 515. One, no. 497, is preserved at Haapamäki.
The Class Hv1 was built from 1915 by Tampella and Lokomo. They were nicknamed "Heikki" and were numbered 545 to 578 and 648 to 655. The class remained in service until 1967. One, no. 555 named "Princess", is preserved at the Finnish Railway Museum.
The Class Hv2 was built by Berliner Maschinenbau and Lokomo in the years between 1919 and 1926. They were numbered 579 to 593, 671 to 684 and 777 to 780. One, no. 680, is preserved at Haapamäki.
The Class Hv3 was built by Berliner, Tampella and Lokomo in the years from 1921 to 1941. They were numbered 638 to 647, 781 to 785 and 991 to 999. Three Class Hv3 locomotives were preserved, no. 781 at Kerava, no. 995 at Suolahti and no. 998 at Haapamäki.
The Class Hv4 was built by Tampella and Lokomo in the years from 1912 to 1933 and were numbered 516 to 529, 742 to 751 and 757 to 760. Two, numbers 742 and 751, are preserved at Haapamäki.
The Swedish State Railways (Statens Järnvägar or SJ) sold its Class Ta and Tb locomotives to Finland in 1942. At the time they were not in traffic in Sweden and, since they were purchased by Finland, they were not considered as war assistance. The Class Ta was designated Class Hr2 in Finland while the Class Tb was designated Class Hr3.
- The Class Hr2 was numbered from 1900 to 1906 and had been built by Swedish builders NOHAB (Nydqvist & Holm AB) and Motala Verkstad in the years from 1901 to 1905. They were withdrawn from service in Finland between 1950 and 1953.
- The Class Hr3 was numbered from 1907 to 1919 and had been built in Sweden by NOHAB, Motala, the Vagn & Maskinfabriks AB in Falun and Nya AB Atlas in Stockholm in the years from 1906 to 1908. The Class Hr3 was withdrawn from service in Finland between 1952 and 1953.
Two 4-6-0T tank locomotive types saw service in France.
The Réseau Breton tank locomotives were a class of 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in) metre gauge locomotives, of which five were built for the Réseau Breton railway by Société Franco-Belge in 1904, at its Raismes factory. A further seven locomotives were built by Société Alsacienne de Constructions Mécaniques (SACM) at its Belfort plant in France in 1909.
The Baldwin Class 10-12-D 600 mm (1 ft 11 5⁄8 in) gauge pannier tank locomotives were built in the United States of America by the Baldwin Locomotive Works for the British War Department Light Railways, for service in France in 1916 and 1917 during World War I. A further batch was built by the American Locomotive Company (Alco). After the war many of these locomotives were sold to work in France, Britain and India.
The 4-6-0 wheel arrangement was very popular on the railroads of German states from the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, when they gradually replaced 4-4-0 American locomotives, initially especially on hilly terrain. In 1925, after the creation of the Deutsche Reichsbahn (DRG), express 4-6-0 passenger locomotives were classified under group 17, while 4-6-0 passenger locomotives were classified under group 38.
In 1894 Baden adopted its IVe class passenger locomotives of Alfred de Glehn design, the first four-cylinder compound 4-6-0 locomotive ever. Altogether 83 were built and later became the DRG class 3870.
- The C V class, of which 43 were built from 1899, later the DRG class 173.
- The S 3/5N class, of which 39 were built from 1903, later the DRG class 174.
- The superheated steam S 3/5H class, of which thirty were built from 1906, later the DGR class 175.
Bavaria only began using 4-6-0 passenger locomotives in 1905.
- The first was the P 3/5 N class, of which 36 were built, later the DRG class 380.
- After a long break, Bavaria ordered a superheated steam P 3/5 H class in 1921. Eighty of these were built and later became the DRG class 384.
The most numerous 4-6-0 series in the world was the Prussian P 8 passenger locomotive, later the DRG class 3810-40, of which 3,556 were built for the Prussian state railways and German railways between 1906 and 1923. Of these, 627 locomotives were given to other countries after World War I. When exports and licensed production in Romania are included, their number reached almost four thousand. (Also see Poland)
- The S 10, of which 202 were built from 1910, later the DRG class 170-1.
