|Type||Japanese new religious movement|
|Classification||Buddhist new religious movement|
|Theology||Western millenarianism/millennialism (formerly)|
|Separations||Hikari no Wa (2008), Yamada's Club, Keroyon Club|
|Members||Approximately 1,650 (2011)|
|Other name(s)||Aum Shinrikyo (オウム真理教, Oumu Shinrikyō) (1984–2007)|
Aleph (Japanese: アレフ, Hepburn: Arefu), formerly Aum Shinrikyo (オウム真理教, Oumu Shinrikyō, literally 'Supreme Truth'), is a Japanese doomsday cult founded by Shoko Asahara in 1987. It carried out the deadly Tokyo subway sarin attack in 1995 and was found to have been responsible for the Matsumoto sarin attack the previous year.
The group says that those who carried out attacks did so secretly, without being known to other executives and ordinary believers. Asahara insisted on his innocence in a radio broadcast relayed from Russia and directed toward Japan.
On 6 July 2018, after exhausting all appeals, Asahara and six followers were executed as a punishment for the 1995 attacks and other crimes, and the remaining six on death row were executed on 26 July. At 12:10 am, on New Year's Day 2019, at least nine people were injured (one seriously) when a car was deliberately driven into crowds celebrating the new year on Takeshita Street in Tokyo. Local police reported the arrest of Kazuhiro Kusakabe, the suspected driver, who allegedly admitted to intentionally ramming his vehicle into crowds to protest his opposition to the death penalty, specifically in retaliation for the execution of the aforementioned Aum cult members.
Aum Shinrikyo, which split into Aleph and Hikari no Wa in 2007, had already been formally designated a terrorist organization by several countries, including Russia, Canada, Kazakhstan, as well as the European Union. It was previously designated by the United States as a terrorist organization until 2022, when the State Department determined the group to be largely defunct as a terrorist organization.
The Public Security Intelligence Agency considered Aleph and Hikari no Wa to be branches of a "dangerous religion" and it announced in January 2015 that they would remain under surveillance for three more years. The Tokyo District Court canceled the extension to surveillance of Hikari no Wa in 2017 following legal challenges from the group, but continued to keep Aleph under watch. The government appealed the cancellation, and in February 2019, the Tokyo High Court overturned the lower court's decision, reinstating the surveillance, citing no major changes between Aum Shinrikyo and Hikari no Wa.
Shinrikyo Aum is a syncretic belief system that draws upon Asahara's idiosyncratic interpretations of elements of early Indian Buddhism and Tibetan Buddhism, as well as Hinduism, taking Shiva as the main image of worship; it also incorporates Christian millennialist ideas, the theory and practice of yoga, and the writings of Nostradamus. Its founder, Chizuo Matsumoto, claimed that he sought to restore "original Buddhism" but employed Christian millennialist rhetoric. In 1992, Matsumoto, who had changed his name to Shoko Asahara, published a foundational book, declaring himself to be "Christ", Japan's only fully enlightened master, as well as identifying himself as the "Lamb of God".
Asahara's purported mission was to take upon himself the sins of the world, and he claimed he could transfer spiritual power to his followers and ultimately take away their sins and bad deeds. While some reject Aum Shinrikyo's claims of Buddhist characteristics and affiliations with Buddhism, other scholars refer to it as an offshoot of Japanese Buddhism, and this was how the movement generally defined and saw itself.
According to Robert Jay Lifton, an American psychiatrist and author:
Humanity would end, except for the elite few who joined Aum. Aum's mission was not only to spread the word of salvation, but also to survive these End Times. Asahara predicted the gathering at Armageddon would happen in 1997. Kaplan notes that in his lectures, Shoko Asahara referred to the United States as "The Beast" from the Book of Revelation, predicting it would eventually attack Japan. Asahara outlined a doomsday prophecy, which included a Third World War instigated by the U.S.
Arthur Goldwag, author of a book on conspiracies and secret societies, characterizes Asahara as someone who was influenced by conspiratorial writings about Jews, Freemasons and the British royal family.
