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|Basin countries||Australia, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea|
|Max. length||1,290 km (800 mi)|
|Max. width||560 km (350 mi)|
|Islands||Aru Islands, Croker Island, Goulburn Islands, Howard Island|
The Arafura Sea is bordered by Torres Strait and through that the Coral Sea to the east, the Gulf of Carpentaria to the south, the Timor Sea to the west and the Banda and Ceram seas to the northwest. It is 1,290 kilometres (800 mi) long and 560 kilometres (350 mi) wide. The depth of the sea is primarily 50–80 metres (165–265 feet) with the depth increasing to the west. As a shallow tropical sea, its waters are a breeding ground for tropical cyclones.
The sea lies over the Arafura Shelf, part of the Sahul Shelf. When sea levels were low during the last glacial maximum, the Arafura Shelf, the Gulf of Carpentaria and Torres Strait formed a large flat land bridge connecting Australia and New Guinea and easing migration of humans from Asia into Australia. The combined landmass formed the continent of Sahul.
On the North. The Southeastern limit of the Ceram Sea [A line from Karoefa, New Guinea, to the Southeastern extreme of Adi Island, thence to Tg. Borang, the Northern point of Noehoe Tjoet [Kai Besar] ( )] and the Eastern limit of the Banda Sea [From Tg Borang, the Northern point of Noehoe Tjoet, through this island to its Southern point, thence a line to the Northeast point of Fordata, through this island and across to the Northeast point of Larat, Tanimbar Islands ( ), down the East coast of Jamdena [Yamdena] Island to its Southern point, thence through Anggarmasa to the North point of Selaroe and through this island to Tg Aro Oesoe its Southern point ( )].
On the South. By the North coast of Australia from the Northwest extreme of York Peninsula to Cape Don ().
On the West. A line from Cape Don to Tanjong Aro Oesoe, the Southern point of Selaroe (Tanimbar Islands).
It has been suggested that the name Arafura is of Portuguese origin, being the corruption of the word "Alfours," meaning "free men", but recent research at the Dutch National Archives has revealed AJ van der Aa's 1939 Toponymic Dictionary records "the inhabitants of the Moluccas called themselves "haraforas", translating "Anak anak gunung" as "children of the mountains"."
The Arafura Sea name is from the indigenous name for "the people of mountains" in the Moluccas (part of Indonesia) as identified by Dutch Lieutenants Kolff and Modera in the 1830s."
Thomas Forrest sailed thru the Moluccas in 1775 and retailed reports of "Harafora" people living in the western end of New Guinea in subordination to the "Papuas", and mentioned them also in Magindano (Mindanao). The geographer Conrad Malte-Brun repeated Forrest's reports of a race of "Haraforas", in 1822, adding Borneo to the distribution. The form "Horrafora" was recorded by John Coulter, in his account of a sojourn in the interior of south-west New Guinea in 1835, and applied to the tribespeople there. Coulter concluded that Papuans and Horraforas were two distinct races in New Guinea.
In a world where marine ecosystems and fish stocks are generally collapsing, the Arafura Sea stands out as among the richest marine fisheries in the world. However, the Arafura is coming under ever more intense pressure from illegal, unreported, and unregulated fishing activities. If this trend persists, the many local communities who surround the sea and who depend on fish protein will face a considerable challenge in sustaining their livelihoods.
Increasing economic growth and maintaining environment quality are two main challenges to achieve sustainable development in coastal areas of the sea. Utilization of marine and fisheries resources for economic development of particular area must be conducted in coordinative manner and through appropriate approaches, which take into consideration the sustainable aspects of the environment.
Established in 2002, the Arafura and Timor Seas Expert Forum (ATSEF) seeks to promote economically and environmentally sustainable management of the seas.
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- "Limits of Oceans and Seas, 3rd edition" (PDF). International Hydrographic Organization. 1953. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 October 2011. Retrieved 7 February 2010.
- Earl, George Windsor; Kolff, D. H.; Modera, Justin (1837). "Sailing directions for the Arafura Sea". Hydrographic Office, London.
- Captain Thomas Forrest, A Voyage to New Guinea, and the Moluccas, from Balambangan: &c. (Dublin, 1779).
- M. Malte-Brun, Universal Geography, or a Description of All the Parts of the World on a New Plan, &c. vol. III (Edinburgh, Adam Black, 1822).
- John Coulter, M.D., Adventures on the Western Coast of South America and the Interior of California: including a narrative of incidents at the Kingsmill Islands, New Ireland, New Britain, New Guinea, and other islands in the Pacific Ocean; &c., vol. II (London, Longmans, 1847), chapters 11—16.