- The S 101, of which 237 were built in two batches from 1911, later the DRG class 1710-12.
- The S 102, of which 124 were built from 1914, later the DRG class 172.
From 1906 Saxony used 4-6-0 express freight locomotive classes XII H, XII HV and XII H1, of which 6, 42 and 7 were built respectively. They later became the DRG classes 176, 177 and 178 respectively. All were superheated steam locomotives, differing mostly in engine arrangements.
The only Irish railways to use the 4-6-0 type were the Great Southern & Western Railway (GS&WR) and its larger successor, Great Southern Railways (GSR). The GS&WR had 4-6-0s for both fast freight and express passenger. The culmination of Irish 4-6-0 design was the GSR Class 800 (or B1a) class introduced in 1939, three locos built for top express passenger work on the Dublin-Cork main line, coincidentally resembling the UK's LMS Royal Scot Class as rebuilt, and the last new steam locos built for the GSR.
The New Zealand Railways Department built its first home-built tender locomotives in 1894, using the 4-6-0 wheel arrangement. Designated U class, they were supplemented by units built in the United Kingdom that were sub-classed Ua.
More were built in two batches in the United States of America by Baldwin and ALCO, arriving in 1898 and 1901. The American locomotives were sub-classed Ub. With the exception of a once-off ALCO Richmond type, the American batches were considered highly successful.
A third batch of U class locomotives were imported from the UK, intended for provincial routes and sub-classed Uc. These locomotives were costly to operate, but could be worked hard and found use on the South Island's west coast, where blue bituminous coal was plentiful.
Norwegian State Railways (Smaalensbanen and Merakerbanen) received in 1879 four ten-wheelers with 3-axled tenders from Baldwin Locomotive Works, Philadelphia in USA, which is supposed to be the first ten-wheelers with tender in Europe
The Polish State Railways (PKP) used several classes of Prussian and other German 4-6-0 locomotives. The most significant of these was the Prussian P 8, classified in Poland as the PKP class Ok1. After World War I Poland received as reparations and also bought altogether 257 of these locomotives. After World War II their number rose to 429 locomotives, which made it the most numerous passenger locomotive in Poland. A few were preserved and kept in working condition, including Class Ok1 no. 359. (Also see Germany - Prussia)
A significant number of the Prussian S 10 family of express freight locomotives were also used in Poland. There were fifty-two in total, classified as Pk1, Pk2 and Pk3. (Also see Germany - Prussia)
During the inter-war period a PKP class Ok22 locomotive was designed in cooperation with German builders Hanomag. It was basically an improved class Ok1 with a more efficient boiler. Altogether 190 of them were produced for the PKP, of which all but five were manufactured in Poland.
4-6-0 passenger locomotives became quite popular in Russia at the turn of the century. While the locomotives originally had separate class designations on each Russian railroad, common Russian class designations were introduced in 1912. The Russian 4-6-0s were the A, ADK, AD, AV, V, Zh, Z, G, U, K, B and KU classes.
- The first and most numerous class was the Vladicaucasian Railway’s A class, in the ADK, AD and, the most numerous, AV series. It was a Kolomna factory design, of which 533 were built for several railroads in several Russian and German factories from 1892 until 1907. All were two-cylinder compound locomotives with 1,830-millimetre (72.05-inch) driving wheels.
- In 1896 eighty-eight Baldwin-built four-cylinder Vauclain compound locomotives were introduced, designated V class (V for Vauclain, В in Russian).
- Also from 1896, Henschel-designed locomotives were introduced. Altogether 210 were built from 1896 to 1909, fourteen by Henschel and the rest in Russia. They were two-cylinder compound locomotives with 1,700-millimetre (66.93-inch) driving wheels and were regarded as a more successful design than the A class. These locomotives were later designated as the Zh class (Ж in Russian). A development of the Zh class was the superheated Z class (З in Russian), of which twenty-four were built from 1902.
