Anna Seward, by Tilly Kettle, 1762
|Born||12 December 1742
|Died||March 25, 1809
|Notable work||Louisa (1784)|
(1708–4 March 1790)
|Relatives||Sarah ("Sally") (sister)
(b. 17 March 1744–d. 1764)
- 1 Life
- 2 Work
- 3 Selected works
- 4 Legacy
- 5 Notes
- 6 References
- 7 Bibliography
- 8 External links
Seward was the eldest of two surviving daughters of Thomas Seward (1708–1790), prebendary of Lichfield and Salisbury, and author, and his wife Elizabeth. Elizabeth Seward later had three further children (John, Jane and Elizabeth) who all died in infancy, and two stillbirths. Anna Seward mourned their loss in her poem Eyam (1788). Born in 1742 at Eyam, a small mining village in the Peak District of Derbyshire where her father was the rector, she and her sister, Sarah some sixteen months younger than her, passed nearly all their life in the relatively small area of the Peak District of Derbyshire and Lichfield, a cathedral city in the adjacent county of Staffordshire to the west, an area now corresponding to the boundary of the East Midlands and West Midlands regions.
In 1749 her father was appointed to a position as Canon-Residentiary at Lichfield Cathedral and the family moved to that city, where her father educated her entirely at home. They lived in the Bishop's Palace in the Cathedral Close. When a family friend, Mrs. Edward Sneyd, died in 1756, the Sewards took in one of her daughters, Honora Sneyd, who became an 'adopted' foster sister to Anna. Honora was nine years younger than Anna. Anna Seward describes how she and her sister first met Honora, on returning from a walk, in her poem The Anniversary (1769). Sarah (known as 'Sally') died suddenly at the age of nineteen of typhus (1764). Sarah was said to be of admirable character, but less talented than her sister. Anna consoled herself with her affection for Honora Sneyd, as she describes in Visions, written a few days after her sister's death. In the poem she expresses the hope that Honora ('this transplanted flower') will replace her sister (whom she refers to as 'Alinda') in her and her parents affections.[notes 1]
Anna Seward continued to live at the Bishop's Palace all her life, caring for her father during the last ten years of his life, after he had suffered a stroke. When he died in 1790, he left her financially independent with an income of ₤400 per annum. She spent the rest of her life at the Palace, till her death in 1809.
A long-time friend of the Levett family of Lichfield, Seward noted in her Memoirs of the Life of Dr. Darwin (Erasmus) that three of the town's foremost citizens had been thrown from their carriages and had injured their knees in the same year. "No such misfortune," Seward wrote, "was previously remembered in that city, nor has it recurred through all the years which since elapsed."[notes 2]
Education and career
In her early childhood, she was considered a precocious, sensitive redhead, and her bent for learning became evident from the beginning. Canon Seward held progressive views on female education, having authored The Female Right to Literature (1748). Encouraged by her father, she was said to be able to recite the works of Milton by the age of three.
Even at the age of seven when the family moved to Lichfield, she recognised she had a gift for writing. At Lichfield the family lived in the Bishop's Palace which became the centre of a literary circle including Erasmus Darwin, Samuel Johnson and James Boswell, to which Anna was exposed and encouraged to participate as she later relates.[notes 3] Though Canon Seward's (but not his wife's) attitudes towards the education of girls was progressive relative to the times, they were not excessively liberal. Amongst the subjects he taught them was theology and numeracy, and how to read and appreciate poetry, and also how to write and recite poetry. Although this deviated from what were considered ' conventional drawing room accomplishments', the omissions were also notable, including languages and science, although they were left free to pursue their own inclinations. However Anna was not unskilled in the domestic sphere.
