Armenia–Croatia relations

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Armenian–Croatian relations
Map indicating locations of Armenia and Croatia

Armenia

Croatia

Armenia–Croatia relations refer to bilateral relations between Armenia and Croatia. Diplomatic relations between the countries were established on 8 July 1996.[citation needed] Armenia is represented in Croatia by its embassy in Rome, Italy, while Croatia is represented in Armenia by its embassy in Athens, Greece. In 2011, both countries have established honorary consulates, Armenia's residing in Zagreb, while Croatia's residing in Yerevan, the capitals of the respective countries.

Armenia is a member of the Eurasian Economic Union (ECU), while Croatia is a member of the European Union (EU). Though, Armenia is a signatory of the European Union Association Agreement.

History[edit]

Republic of Ragusa in present-day Dubrovnik was a center of Croatian-Armenian historical connections. Amongst many foreigners that inhabited Dubrovnik was a number of Armenians. Also, Ragusans celebrate Saint Blaise, a fourth century Armenian saint from Sivas as a patron-saint of their city. Also, other two patron saints of Dubrovnik, Zenobios and Zenobia, were Armenian saints from Cilicia, and Ragusans also observe a cult of the Forty Martyrs of Sebaste. Ragusan bishop Raimondo Gallani (Croatian: Rajmund Jelić) was archbishop of Ankara and apostolic Vicar of Istanbul at the beginning of the 18th century. Gallani corresponded with Mkhitar Sebastatsi, the founder of the well-known Mekhitarist Order. The Ragusans cared for Catholics in the Ottoman Empire, including those in Armenia.[1]

A Croatian Jesuit from Perast, Father Josip Marinović, wrote Dissertazione polemico-critica sopra due dubbi di coscienza concernenti gli armeni cattolici, in 1783, at the request of a wealthy Armenian banker, Giovanni de Serpos. In the dissertation, Marinović defends Armenian Catholics in the Ottoman Empire who received the sacraments from the Monophysite Armenian Apostolic Church, which part of the clergy in Rome disapproved. Marinović wrote that Armenians had papal approval for performing rites in monophysite churches, as well as attending an Armenian rite mass, giving to charities, and observing holidays based on the Armenian calendar.[2]

During a theological debate, Marinović wrote a three-volume work with more than 1,600 pages titled Compendino storico di memorie cronologiche concernenti la religione e la morale della nazione Armena, which was to be the first modern history of Armenians written in the West. In his work, Marinović wrote about Armenian geography, a review of a political and church history of Armenia, the history of their catholicoi and synods, and a review of Armenian customs and other political and religious matters.[3]

Marinović's work influenced a final political and ecclesiastical solution to the problem of Armenian Catholics. With help from the Austrian and Russian Empire, the Vatican gained a recognition of Armenian Catholics in the Ottoman Empire and founded their Archeparchy in Istanbul in 1830.[4] Marinović's work laid a foundation for modern research of Armenian history.[5]

Mekhitarists in Vienna, present-day Austria, published some 200 books in the Croatian language in the fields of humanist and natural sciences. They also published a Croatian nationalist political journal Novi pozor between 1867 and 1869. Among notable Croatian authors whose books were published by the Michtarists in Vienna were Vjekoslav Babukić, Dimitrija Demeter, Juraj Haulik, Vjekoslav Klaić, Antun Mažuranić, Matija Mesić, Ilija Okrugić, Josip Juraj Strossmayer, Bogoslav Šulek, Josip Torbar and others.[6]

Representation[edit]

Armenia recognised Croatia as an independent country on 21 June 1994, while diplomatic relations between the countries were established on 8 July 1996.[7] Armenia is represented in Croatia by its embassy in Rome, Italy Croatia is represented in Armenia by its embassy in Athens, Greece,[8] Both countries have honorary consulates.

Treaties[edit]

Armenia and Croatia have signed three agreements and one protocol:[9][10]

Agreement Signatories Date of conclusion Date of entry into force Place
Protocol on cooperation between the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Croatia and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Armenia Armenia Vahan Papazian, Foreign Minister
Croatia Mate Granić, Foreign Minister
14 September 1996 14 September 1996 Zagreb, Yerevan
Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Croatia and the Government of the Republic of Armenia on mutual abolishing of visa requirements for holders of diplomatic and service passports Armenia Levon Ter-Petrosyan, President
Croatia Franjo Tuđman, President
16 June 1997 25 December 1999 Zagreb, Yerevan
Agreement between the Republic of Croatia and the Republic of Armenia for the avoidance of double taxation and the prevention of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes on income Armenia Serzh Sargsyan, President
Croatia Stjepan Mesić, President
22 May 2009 - Yerevan
Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Croatia and the Government of the Republic of Armenia on Co-operation in the Fields of Culture, Education and Science Armenia Serzh Sargsyan, President
Croatia Stjepan Mesić, President
22 May 2009 18 February 2010 Yerevan
References: Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Armenia;[9] Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs of the Republic of Croatia[10]

Trade[edit]

Year Armenia's export to Croatia (in thousands of $) Croatia's export to Armenia (in thousands of $)
2011 1,084.5 1,485.9
2012 746.7 2,293.0
2013 96.3 2,650.4
2014 60.9 1,350.7
Reference: Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Armenia[9]

High level visits[edit]

Visits to Armenia Visits to Croatia
Date Visitor References Date Visitor References
22 May 2009 Stjepan Mesić, Croatia's President [11] 22–23 October 2003 Vartan Oskanian, Armenia's Foreign Minister [12]
20–21 March 2011 Luka Bebić, Croatia's Speaker of the Parliament [13] 7–8 September 2009 Serzh Sargsyan, Armenia's President [14]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

Journals[edit]

  • Bagdasarov, Artur; Lupis, Vinicije (2014). "Armenski narod, Armenska Apostolska Crkva i doprinos armenskih katolika hrvatskoj kulturi". Crkva u svijetu (in Croatian). Split: Katolički bogoslovni fakultet Sveučilišta u Splitu. 49 (4). ISSN 0352-4000. 
  • Lupis, Vinicije (2009). "O armensko-hrvatskim kontaktima". Društvena istraživanja (in Croatian). Zagreb: Institut za primijenjena društvena istraživanja. 18 (1/2 (99-100)). ISSN 1330-0288. 

News reports[edit]

Other sources[edit]