- From 1901 to 1903 stronger passenger locomotives were built, the G class (Г in Russian). These locomotives were of Vladicaucasian Railway and Bryansk factory design. Thirty-nine were built for the Vladicaucasian Railway and another eighty-five for Eastern Chinese railroads. They were two-cylinder compound locomotives with 1,730-millimetre (68.11-inch) driving wheels. Some of these locomotives were later retrofitted with superheaters.
- class U (У in Russian) was a four-cylinder oil burning De Glehn compound locomotive which first appeared in 1906, initially on the Ryazan-Ural railroad. Sixty-two class U locomotives were built at the Kirov Plant between 1906 and 1916. By the beginning of 1940 the inventory still listed forty-seven U class locomotives and the last of them were withdrawn in 1952. Lenin's locomotive, U class number U-127 that was used during his funeral, is preserved at the Museum of the Moscow Railway.
- Altogether 145 heavier superheated K class (К in Russian) passenger locomotives were built between 1907 and 1912. They were of Kolomna factory design and were two-cylinder simple expansion (simplex) locomotives with 1,700-millimetre (66.93-inch) driving wheels.
- At the same time, the Briansk factory designed an improved superheated development of the G class that was produced between 1907 and 1914 as the B class (Б in Russian). Altogether 252 were built in Briansk and Lugansk. They were two-cylinder simplex locomotives with 1,830 millimetres (72 inches) driving wheels that were quite successful in express work.
- Between 1911 and 1914 Kolomna built thirty-nine stronger KU class locomotives (КУ in Russian) with 1,900 millimetres (75 inches) driving wheels for faster trains.
Eighteen classes of 4-6-0 locomotives saw service in South Africa, sixteen on 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) and two on 2 ft (610 mm) narrow gauge. Of these only one class was a conventional tank locomotive, while two others were delivered as tank-and-tender locomotives with optional tenders.
Between 1879 and 1885 the Natal Government Railways (NGR) placed thirty-seven 4-6-0T tank locomotives in service. Eighteen were built by Kitson and Company and nineteen by Stephenson. On the NGR they were designated Class G. When the SAR was established in 1912, the fifteen unmodified survivors were designated Class C. The last one was withdrawn from service in the mid-1980s after more than 105 years in service.
In 1880 and 1881 the Cape Government Railways (CGR) placed eighteen 4th Class tank-and-tender locomotives in mainline service on its Midland System, working out of Port Elizabeth, and Eastern System working, out of East London. Four of these locomotives were still in service when the South African Railways was established in 1912.:32–34
In 1882 and 1883, the CGR placed 68 4th Class 4-6-0 tank-and-tender locomotives in mainline service on all three systems. It was an improved version of the 4th Class locomotives of 1880 with larger coupled wheels, built by two manufacturers. Robert Stephenson and Company built 33 with Stephenson valve gear, while Neilson and Company built 35 with Joy valve gear. Of these locomotives, 26 were still in service when the South African Railways was established in 1912.:32–36, 81, 108
Four tank-and-tender locomotives of the CGR’s Experimental 4th Class were supplied by Neilson in 1884, built to the design of J.D. Tilney, Locomotive Superintendent of the Cape Eastern System at the time, to be able to use low-grade local coal. They had Joy valve gear and unusual six-wheeled tenders, with the leading axle mounted in a rigid frame and the other two axles mounted in a bogie. One of the locomotives survived until 1912 and was also designated SAR Class O4 as an obsolete locomotive.:35–36
The first twenty of the CGR 5th Class tender locomotives were delivered from Dübs and Company in 1890. In 1891 the CGR placed a second batch of thirty 5th Class tender locomotives in mainline service on all three Cape Systems. They were similar to the previous batch of 1890, but differed in respect of the diameter of their coupled wheels, the length of their smokeboxes and their tractive effort. In 1912, when the South African Railways (SAR) was established, the survivors were considered obsolete and designated Class 05. Nevertheless, some of the Class 05 locomotives survived as shunting engines in SAR service for another four decades. They were the last obsolete locomotives to be still in service when they were eventually withdrawn in 1953.:39–41, 78, 108, 122, 126, 133:20
The Cape 6th Class passenger locomotive was designed at the Salt River works of the CGR, according to the specifications of Michael Stephens, then Chief Locomotive Superintendent of the CGR, and under the supervision of H.M. Beatty, then Locomotive Superintendent of the Cape Western system. It was to become one of the most useful classes to see service in South Africa. In 1912, when they came into SAR stock, the 6th Class 4-6-0 family was reclassified into twelve separate classes.