Among the many literary figures of the time with which she conversed was Sir Walter Scott who would later publish her poetry posthumously. Her circle also included writers such as Thomas Day, Francis Noel Clarke Mundy, Sir Brooke Boothby and Willie Newton (the Peak Minstrel), and she was considered the leader of a coterie of regional poets, and was influenced by writers such as Thomas Whalley, William Hayley, Robert Southey, Helen Maria Williams, Hannah More and the Ladies of Llangollen. In addition to her literary circle she was involved in the deliberations of the Lunar Society in nearby Birmingham, that would sometimes meet at her father's home. Both Darwin and Day were members of the Lunar Society and the Lichfield coterie, while Seward would correspond with other Lunar members such as Josiah Wedgewood and Richard Lovell Edgeworth.
Between 1775 and 1781, Seward was a guest and participant at the much-mocked salon held by Anna Miller at Batheaston, near Bath. However, it was here that Seward's talent was recognised and her work published in the annual volume of poems from the gatherings, a debt that Seward acknowledged in her Poem to the Memory of Lady Miller (1782).
Seward remained resolutely single throughout her life, despite many offers, and friendships, and was quite outspoken about the institution of marriage, not unlike her heroine in Louisa, a position that would later be echoed in the novels of her step daughter, Maria Edgeworth. She shunned both marriage and sexual love, as inferior to Aristotelian friendship, based more on equality and virtue. However she had friends of both genders, although only seeking romantic relationships with women. In 1985 Lillian Faderman suggested that her orientation was lesbian, although there is little known evidence of either the erotic or sexual, in her relationships, though the term relates more to twentieth rather than eighteenth century concepts of identity. However since 1985 Seward remains within the lesbian poetic canon. However Teresa Barnard argues against this based more on examination of her correspondence than merely her poetry., while more recently Barrett has argued for it, based on other sources.
Much of the literature on Seward's relationship focusses on her childhood friend Honora Sneyd, the sonnets revealing her passion for her when they were together and her despair when Sneyd married Richard Edgeworth. Compared to the correspondence, her sonnets display much more intense emotion such as Sonnet 10 [Honora, shou’d that cruel time arrive] describing her feelings of betrayal. When the Edgeworths returned to Ireland, despair turned to rage, as in Sonnet 14 [Ingratitude, how deadly is thy smart].
She began to write poetry beginning at an early age with the encouragement of her father, a published poet, but against the wishes of her mother. Although at sixteen her father altered his position out of fear she might become a 'learned lady'. Later she received encouragement from Dr Erasmus Darwin, who set up practice in Lichfield in 1756, although their relationship was complex and frequently conflicted.
Her verses, which date from at least 1764 (age 17), include elegies and sonnets, and she also wrote a poetical novel, Louisa (1784), of which five editions were published, however she did not published her first poem till 1780 at the age of 33. Seward's writings, which include a large number of letters, have been called "commonplace". Horace Walpole said she had "no imagination, no novelty." She was praised, however, by Mary Scott, who had written admiringly of her father's attitude to female education.
A number of her poems, particularly the Lichfield poems, were directed towards her friend and 'adopted' sister, Honora Sneyd in a tradition described as 'female friendship poetry'.
In an era when women had to tread carefully in society's orbit, Seward struck a middle ground. In her work, Seward could be alternately arch and teasing, as in her poem entitled Portrait of Miss Levett, on the subject of a Lichfield beauty later married to Rev. Richard Levett. She contributed to Boswell's Life of Samuel Johnson (1791) but was not particularly happy with the way her material was treated by Boswell. Her work was widely circulated.
Correspondence and biography
Anna Seward was a prodigious correspondent and her vast collection of letters was published in six volumes after her death (1811) revealing an encyclopaedic breadth of knowledge of English literature and its development and casting considerable light on the literary culture of the Midlands of her day. Early in life (1762–1768) she used an imaginary friend 'Emma' to express her thoughts, writing thirty–nine letters to her in all. She was recogmised, to varying degrees, as an authority on English literature by her contemporaries, including Walter Scott, Samuel Johnson and Robert Southey. Seward also wrote a biography, Memoirs of the Life of Dr Darwin (1804).