In the opinion of Daniel A. Metraux, Aum Shinrikyo justified its violence through its own unique interpretation of Buddhist ideas and doctrines, such as the Buddhist concepts of Mappō and Shōbō. Aum claimed that by bringing about the end of the world, they would restore Shōbō. Furthermore, Lifton believes, Asahara "interpreted the Tibetan Buddhist concept of phowa in order to claim that by killing someone contrary to the group's aims, they were preventing them from accumulating bad karma and thus saving them".[page needed]
The name "Aum Shinrikyo" (オウム真理教, Oumu Shinrikyō), usually rendered in English as "Aum Supreme Truth", derives from the Sanskrit syllable Aum, used to represent the universe, followed by the Japanese Shinrikyo (meaning, roughly, "Teaching of Truth") written in kanji. (In Japanese, kanji are often used to write both Sino-xenic and native Japanese words, but only rarely to transcribe direct borrowings from other languages.)
The movement was founded by Shoko Asahara in his one-bedroom apartment in Tokyo's Shibuya ward in 1987, starting off as a yoga and meditation class known as Oumu Shinsen no Kai (オウム神仙の会, "Aum Immortal Mountain Wizard Association") and steadily grew in the following years. It gained official status as a religious organization in 1989 and attracted a considerable number of graduates from Japan's elite universities, thus being dubbed a "religion for the elite".
|Ideology||World salvation based on the teachings of Aum Shinrikyo|
|Candidates in the 1990 Japanese general election|
25 / 512
Although Aum was, from the beginning, considered controversial in Japan, it was not initially associated with serious crimes. It was during this period that Asahara became obsessed with Biblical prophecies. Aum's public relations activities included publishing comics and animated cartoons that attempted to tie its religious ideas to popular anime and manga themes, including space missions, powerful weapons, world conspiracies, and the quest for ultimate truth. Aum published several magazines including Vajrayana Sacca and Enjoy Happiness, adopting a somewhat missionary attitude.
Isaac Asimov's science fiction Foundation Trilogy was referenced "depicting as it does an elite group of spiritually evolved scientists forced to go underground during an age of barbarism so as to prepare themselves for the moment...when they will emerge to rebuild civilization". Lifton posited that Aum's publications used Christian and Buddhist ideas to impress what he considered to be the more shrewd and educated Japanese who were not attracted to boring, purely traditional sermons.: 258
In private, both Asahara and his top disciples reportedly continued their humble lifestyles, the only exception being the armored Mercedes-Benz gifted by a wealthy follower.
Advertising and recruitment activities, dubbed the "Aum Salvation plan", included claims of curing physical illnesses with health improvement techniques, realizing life goals by improving intelligence and positive thinking, and concentrating on what was important at the expense of leisure. This was to be accomplished by practicing ancient teachings, accurately translated from original Pali sutras (these three were referred to as "threefold salvation"). These efforts resulted in Aum becoming one of the fastest-growing religious groups in Japan's history.
David E. Kaplan and Andrew Marshall, in their 1996 book, The Cult at the End of the World: The Terrifying Story of the Aum Doomsday Cult, from the Subways of Tokyo to the Nuclear Arsenals of Russia, claim that its practices remained secret. Initiation rituals, assert the authors of the book, often involved the use of hallucinogens, such as LSD. Religious practices often involved extremely ascetic practices claimed to be "yoga". These included everything from renunciants being hung upside down to being given shock therapy.
Incidents before 1995
|Commanders and leaders|
|Tomiichi Murayama||Shoko Asahara|
Riot Police Unit
1st Airborne Brigade
|Casualties and losses|
(later 13 executed)
The cult started attracting controversy in the late 1980s with accusations of deception of recruits, holding cult members against their will, forcing members to donate money and murdering a cult member who tried to leave in February 1989.
In October 1989, the group's negotiations with Tsutsumi Sakamoto, an anti-cult lawyer threatening a lawsuit against them which could potentially bankrupt the group, failed. In the same month, Sakamoto recorded an interview for a talk show on the Japanese TV station TBS. The network then had the interview secretly shown to the group without notifying Sakamoto, intentionally breaking protection of sources. The group then pressured TBS to cancel the broadcast. The following month Sakamoto, his wife and his child went missing from their home in Yokohama. The police were unable to resolve the case at the time, although some of his colleagues publicly voiced their suspicions of the group. It was not until after the 1995 Tokyo attack that they were found to have been murdered and their bodies dumped in separate locations by cult members.