- Class 6 classification. (Also see Sudan)
- In 1896 and 1897 the CGR acquired a second batch of fifty, built by Dübs and Sharp, Stewart and Company. These locomotives differed from the previous order in having slightly larger boilers with an increased heating surface and higher coal capacity tenders. In 1907 one was sold to the Benguela Railway in Angola. The remaining forty-nine locomotives were designated Class 6A on the SAR in 1912. (Also see Angola - Cape gauge and Sudan)
- Between 1896 and 1898 the OVGS placed twenty-four new Cape Class 6 locomotives in service, built by Dübs, Neilson and Sharp, Stewart. During the Second Boer War these locomotives were taken over by the Imperial Military Railways (IMR) and after the war they became the CSAR Class 6-L2. All but one were assimilated into the SAR in 1912 and were designated Class 6C. (Also see Sudan)
- In 1897 and 1898 the CGR placed a third batch of fifty-five in service, built by Dübs, Neilson and Company and Neilson, Reid and Company. They were virtually identical to the previous fifty, except that they had bogie-wheeled tenders. In 1907 four were sold to the Benguela Railway in Angola. The remaining fifty-one locomotives were designated Class 6B in 1912. (Also see Angola – Cape gauge and Sudan)
- In 1898 a fourth batch of thirty-three were placed in service by the CGR, built by Neilson, Reid. These represented a further advance on earlier 6th Class locomotives, with a greater heating surface and a larger grate area. In 1912 they were classified as Class 6D on the SAR. (Also see Sudan)
- Also in 1898, the OVGS ordered its final six new Cape 6th Class locomotives from Sharp, Stewart. These were delivered with larger cabs than their predecessors and with bogie-wheeled tenders. They were also taken over by the IMR and, after the war, came into the CSAR as Class 6-L3. In 1912 they became Class 6E on the SAR.
- In 1900 two redesigned 6th Class locomotives entered service on the CGR, built by Sharp, Stewart. They had bar frames, larger cabs and bogie-wheeled tenders, and their larger heating surfaces and grate areas allowed a higher boiler pressure rating of 180 pounds per square inch (1,240 kilopascals). In visual appearance they differed from all previous 6th Class locomotives by having higher running boards without driving wheel fairings. In 1912 they were classified as Class 6F on the SAR.
- Schenectady Locomotive Works to the specifications of the CGR. Also built on bar frames like the previous two and similar in appearance, they were larger, with larger boilers and 17 1⁄2 inches (444 millimetres) diameter cylinders compared to the 17 inches (432 millimetres) of all earlier 6th Class locomotives. In 1912 they became Class 6G on the SAR.
- Also in 1901, a batch of twenty-one entered service on the CGR, built by Neilson, Reid to the older plate frame design, but with a larger cab. These also reverted to the 17 inches (432 millimetres) diameter cylinders of the previous British built locomotives, with the lower running boards with driving wheel fairings. One of them was experimental, being equipped with Drummond cross-water tubes in the firebox. However, since the tubes were inclined to leak and were difficult to maintain, they were soon removed. In 1912 these locomotives became the Class 6H on the SAR.
- Ten bar framed locomotives were placed in service, also in 1901, designed and built by the Baldwin Locomotive Works to the specifications of the CGR. They were larger than any of the previous 6th Class locomotives, with larger boilers, large cabs, cylinders of 17 1⁄2 inches (444 millimetres) bore, bar frames, stovepipe chimneys, large domes and high running boards without driving wheel fairings. In 1912 they became Class 6K on the SAR.
- Class 6J on the SAR.