Keenly interested in botany, she was closely associated with the Lichfield Botanical Society (despite the name, composed of only three men, Erasmus Darwin, Sir Brooke Boothby and John Jackson) and published as did the preceding members, anonymously under the name of the Society. Encouraged by Darwin she firmly rejected the conservative backlash to the revelations of Carl Linnaeus' sexual system of plant classification. This was considered unfitting for ladies, whose modesty had to be protected.
"I had heard it was not fit for the female eye. It can only be unfit for the perusal of such females as still believe the legend of their nursery that children are dug out of a parsley-bed; who have never been at church, or looked into a Bible, -and are totally ignorant that in the present state of the world, two sexes are necessary to the production of animals."[notes 4]
This attitude which was to prevail throughout most of the nineteenth century was typified by writers like the Rev. Richard Polwhele, in his poem The Unsex'd Females (1798), although she escaped his personal criticism, being considered to have the proper attitude.
- The Visions, an Elegy (1764)
- The Anniversary (1769)
- Lichfield, an elegy (May 1781)
- Poem to the Memory of Lady Miller (1782)
- Eyam. (August 1788)
- Louisa, A Political Novel in Four Epistles (1784)
- Memoirs of the Life of Dr. Darwin (1804)
- Original Sonnets on Various Subjects: And Odes Paraphrased from Horace (1799)
- Sonnet 10. To Honora Sneyd. [Honora, shou’d that cruel time arrive]
- Sonnet 14 [Ingratitude, how deadly is thy smart]
After her death Sir Walter Scott edited Seward's Poetical Works in three volumes (Edinburgh, 1810). To these he prefixed a memoir of the author, adding extracts from her literary correspondence. Scott's editing demonstrates considerable censorship and he declined to edit the bulk of her letters, which were later published in six volumes by Archibald Constable as Letters of Anna Seward 1784–1807 (1811). Her reputation barely lasted beyond her life, although there has been a renewed interest in the twenty first century. There was a tendency to be dismissive of her work in early twentieth century criticism,  but later, particularly amongst feminist scholars she was seen as a valuable observer of gendered relationships in late eighteenth century society, and played a transitional role between late eighteenth century principles and emerging romanticism. Just as her engagement with the political, cultural and literary issues of the time gives her a role in reflecting the responses of society to those issues. Kairoff, considering her "one of the - in a literal sense - ultimate eighteenth century poets".
- Scott chose to open his collection of Seward's poetry with this poem
- The three victims of the unfortunate carriage accidents were Dr. Erasmus Darwin, Lichfield town clerk Theophilus Levett and Anna Seward herself. (Seward 1804)
- "and being canon of this cathedral, his daughter necessarily converses on terms of equality with the proudest inhabitants of our little city" (Scott 1810, Letter February 1763. vol. I p. lxxiii)
- Seward is defending Erasmus Darwin for attacks on his Temple of Nature (1803), which had been labelled as indecent.
- See the extracts from Seward's will published in The Lady's Monthly Museum (Lady's Monthly 1812, Miss Seward's Will Wednesday 1 April 1812 pp. 190–195)
- Barnard 2013, p. 26.
- Bancroft 2015.
- Roberts 2012.
- Scott 1810, Eyam, vol. III p. 1.
- Roberts 2010.
- Williams 1861, Anne Seward pp. 239–255.
- Edgeworth & Edgeworth 1821a, p. 233.
- Scott 1810, The Anniversary, vol. I p. 68.
- Macdonald, & McWhir 2010, Anna Seward 1742–1809 pp. 82–84.
- Edgeworth & Edgeworth 1821a, p. 232.
- Scott 1810, The Visions, vol. I p. 1.
- Dodsley 1765, Seward, T. The Female Right to Literature Volume 2, pp. 309–315.
- Barnard 2004.
- Barnard 2013, p. 36.
- Barnard 2013, p. 95.
- deLucia 2013.
- Schofield 1963.
- Bowerbank 2015.
- Barnard 2013, p. 14.
- Barrett 2012.
- Faderman 1985.