Kaplan and Marshall allege in their book that Aum was also connected with such activities as extortion. The group, authors report, "commonly took patients into its hospitals and then forced them to pay exorbitant medical bills".
The cult is known to have considered assassinations of several individuals critical of the cult, such as the heads of Buddhist sects Soka Gakkai and The Institute for Research in Human Happiness. After cartoonist Yoshinori Kobayashi began satirizing the cult, he was included on Aum's assassination list. An assassination attempt was made on Kobayashi in 1993.
In July 1993, cult members sprayed large amounts of liquid containing Bacillus anthracis spores from a cooling tower on the roof of Aum Shinrikyo's Tokyo headquarters. However, their plan to cause an anthrax epidemic failed. The attack resulted in a large number of complaints about bad odors but no infections.
At the end of 1993, the cult started secretly manufacturing the nerve agent sarin and, later, VX. Aum tested its sarin on sheep at Banjawarn Station, a remote pastoral property in Western Australia, killing 29 sheep. Both sarin and VX were then used in several assassinations (and attempts) over 1994–95.
On the night of 27 June 1994, the cult carried out a chemical weapons attack against civilians when they released sarin in the central Japanese city of Matsumoto, Nagano. With the help of a converted refrigerator truck, members of the cult released a cloud of sarin which floated near the homes of judges who were overseeing a lawsuit concerning a real-estate dispute which was predicted to go against the cult. This Matsumoto incident killed eight and harmed 500 more. Police investigations focused only on an innocent local resident, Yoshiyuki Kouno, and failed to implicate the cult at the time. It was only after the Tokyo subway attack that Aum Shinrikyo was discovered to be behind the Matsumoto sarin attack.
At the end of 1994, the cult broke-into the Hiroshima factory of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, in an attempt to steal technical documents on military weapons such as tanks and artillery.
In December 1994 and January 1995, Masami Tsuchiya of Aum Shinrikyo synthesized 100 to 200 grams of VX which was used to attack three people. Two people were injured and a 28-year-old man was killed. He is believed to be the first fully documented victim of VX. The VX victim, who Shoko Asahara had suspected was a spy, was attacked at 7:00 a.m. on 12 December 1994, on the street in Osaka by Tomomitsu Niimi and another Aum member, who sprinkled the nerve agent on his neck. He chased them for about 100 yards (91 m) before collapsing, dying 10 days later without coming out of a deep coma. Doctors in the hospital suspected at the time he had been poisoned with an organophosphate pesticide. But the cause of death was pinned down only after cult members arrested for the subway attack in Tokyo in March 1995 confessed to the killing. Ethyl methylphosphonate, methylphosphonic acid, and diisopropyl-2-(methylthio) ethylamine were later found in the body of the victim. Unlike the cases for sarin (Matsumoto incident and Sarin gas attack on the Tokyo subway), VX was not used for mass murder.
In February 1995, several cult members kidnapped Kiyoshi Kariya, a 69-year-old brother of a member who had escaped, from a Tokyo street and took him to a compound in Kamikuishiki near Mount Fuji, where he was killed. His corpse was destroyed in a microwave-powered incinerator and the remnants disposed of in Lake Kawaguchi. Before Kariya was abducted, he had been receiving threatening phone calls demanding to know the whereabouts of his sister, and he had left a note saying, "If I disappear, I was abducted by Aum Shinrikyo".
Police made plans to simultaneously raid cult facilities across Japan in March 1995. Prosecutors alleged Asahara was tipped off about this and that he ordered the Tokyo subway attack to divert police.