- In 1904 the CGR placed its last two 6th Class bar framed locomotives in service, built by the North British Locomotive Company (NBL). They were experimental and were the first South African locomotives to have piston valves and superheaters. The pistons, with a diameter of 18 1⁄2 inches (470 millimetres), were the largest yet used on the 6th Class. The Schmidt superheater was of the smokebox type, but the arrangement was extremely complicated and not very successful. In 1912 they became the Class 6L on the SAR and in 1915, when they were reboilered, the superheaters were removed to convert them to saturated steam locomotives. At the same time the piston-valve cylinders were replaced with smaller slide-valve cylinders of 17 1⁄2 inches (444 millimetres) bore.
In 1897 the Pretoria-Pietersburg Railway in the Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek (Transvaal Republic) purchased a 35 Tonner tank locomotive with a 4-6-0 wheel arrangement from the Lourenco Marques, Delagoa Bay and East Africa Railway in Mozambique. The locomotive was not classified, but named "Portuguese" and referred to by name.:118–119
In 1903 the CGR placed six "Type B" 4-6-0 locomotives with eight wheeled bogie tenders in service on the Avontuur narrow gauge line in the Langkloof. They were built by W. G. Bagnall and had bar frames, copper fireboxes and Stephenson valve gear. In 1912 they came into SAR stock and in 1914 a further three locomotives with slightly longer boilers were acquired by the SAR. One of these was also built by Bagnall while the other two were built by Kerr, Stuart and Company. These three were commonly referred to as the Improved B. When a system of grouping narrow gauge locomotives into classes was eventually introduced somewhere between 1928 and 1930, they were to be classified as Class NG8 but had already been withdrawn from service.
During 1915 and 1916 the SAR placed six locomotives in service in the Langkloof, built by Baldwin Locomotive Works. They were very similar to the Bagnall built Type B, except that they were equipped with Walschaerts valve gear. They were later classified as Class NG9. Three of them survived in SAR service until April 1951, when they were sold to the Caminhos de Ferro de Moçâmedes (CFM) of Angola. (Also see Angola - Narrow gauge)
During World War II sixteen of the South African Railways (SAR) Classes 6 to 6D were transferred to the Middle East to assist with the war effort during the North African Campaign. The group consisted of seven Class 6, four Class 6A, two Class 6B, one Class 6C and two Class 6D locomotives. They were sold to the Sudan Railways Corporation in 1942. (Also see South Africa - Cape gauge)
The first 4-6-0 locomotive to be introduced in the United Kingdom (UK) was the Highland Railway’s "Jones Goods" class of 1894. Within five years, however, the wheel arrangement was being used primarily on passenger service, since British heavy freight trains were generally too slow to require a locomotive with a four-wheel leading bogie. Between 1906 and 1925 the 4-6-0 became the most common express passenger locomotive type in everyday use in the UK, as a logical development from the 4-4-0 type that was previously used. The 4-6-0 type continued to be used as mixed traffic locomotive until the end of steam in the UK in 1968.
During the pre-grouping era, from 1899 to 1923, Wilson Worsdell of the North Eastern Railway (NER) used the type for his express passenger locomotives, the S and S1 classes of 1899 and 1900 that became the B13 and B14 classes of the London and North Eastern Railway (LNER) in 1923. Soon afterwards, these were followed by the appearance of other designs.
- John G. Robinson of the Great Central Railway (GCR) designed the Class 8 "Fish Engines" of 1902.
- In 1902 and 1903 George Jackson Churchward produced the 2900 "Saint" Class, which was the first in a long line of 4-6-0 classes operated by the Great Western Railway (GWR).
- In 1903 Francis Webb of the London and North Western Railway (LNWR) followed with his unsuccessful four-cylinder compound locomotives of the 1400 "Bill Bailey" class.
- Between 1905 and 1910 altogether 105 locomotives of George Whale’s Experiment Class were built for the LNWR.
Two notable 4-6-0 express passenger designs appeared in 1906. One was the Caledonian Railway’s "Cardean" Class which was, at the time, the most powerful locomotive in Britain. The other was Churchward’s four-cylinder GWR "Star" Class, which was developed and enlarged by Charles Collett as the GWR 4073 "Castle" class in 1923 and later also as the GWR 6000 "King" class in 1927.