- Moore et al. 2012, Anna Seward pp. 319–322.
- EB 1911.
- Radcliffe 2015, Mary Scott, "Verses addressed to Miss Seward, on the Publication of her Monody on Major Andre" Gentleman's Magazine 53 (June 1783) 519.
- Scott 1775, p. 38.
- Scott 1810.
- Foster 2007, Lisa Moore: The Swan of Lichfield pp. 259–264.
- Constable 1811, Letter to Mrs. Jackson August 3 1792 Vol.3 p. 156.
- Constable 1811.
- Barnard 2013, 1. 'My Dear Emma': The Juvenile Letters, 1762–1768 pp. 9–38.
- Seward 1804.
- George 2014.
- Shteir 1996, p. 28.
- Constable 1811, Letter to Dr. Lister, June 20 1803. vi. 83.
- Moore 2015.
- Scott 1810, Lichfield, an Elegy May 1781, vol. I p. 89.
- Barnard 2013.
- Clarke 2005.
- Kairoff 2012, Preface p. ix11.
- Kairoff 2012, p. 11.
- Barrett, Redfern Jon (2012). ""My Stand": Queer Identities in the Poetry of Anna Seward and Thomas Gray". Gender Forum (39). Retrieved 17 March 2015.
- Bowerbank, Sylvia (2004). Speaking for nature: women and ecologies of early modern England. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 9780801878725. Retrieved 26 February 2015.
- Faderman, Lillian (1985). Surpassing the love of men: romantic friendship and love between women from the Renaissance to the present. London: Women's Press. ISBN 9780704339774. Retrieved 17 March 2015.* Foster, Thomas A., ed. (2007). Histories of same-sex sexuality in early America. New York: New York Univ. Press. ISBN 9780814727508. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
- Gottlieb, Evan; Shields, Juliet, eds. (2013). Representing place in British literature and culture, 1660-1830 : from local to global. Farnham. ISBN 9781409419303. Retrieved 26 February 2015.
- DeLucia, JoEllen. Mundy’s Needwood Forest and Anna Seward’s Lichfield Poems. pp. 155–172. in Gottlieb & Shields (2013)
- Moore, Lisa L.; Brooks, Joanna; Wigginton, Caroline, eds. (2012). Transatlantic feminisms in the age of revolutions. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199743490. Retrieved 23 February 2015.
- Priestman, Martin (2014). The Poetry of Erasmus Darwin: Enlightened Spaces, Romantic Times. Ashgate. ISBN 9781472419569. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
- Radcliffe, David Hill (2015). "Welcome". English Poetry 1579-1830: Spenser and the tradition. Virginia Tech. Retrieved 26 February 2015.
- Rounce, Adam (2013). Fame and failure 1720-1800 : the unfulfilled literary life. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781107042223. Retrieved 28 February 2015.
- Schofield, R. E. (1963). The Lunar Society, A Social History of Provincial Science and Industry in Eighteenth Century England. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Retrieved 3 March 2015.
- Stafford, William (2002). English Feminists and Their Opponents in the 1790s: Unsex'd and Proper Females. Manchester University Press. ISBN 9780719060823. Retrieved 9 March 2015.
- Uglow, Jenny (2002a). The lunar men: five friends whose curiosity changed the world. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux. ISBN 9780374194406. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
- Uglow, Jenny (5 October 2002b). "Educating Sabrina". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- Dodsley, Robert, ed. (1765) . A collection of Poems in six volumes by Several Hands. London: Dodsley. Retrieved 23 March 2015.
- Edgeworth, Richard Lovell; Edgeworth, Maria (1821a). The Memoirs of Richard Lovell Edgeworth 1 (2nd ed.). London: Hunter, Cradock & Joy. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
- ——; ——— (1821b). The Memoirs of Richard Lovell Edgeworth 2 (2nd ed.). London: Hunter, Cradock & Joy. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
- Lysons, Daniel; Amott, John (1865). Origin and progress of the meeting of the Three Choirs ... Commenced by ... D. Lysons and continued down to the present time by J. Amott. To which is prefixed a view of the condition of the parochial clergy of this kingdom, from the earliest times. London: Cooks & Co. Retrieved 26 February 2015.