Meanwhile, Aum had also attempted to manufacture 1,000 assault rifles, but only completed one. According to the testimony of Kenichi Hirose at the Tokyo District Court in 2000, Asahara wanted the group to be self-sufficient in manufacturing copies of the Soviet Union's main infantry weapon, the AK-74; one rifle was smuggled into Japan, to be studied so that Aum could reverse engineer and mass-produce the AK-74. Police seized AK-74 components and blueprints from a vehicle used by an Aum member on April 6, 1995.
On the morning of 20 March 1995, Aum members released a binary chemical weapon, most closely chemically similar to sarin, in a coordinated attack on five trains in the Tokyo subway system, killing 13 commuters, seriously injuring 54 and affecting 980 more. Some estimates claim as many as 6,000 people were injured by the sarin. It is difficult to obtain exact numbers since many victims are reluctant to come forward.
Prosecutors allege that Asahara was tipped off by an insider about planned police raids on cult facilities and ordered an attack in central Tokyo to divert police attention away from the group. The attack evidently backfired, and police conducted huge simultaneous raids on cult compounds across the country.
Over the next week, the full scale of Aum's activities was revealed for the first time. At the cult's headquarters in Kamikuishiki on the foot of Mount Fuji, police found explosives, chemical weapons, and a Russian Mil Mi-17 military helicopter. While the finding of biological warfare agents such as anthrax and Ebola cultures was reported, those claims now appear to have been widely exaggerated. There were stockpiles of chemicals that could be used for producing enough sarin to kill four million people.
Police also found laboratories to manufacture drugs such as LSD, methamphetamine, and a crude form of truth serum, a safe containing millions of U.S. dollars in cash and gold, and cells, many still containing prisoners. During the raids, Aum issued statements claiming that the chemicals were for fertilizers. Over the next six weeks, over 150 cult members were arrested for a variety of offenses. The media was stationed outside Aum's Tokyo headquarters on Komazawa Dori in Aoyama for months after the attack and arrests waiting for action and to get images of the cult's other members. On 30 March 1995, Takaji Kunimatsu, chief of the National Police Agency, was shot four times near his house in Tokyo and was seriously wounded. While many suspected Aum involvement in the shooting, the Sankei Shimbun reported that Hiroshi Nakamura is suspected of the crime, but nobody has been charged.
On 23 April 1995, Hideo Murai, the head of Aum's Ministry of Science, was stabbed to death outside the cult's Tokyo headquarters amidst a crowd of about 100 reporters, in front of cameras. The man responsible, a Korean member of Yamaguchi-gumi, was arrested and eventually convicted of the murder. His motive remains unknown. On the evening of 5 May, a burning paper bag was discovered in a toilet in Tokyo's busy Shinjuku station. Upon examination it was revealed that it was a hydrogen cyanide device which, had it not been extinguished in time, would have released enough gas into the ventilation system to potentially kill 10,000 commuters. On 4 July, several undetonated cyanide devices were found at other locations in the Tokyo subway.
During this time, numerous cult members were arrested for various offenses, but arrests of the most senior members on the charge of the subway gassing had not yet taken place. In June, an individual unrelated to Aum had launched a copycat attack by hijacking All Nippon Airways Flight 857, a Boeing 747 bound for Hakodate from Tokyo. The hijacker claimed to be an Aum member in possession of sarin and plastic explosives, but these claims were ultimately found to be false.
Asahara was finally found hiding within a wall of a cult building known as "The 6th Satian" in the Kamikuishiki complex on 16 May and was arrested. On the same day, the cult mailed a parcel bomb to the office of Yukio Aoshima, the governor of Tokyo, blowing off the fingers of his secretary's hand. Asahara was initially charged with 23 counts of murder and 16 other offenses. The trial, dubbed "the trial of the century" by the press, ruled Asahara guilty of masterminding the attack and sentenced him to death. The indictment was appealed unsuccessfully. A number of senior members accused of participation, such as Masami Tsuchiya, also received death sentences.
The reasons why a small circle of mostly senior Aum members committed atrocities and the extent of personal involvement by Asahara remain unclear, although several theories have attempted to explain these events. In response to the prosecution's charge that Asahara ordered the subway attacks to distract authorities, the defense maintained that Asahara was not aware of events, pointing to his deteriorating health. Shortly after his arrest, Asahara abandoned his post as the organization's leader, and maintained silence afterward, refusing to communicate even with lawyers and family members.