Other significant early express 4-6-0 designs included:
- The LNWR’s "Prince of Wales" Class, with 246 locomotives built between 1911 and 1921.
- The LNWR’s "Claughton" Class, with 130 locomotives built between 1913 and 1924.
- The Class S69 of the Great Eastern Railway (GER), with 81 locomotives produced between 1912 and 1928.
Robert Urie of the London and South Western Railway (LSWR) introduced three successful classes, the H15 class mixed traffic locos introduced in 1914 and built until 1924, the N15 "King Arthur" class, with 74 locomotives built between 1919 and 1926, and the S15 class, with 45 locomotives built between 1920 and 1936.
During the post-grouping era, from 1923 to 1948, the 4-6-0 wheel arrangement was used extensively by all of the "Big Four" British railway companies, especially by the Great Western Railway (GWR) and the London, Midland and Scottish Railway (LMS), who continued to develop new designs.
However, from the early 1930s demands for more power and improved performance from express passenger locomotives led to the widespread introduction of 4-6-2 Pacific locomotives, where the trailing axle could support a larger firebox. Since the reduced traction of the driving wheels was not a big disadvantage with relatively light passenger trains, the 4-6-0 was displaced from top-rank express services on most of the railways where they had been used, with the exception of the GWR which continued to build both mixed-traffic and express passenger 4-6-0s until nationalisation in 1948. The GWR’s 4073 "Castle" Class eventually consisted of 171 express passenger locomotives, built between 1923 and 1950. The design was enlarged as the GWR’s 6000 "King" Class, with thirty locomotives built between 1927 and 1930.
Several new mixed traffic 4-6-0s were also introduced:
- The Southern Railway improved the LSWR’s "King Arthur" class and introduced the "Lord Nelson" class, which was briefly the most powerful class in Britain. Sixteen locomotives were built between 1926 and 1929.
- The LMS introduced the 7P "Royal Scot" class, with 71 locomotives built between 1927 and 1930, and the 6P "Patriot" class, with 52 locomotives built between 1930 and 1934. All of the "Royal Scots" and 18 of the "Patriots" were subsequently rebuilt in line with Stanier's practice and were very successful in this form.
- The largest and most successful British 4-6-0 class was the LMS Class 5 "Black Five", designed by William Stanier and consisting of 842 locomotives, built between 1934 and 1951. Stanier also designed the LMS 6P "Jubilee" class, with 191 locomotives built between 1934 and 1936.
Charles Collett of the GWR developed Churchward’s 1902 "Saint" class design into three further classes:
- The GWR 4900 "Hall" class, with 259 locomotives built between 1928 and 1943.
- The GWR 6800 "Grange" class, with eighty locomotives built between 1936 and 1939.
- The GWR 7800 "Manor" class, with thirty locomotives built between 1938 and 1950.
Frederick Hawksworth later developed the "Saint" class design further, first with his GWR 6959 "Modified Hall" Class, with 71 locomotives built between 1944 and 1950, and then with his GWR 1000 "County" Class, with thirty locomotives built between 1945 and 1947.
The LNER inherited large numbers of 4-6-0 locomotives from its constituent companies, many of which were subsequently rebuilt, so that the company ultimately had sixty different classes and sub-classes with this wheel arrangement. In addition, the company also introduced two new 4-6-0 classes:
- The B17 class, designed by Nigel Gresley, of which 73 were built between 1928 and 1937.
- The B1 class, designed by Edward Thompson, of which 410 locomotives were built between 1942 and 1952.
British Railways era
Following the formation of British Railways in 1948, two further 4-6-0 classes were introduced, both in 1951.
- The BR standard class 5 was based on Stanier’s successful LMS "Black Five" of 1934. Altogether 172 locomotives were built by 1957.
- A lighter and less powerful design was the BR standard class 4. Eighty of these were built by 1957.
United States of America
The first 4-6-0 locomotive built in the United States of America (USA) was the "Chesapeake", built by Norris Locomotive Works for the Philadelphia and Reading railroad in March 1847. There are still conflicting opinions as to who the original designer of this type was. Many authorities attribute the design to Septimus Norris of Norris Locomotive Works, but in an 1885 paper George E. Sellers attributes the design to John Brandt, who worked for the Erie Railroad between 1842 and 1851.