- Scott, Mary (1775). The Female Advocate; a poem occasioned by reading Mr. Duncombe's Feminead. London: Joseph Johnson. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
- A Society of Ladies, ed. (1812). "Polite Repository of Amusement and Instruction". The Lady's Monthly Museum, New Series 12. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
- Batchelor, Jennie; Kaplan, Cora, eds. (2005). British women's writing in the long eighteenth century : authorship, politics and history. Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9781403949318. Retrieved 16 March 2015.
- Clarke, Norma. Anna Seward: Swan, Duckling or Goose?. pp. 34–47. In Batchelor & Kaplan (2005)
- Backscheider, Paula R., ed. (2002). Revising women: eighteenth-century "women's fiction" and social engagement. Baltimore, MD, USA: The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 9780801870958. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
- Backscheider, Paula R.; Ingrassia, Catherine E., eds. (2009). British women poets of the long eighteenth century : an anthology. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 9780801892776. Retrieved 11 March 2015.
- Behrendt, Stephen C. (2009). British women poets and the romantic writing community. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 9780801895081. Retrieved 16 March 2015.
- Brewer, John (2013) . The pleasures of the imagination : English culture in the eighteenth century. Chicago, Ill.: Univ. of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226074191. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
- Clarke, Norma (2004). The Rise And Fall Of The Woman Of Letters. London: Random House. ISBN 9781446444986. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
- Jennings, Judith (2006). Gender, religion, and radicalism in the long eighteenth century : the 'Ingenious Quaker' and her connections. Aldershot: Ashgate. ISBN 9780754655008. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
- Lonsdale, Roger, ed. (1990) . Eighteenth century women poets : an Oxford anthology (Paperback ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780192827753. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
- Macdonald, D.L.; McWhir, Anne, eds. (2010). The Broadview anthology of literature of the Revolutionary period, 1770-1832. Peterborough, Ont.: Broadview Press. ISBN 9781551110516. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
- Mark Ockerbloom, Mary (2012). "A Celebration of Women Writers". University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved 6 March 2015.
- Sitter, John, ed. (2001). The Cambridge Companion to Eighteenth-Century Poetry. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521658850. Retrieved 3 March 2015.
- Staves, Susan (2006). A Literary History of Women's Writing in Britain, 1660–1789. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781139458580. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
- Williams, Jane (1861). The Literary Women of England: Including a Biographical Epitome of All the Most Eminent to the Year 1700; & Sketches of the Poetesses to the Year 1850; with Extracts from Their Works, and Critical Remarks. London: Sunders, Otley and Co. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
- Fay, Elizabeth. "The Bluestocking Archive". English Department, UM Boston. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
- "People, Places, and Contexts in Anna Seward's Elegy on Captain Cook". University of Pittsburgh at Greensburg. 2012. Retrieved 6 March 2015.
- Ashmun, M. (1931). The Singing Swan: An Account of Anna Seward and her Acquaintance with Dr Johnson, Boswell and Others of Their Time. New Haven: Yale University Press.
- Bailes, Melissa (2009). "The Evolution of the Plagiarist: Natural History in Anna Seward's Order of Poetics". Eighteenth-Century Life 33 (3): 105–126. doi:10.1215/00982601-2009-005. Retrieved 11 March 2015.
- Barnard, Teresa (2004). "Anna Seward and the Battle for Authorship". Corvey Women Writers on the Web 1796–1834 (1 Summer). Retrieved 28 February 2015.
- Barnard, Teresa (2013). Anna Seward: A Constructed Life: A Critical Biography. Farnham: Ashgate. ISBN 9781409475330. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
- Grundy, Isobel (4 February 2010). "Anna Seward: A Constructed Life, A Critical Biography" (review). Times Higher Education Book Reviews. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
- Clifford, J. L. (1941). "The authenticity of Anna Seward's published correspondence". Modern Philology 39. (1941–1942)
- Dick, M. "A Portrait of Anna Seward". Revolutionary Players. Museums, Libraries and Archives – West Midlands. Retrieved 2008-02-05.