On 21 June 1995, Asahara acknowledged that in January 1994 he ordered the killing of a sect member, Kotaro Ochida, a pharmacist at an Aum hospital. Ochida, who tried to escape from a sect compound, was held down and strangled by another Aum member who was allegedly told that he too would be killed if he did not strangle Ochida. On 10 October 1995, Aum Shinrikyo was ordered stripped of its official status as a "religious legal entity" and was declared bankrupt in early 1996. However, the group continues to operate under the constitutional guarantee of freedom of religion, funded by a successful computer business and donations, and under strict surveillance. Attempts to ban the group altogether under the 1952 Subversive Activities Prevention Law were rejected by the Public Security Examination Commission in January 1997.
The group underwent a number of transformations in the aftermath of Asahara's arrest and trial. For a brief time, Asahara's two preteen sons officially replaced him as guru. It re-grouped under the new name "Aleph" in February 2000. It announced a change in doctrine: religious texts related to controversial Vajrayana Buddhist doctrines and the Bible were removed. The group apologized to the victims of the sarin gas attack and established a special compensation fund. Provocative publications and activities that alarmed society are no longer published.
Fumihiro Joyu, one of the few senior leaders of the group under Asahara who did not face serious charges, became official head of the organization in 1999. Kōki Ishii, a legislator who formed an anti-Aum committee in the National Diet in 1999, was murdered in 2002.
For over 15 years, only three fugitives were being actively sought. At 11:50 p.m. on 31 December 2011, Makoto Hirata surrendered himself to the police and was arrested on suspicion of being involved in the 1995 abduction of Kiyoshi Kariya, a non-member who had died during an Aum kidnapping and interrogation. On 3 June 2012, police captured Naoko Kikuchi, the second fugitive, acting on a tip from local residents.
Acting on information from the capture of Kikuchi, including recent photographs showing a modified appearance, the last remaining fugitive, Katsuya Takahashi, was captured on 15 June 2012. He is said to have been the driver in the Tokyo gas attack and was caught in Tokyo, having been on the run for 17 years.
On 6 July 2018, Asahara and six other Aum Shinrikyo members were executed by hanging. Japan's Justice Minister Yōko Kamikawa stated that the crimes "plunged people, not only in Japan but in other countries as well, into deadly fear and shook society to its core." Amnesty International criticized use of the death penalty in the case. While executions are rare in Japan, they have public support according to surveys. There were 13 members on death row at the time:
Aum Shinrikyo members executed on 6 July 2018:
- Shoko Asahara, leader of Aum Shinrikyo
- Yoshihiro Inoue, Aum's "head of intelligence" and chief coordinator of the Tokyo subway attack
- Tomomitsu Niimi, the getaway driver for Ikuo Hayashi, one of the perpetrators of the Tokyo subway attack
- Tomomasa Nakagawa, a perpetrator of the Sakamoto family murder
- Kiyohide Hayakawa, Aum's "construction minister", convicted of strangling a young cult member in 1989 suspected of dissidence
- Seiichi Endo, the "head scientist" of Aum Shinrikyo
- Masami Tsuchiya, Aum Shinrikyo's chief chemist and director of the sarin gas manufacturing
- Yasuo Hayashi, a perpetrator of the Tokyo subway attack
- Kenichi Hirose, a perpetrator of the Tokyo subway attack
- Toru Toyoda, a perpetrator of the Tokyo subway attack
- Masato Yokoyama, a perpetrator of the Tokyo subway attack
- Kazuaki Okazaki, a perpetrator of the Sakamoto family murder
- Satoro Hashimoto, a perpetrator of the Sakamoto family murder
Shoko Asahara's ashes will be collected by his youngest daughter according to his will. She urged her relatives and cult members to "put an end to the Aum and stop hating society". The ashes will be kept at the detention center for the time being for fears of reprisals from other elements of the cult.