- According to Sellers, the Erie's own management didn't feel it in their best interests to pursue construction, so Brandt approached Baldwin Locomotive Works and Norris with the design. Baldwin was similarly uninterested, but Norris liked the idea. James Millholland of the Reading also saw the 4-6-0 design and ordered one from Norris for the Reading. However, Sellers may have misinterpreted some of the information since Millholland did not work for the Reading until 1848, a year after the locomotive was built. Furthermore, Sellers refers to the first 4-6-0 to be constructed as the "Susquehanna", which was the Erie railroad's first 4-6-0, not the Reading’s.
- The attribution to Septimus Norris stems from a patent, allegedly filed in 1846, that many sources cite for this locomotive type. However, such a patent has not yet been found in searches at the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). Septimus Norris did file a patent in 1854 for running gears, and the patent application showed a 4-6-0 wheel arrangement in the drawing. Norris' wording in the 1854 patent was vague with regard to the 4-6-0 wheel arrangement and the filing did not specifically claim invention of the 4-6-0 configuration.
A few days after William Norris completed the "Chesapeake", Hinkley Locomotive Works completed their first 4-6-0 locomotive, the "New Hampshire", for the Boston and Maine Railroad. The first 4-6-0 from Rogers Locomotive and Machine Works was the already mentioned "Susquehanna" for the Erie Railroad. Baldwin's first 4-6-0 locomotive did not appear until 1852.
Through the 1860s and into the 1870s, demand for locomotives of the 4-6-0 wheel arrangement grew as more railroad executives switched from purchasing a single, general-purpose type of locomotive such as the 4-4-0 American at that time, to purchasing locomotives designed for a specific purpose. Both the Pennsylvania Railroad (PRR) and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (B&O) were early adopters of the 4-6-0, using them for fast freight as well as heavy passenger trains.
There were also two 3 ft narrow gauge 4-6-0 steam locomotives, numbers 274 and 275, built by the Baldwin Locomotive Works in May 1925 for the United Railways of Yucatán in Mexico, where they were withdrawn in 1969. They were rescued and purchased by Disney imagineers Roger E. Broggie and Earl Vilmer for $8,000 each to operate the Walt Disney World Railroad circling around the Magic Kingdom at Walt Disney World in Bay Lake, Florida, near Orlando, Florida. No. 274 became no. 1 Walter E. Disney and no. 275 became no. 3 Roger E. Broggie.
As far as is known, the heaviest 4-6-0 ever built was Southern Pacific no. 2371. According to R&LHS Bulletin no. 94 its engine weight was 242,500 lb.
One of the B&O's 4-6-0s, built in 1869, is preserved at the B&O Railroad Museum in Baltimore. Another is at the Museum of Transportation in St. Louis. A third, The Great Northern Railway’s GN 1355, built in 1909 as a 4-6-0 but rebuilt to a 4-6-2 Pacific in 1924, is in Sioux City, Iowa.
The only surviving locomotive of the 3 ft (914 mm) narrow gauge East Tennessee and Western North Carolina Railroad (ET&WNC) is no. 12, a coal-fired 4-6-0 built in 1917 by the Baldwin Locomotive Works. It was originally used to haul passengers and freight over the ET&WNC's 66-mile (106.2 km) line running from Johnson City over the Appalachian Mountains to Boone, North Carolina. Since 1957, it has been in operation at the Tweetsie Railroad theme park in Blowing Rock, North Carolina.
- White, John H., Jr. (1968). A history of the American locomotive; its development: 1830-1880. New York, NY: Dover Publications. p. 57. ISBN 0-486-23818-0
- Kinert, Reed. (1962). Early American steam locomotives; 1st seven decades: 1830-1900. Seattle, WA: Superior Publishing Company.
- Holland, D.F. (1971). Steam Locomotives of the South African Railways, Volume 1: 1859-1910 (1st ed.). Newton Abbott, Devon: David & Charles. pp. 32–34, 36, 39–40, 44–48, 50–52, 54, 56–57, 87–89, 107–108, 126, 133. ISBN 978-0-7153-5382-0.