- Kairoff, Claudia Thomas (2012). Anna Seward and the end of the eighteenth century. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 9781421403281. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
- Landseer, Henry. "Possibly Anna Seward, after John Downman" (Portrait). National Portrait Gallery. Retrieved 24 March 2015.
- Lucas, E. V. (1907). A Swan and her Friends. London: Methuen.
- Martin, Stapleton (1909). Anna Seward and Classic Lichfield. Deighton and Co. Retrieved 1 March 2015.
- North, Alix (2007). "Anna Seward 1747-1809". Isle of Lesbos. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
- Pearson, H. (ed.) (1936) The Swan of Lichfield. Being a Selection from the Correspondence of Anna Seward
- Roberts, M. (2005). "Anna Seward – 'The Queen Muse of Britain'". The Female Spectator, Chawton House Library. 9(2), Winter: 1–4.
- Roberts, Marion (December 2010). Close encounters: Anna Seward, 1742–1809, A Woman in provincial cultural life (Master of Letters Thesis, School of Humanities, University of Birmingham). University of Birmingham.
- Roberts, Marion (2012). "Anna Seward" (PDF). Biographies of Women Writers. Chawton House Library. Retrieved 1 March 2015.
- Fara, Patricia (2012). Erasmus Darwin : sex, science, and serendipity. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199582662. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
- George, Sam (June 2005). "‘Not Strictly Proper For A Female Pen’: Eighteenth-Century Poetry and the Sexuality of Botany". Comparative Critical Studies 2 (2): 191–210. doi:10.3366/ccs.2005.2.2.191. Retrieved 23 February 2015.
- George, Sam (30 January 2014). "Carl Linnaeus, Erasmus Darwin and Anna Seward: Botanical Poetry and Female Education". Science & Education 23 (3): 673–694. doi:10.1007/s11191-014-9677-y. Retrieved 23 February 2015.
- Shteir, Ann B. (1996). Cultivating women, cultivating science: Flora's daughters and botany in England, 1760-1860. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-6175-6. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
Works by Seward
- Constable, Archibald, ed. (1811). Letters of Anna Seward: written between the years 1784 and 1807 (6 vols.). Edinburgh: Ramsay.
- Heiland, D. (1992). "Swan songs: the correspondence of Anna Seward and James Boswell". Modern Philology 90 (3): 381–91. doi:10.1086/392085. (1992–1993)
- Moore, Lisa L., ed. (2015). The Collected Poems of Anna Seward (forthcoming July, 2 volumes). Pickering and Chatto. ISBN 978-1848935631.
- Scott, Walter, ed. (1810). The Poetical Works of Anna Seward with Extracts from her Literary Correspondence (3 vols.). Edinburgh: James Ballantyne.
- Seward, Anna (1804). Memoirs of the Life of Dr. Darwin: Chiefly During His Residence in Lichfield: With Anecdotes of His Friends, and Criticisms on His Writing. Philadelphia: W.M. Poyntell. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
- Anonymous (1911). "Seward, Anna". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- Bowerbank, S. "Seward, Anna (1742–1809)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/25135. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- Bancroft, Pat. "Seward, Thomas (1708–1790)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/25136. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- Archival material relating to Anna Seward listed at the UK National Archives
- Works by Anna Seward at Project Gutenberg
- Works by or about Anna Seward at Internet Archive
- Works by Anna Seward at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
- The poetical works of Anna Seward; with extracts from her literary correspondence, Volume 1
- The poetical works of Anna Seward; with extracts from her literary correspondence. Volume 2
- The poetical works of Anna Seward; with extracts from her literary correspondence, Volume 3
- Portrait of Anna Seward, National Portrait Gallery
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