According to a June 2005 report by the National Police Agency, Aleph had approximately 1,650 members, of whom 650 lived communally in compounds. The group operated 26 facilities in 17 prefectures, and about 120 residential facilities. An article in the Mainichi Shimbun newspaper on 11 September 2002 showed that the Japanese public still mistrusts Aleph, and compounds are usually surrounded by protest banners from local residents.
In January 2000, the group was placed under surveillance for a period of three years under an anti-Aum law, in which the group was required to submit a list of members and details of assets to the authorities. In the same year, a Russian member was arrested for plotting a bombing attack as part of a plan to rescue Asahara from police custody.
In January 2003, Japan's Public Security Intelligence Agency received permission to extend the surveillance for another three years, as they found evidence which suggested that the group still revered Asahara. According to the Religious News Blog report issued in April 2004, the authorities still considered the group "a threat to society".
On 15 September 2006, Shoko Asahara lost his final appeal against the death penalty. The following day Japanese police raided the offices of Aleph in order to "prevent any illegal activities by cult members in response to the confirmation of Asahara's death sentence". Thirteen cult members were eventually sentenced to death.
On 8 March 2007, Fumihiro Joyu, former Aum Shinrikyo spokesman and head of Aum's Moscow operation, formally announced a long-expected split. Joyu's group, called Hikari no Wa ("The Circle of Light"), claims to be committed to uniting science and religion and creating "the new science of the human mind", having previously aimed to move the group away from its criminal history and toward its spiritual roots.
In April 2011, the Public Security Intelligence Agency stated that Aum had about 1,500 members. In July 2011, the cult reported its membership as 1,030. The group was reportedly active in trying to recruit new members via social media and proselytizing on college campuses.
Japan's Public Security Examination Commission announced in January 2015 that Aum Shinrikyo's two spinoffs would remain under surveillance for three more years starting 1 February 2015.
In 2014, The Japan Times alleged that "good looks and commitment to a cause", demonstrated by Aleph, "inspire a new generation of admirers". Dissatisfaction with society and low degrees of success in life make them "identify with the cult" and "adore the cultists as if they were pop idols".
2013 investigation and media coverage
Sometime after April 2013, the Public Security Intelligence Agency took a photograph inside of Aleph's facilities. In this photograph, a bundle of papers is pierced with a knife on an altar-like object. The papers included photographs of PSIA employees and directors, police officers, and lawyer Taro Takimoto, who helped followers leave Aum Shinrikyo. At least at this point in time, Aleph still displayed portraits of Shoko Asahara and demanded followers' dependence using videos of Asahara.
2016 Russian crackdown
On 5 April 2016, the Investigative Committee of Russia announced it opened a criminal case against Aum Shinrikyo followers and that its investigators, along with Federal Security Service (FSB) forces, were conducting raids in Moscow and Saint Petersburg to find them and confiscate literature, religious items and electronic information. On 20 September 2016, the Russian government banned Aum Shinrikyo in the country, declaring it a terrorist organization.
2017 Aleph raids
In November 2017, Japanese police raided five offices of Aleph in an investigation into the group's recruiting practices after a woman paid tens of thousands of yen for study sessions.
2019 Tokyo car attack
On 1 January 2019, in Tokyo, Aum sympathizer Kazuhiro Kusakabe told authorities he intentionally rammed into pedestrians crowded into narrow Takeshita Street in Harajuku district as a terrorist attack in "retaliation for an execution". It remains unclear whether he was referencing the 2018 executions of Aum Shinrikyo doomsday cult members directly or making a broader statement. The attack, on New Year's Day, left eight injured. A ninth person was also directly injured by the driver.
- Governmental lists of cults and sects
- List of Buddha claimants
- List of dates predicted for apocalyptic events
- List of designated terrorist groups
- List of messiah claimants
- List of new religious movements
- List of people claimed to be Jesus
- Yoshihiro Yasuda, a lawyer who represented Shoko Asahara
- Masaki Kito, a lawyer who represents Aum victims
- New religious movement
- Religious terrorism
- Religious violence
- Buddhism and violence
- Guhyasamāja Tantra
- Schools of Buddhism
- "オウム真理教対策（警察庁）". 25 July 2011. Archived from the original on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 6 July 2018.