- Class 6B - Information supplied by Peter Bagshawe
- British Overseas Railways Historical Trust, Journal No. 8 & 9
- Paxton, Leith; Bourne, David (1985). Locomotives of the South African Railways (1st ed.). Cape Town: Struik. pp. 10–11, 19–20, 28, 41–44, 104, 110, 113, 156. ISBN 0869772112.
- Class NG9 - Information supplied by Peter Bagshawe
- Pattison, R.G. (1997). The Cape Seventh Class Locomotives (1st ed.). Kenilworth, Cape Town: The Railway History Group. ISBN 0958400946.
- Rakov, V.A. (1995), Lokomotivy otechestvennyh zheleznyh dorog 1845-1955 (Locomotives of domestic railways 1845-1955), Moscow, ISBN 5-277-00821-7, p.217-238 (in Russian)
- "Réseau Breton 230T". Continental Modeller. Peco Publications (September 2010): 560–564. 2010.
- Horst Obermayer, Manfred Weisbrod: Dampflok-Report: Lokomotiv-Archiv. Band No. 1. Baureihen 01-19, Merker Verlag 1993, ISBN 3-922404-40-5, pp.58-67 (German)
- Horst Obermayer, Manfred Weisbrod, Dampflok-Report: Lokomotiv-Archiv. Band No. 2. Baureihen 22-39, Merker Verlag 1995, ISBN 3-922404-72-3, pp. 44-49 (German)
- Herbert Rauter: Preußen-Report. Band 4: Naßdampf-Personenzuglokomotiven P 0 – pp. 4, 7. Hermann Merker Verlag, 1991, ISBN 3-922404-21-9, pp.76-78 (German)
- Günther Scheingraber, Manfred Weisbrod (1993). Preußen-Report. Band 7: Heißdampf-Personenzuglokomotiven P 6, P 8, P 10 und preußische Tender. Hermann Merker Verlag, ISBN 3-922404-53-7, pp. 32, 36
- Jan Piwowoński: Parowozy kolei polskich, Warsaw: WKiŁ, 1978, p.228 (Polish)
- Sean Miller - The NZR Steam Locomotive, 2011
- Sando, S. (1984). Die ersten 2C-Schlepptender-loks in Europa. In Lok Magazin 128 September/Oktober 1984, p. 344-345.
- Paweł Terczyński (2003): Atlas parowozów (Steam locomotives' atlas), Poznań, ISBN 83-901902-8-1, p. 56-57 (Polish)
- Jan Piwowoński: Parowozy kolei polskich, Warsaw: WKiŁ, 1978, p.148 (Polish)
- C.G.R. Numbering Revised, Article by Dave Littley, SA Rail May–June 1993, pp. 94-95.
- Classification of S.A.R. Engines with Renumbering Lists, issued by the Chief Mechanical Engineer’s Office, Pretoria, January 1912, pp. 27-28. (Reprinted in April 1987 by SATS Museum, R.3125-6/9/11-1000)
- South African Railways and Harbours Locomotive Diagram Book, 2’0” & 3’6” Gauge Steam Locomotives, 15 August 1941, as amended
- Holland, D.F. (1972). Steam Locomotives of the South African Railways, Volume 2: 1910-1955 (1st ed.). Newton Abbott, Devon: David & Charles. pp. 137–138. ISBN 978-0-7153-5427-8.
- Class 6 to 6D sold to Sudan Railways during the WWII North African Campaign, list compiled by Austrian locomotive historian Reimar Holzinger
- The London & North Eastern Railway (LNER) Encyclopedia
- Locomotives of the L.N.E.R. Part 1 Preliminary Survey, Railway Correspondence and Travel Society, 1963, pp. 105-7.
- Broggie, Michael (2014), Walt Disney's Railroad Story: The Small-Scale Fascination That Led to a Full-Scale Kingdom (4th ed.), The Donning Company Publishers, pp. 320–323, 393–394, ISBN 978-1-57864-914-3
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