- Senate Government Affairs Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations (31 October 1995). "VI. Overseas Operations: Global Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction: A Case Study on the Aum Shinrikyo". FAS.org. Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 24 December 2015.
- Ramzy, Austin (5 July 2018). "Japan Executes Cult Leader Behind 1995 Sarin Gas Subway Attack". The New York Times.
- "Tokyo Sarin attack: Aum Shinrikyo cult leaders executed". BBC News. 6 July 2018. Retrieved 12 July 2018.
- "Tokyo Sarin attack: Japan executes last Aum Shinrikyo members on death row". BBC News. 26 July 2018.
- "Единый федеральный список организаций, в том числе иностранных и международных организаций, признанных в соответствии с законодательством Российской Федерации террористическими :: Федеральная Служба Безопасности". www.fsb.ru. Retrieved 24 December 2021.
- "Order Recommending that Each Entity Listed as of 23 July 2004, in the Regulations Establishing a List of Entities Remain a Listed Entity". Canada Gazette. Government of Canada. Part II, 138 (24). 22 March 2006. Archived from the original on 10 December 2014 – via justice.gc.ca.
- "East Turkistan Liberation Organization (ETLO)". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 10 July 2018.
- "EU terrorist list". europa.eu. The Council of the European Union.
- "US removes 5 groups from terror blacklist, retains al-Qaida". AP NEWS. 20 May 2022. Retrieved 22 May 2022.
- National Police Agency (Japan) (2009), "The White Paper on Police 2009 (平成21年警察白書, Heisei Nijūichi nen Keisatsu Hakusyo), GYOSEI Corporation, pg. 160.
- Kyodo, Jiji (24 January 2015). "Surveillance of Aum successor cults extended three more years". Japan Times.
- "Court lets Aum splinter group Hikari no Wa off surveillance but keeps Aleph in check". Japan Times. 25 September 2017. Retrieved 12 July 2018.
- "Tokyo Court Backs Extended Surveillance of Aum-Linked Group". 28 February 2019.
- Jackson, Brian Anthony; Baker, John C. (2005). Aptitude for Destruction: Case Studies of Organizational Learning in Five Terrorist Groups. RAND Corporation. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-8330-3767-1.
- Reader, Ian (2000). Religious Violence in Contemporary Japan: The Case of Am Shinrikyō. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 66–68. ISBN 978-0824823405.
- Danzig, Richard; Sageman, Marc; Leighton, Terrance; Hough, Lloyd; Yuki, Hidemi; Kotani, Rui; Hosford, Zachary M. (2000). Aum Shinrikyo Insights into How Terrorists Develop Biological and Chemical Weapons (PDF). Center for a New American Security. p. 10. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 March 2016. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
- Snow, Robert L. (2003). Deadly Cults: The Crimes of True Believers. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-275-98052-8.
- Partridge, Christopher Hugh (2006). The Re-Enchantment of the West: Alternative Spiritualities, Sacralization, Popular Culture, and Occulture. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 300. ISBN 978-0-567-04133-3.
- Griffith, Lee (2004). The War on Terrorism and the Terror of God. William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 164. ISBN 978-0-8028-2860-6.
- Juergensmeyer, Mark (2003). Terror in the Mind of God: The Global Rise of Religious Violence. University of California Press. p. 103. ISBN 0-520-24011-1.
- Reader, Ian (1996). Poisonous Cocktail: Aum Shinrikyo's Path to Violence. NIAS Publications. p. 16. ISBN 87-87062-55-0.
- Lifton, Robert Jay (2000). Destroying the World to Save It: Aum Shinrikyo, Apocalyptic Violence, and the New Global Terrorism. New York: Macmillan.
- Kaplan, David E.; Marshall, Andrew (1996). The Cult at the End of The World. London, UK: Hutchinson.
- Cronin, Audrey Kurth (2009). How Terrorism Ends: Understanding the Decline and Demise of Terrorist Campaigns. Princeton University Press. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-691-13948-7.
- Goldwag, Arthur (2009). Cults, Conspiracies, and Secret Societies: The Straight Scoop on Freemasons, the Illuminati, Skull and Bones, Black Helicopters, the New World Order, and Many, Many More. Random House. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-307-39067-7.
- Metraux, Daniel A. (December 1995). "Religious Terrorism in Japan: The Fatal Appeal of Aum Shinrikyo". Asian Survey. 35 (12): 1153. doi:10.2307/2645835. JSTOR 2645835.
- Sims, Calvin (24 January 2000). "Japan Sect's Name Change Brings Confusion and Fear". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 April 2021.
the name change from Aum Shinrikyo to Aleph, which is the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet
- "Aum cult blames leader for gas attack". BBC News. 18 January 2000. Retrieved 3 April 2021.
Aum also said it would change its name to "Aleph" – taken from the first letter in the Hebrew alphabet – and rid itself of part of its doctrine which has been interpreted as condoning murder if it benefits the cult.
- "Ouchi gets eight years for role in cultist killing". The Japan Times. 7 November 2000. Retrieved 3 April 2021.
In January, it claimed it had about 1,200 followers and stated it was changing its name to Aleph, the first letter in the Hebrew alphabet.
- Fumihiro Joyu (18 January 2000). "Outlook on the AUM-related Incidents and Outline of Drastic Reform". english.aleph.to. Retrieved 3 April 2021.
- Shupe, Anson D. (1998). Wolves Within the Fold: Religious Leadership and Abuses of Power. Rutgers University Press. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-8135-2489-4.
- Lewis, James R.; Jesper Aagaard Petersen (2005). Controversial New Religions. Oxford University Press. p. 162. ISBN 978-0-19-515683-6.
- Macwilliams, Mary Wheeler (2008). Japanese Visual Culture: Explorations in the World of Manga and Anime. M. E. Sharpe. p. 211. ISBN 978-0-7656-1602-9.
- "What is the origin of the name al-Qaida?". The Guardian. London, UK. 24 August 2002. Archived from the original on 5 April 2010. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- "Aum member tells of 2 deaths at compound". The Daily Yomiuri. Tokyo: The Japan News. 24 September 1995. p. 1.
- "Asahara rearrested in 1989 cultist murder". The Daily Shimbun. The Japan News. 21 October 1995. p. 2.
- Reader, Ian (April 2000). "Scholarship, Aum Shinrikyô, and Academic Integrity". Nova Religio: The Journal of Alternative and Emergent Religions. 3 (2): 370. doi:10.1525/nr.2000.3.2.368.
- Kristof, Nicholas D. (14 March 1996). "Japan Sect's Role in Murder Case Emerges, Prompting Outcry". The New York Times. p. A9.
- McNeill, David (26 January 2015). "Nous ne sommes pas Charlie: Voices that mock authority in Japan muzzled". The Japan Times.
- Takahashi, Hiroshi (2004). "Bacillus anthracis Bioterrorism Incident, Kameido, Tokyo, 1993". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 10 (1): 117–20. doi:10.3201/eid1001.030238. PMC 3322761. PMID 15112666.
- Olson, Kyle B. (1999), "Aum Shinrikyo: Once and Future Threat?", Emerg Infect Dis, Arlington, Virginia: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Research Planning, Inc., 5 (4): 513–6, doi:10.3201/eid0504.990409, PMC 2627754, PMID 10458955
- Zurer, Pamela (1998). "Japanese cult used VX to slay member". Chemical and Engineering News. Vol. 76, no. 35.
- "Aum Shinrikyo cult fugitive turns himself in after 16 years". The Guardian. Associated Press. 1 January 2012.
- "Chronology: Events involving Aum Shinrikyo". The Nikkei Weekly. New York: The Nihon Keizai Shimbun, Incorporated. 22 May 1995. p. Issues & People, page 3.
- "Japan cultists sentenced to death". BBC News. 17 July 2000. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
- "Cultist says Asahara ordered 1,000 machineguns be made | the Japan Times". 8 July 2000. Archived from the original on 12 April 2019.
- "Aum Shinrikyo death cult made AK74 assault rifles -". 25 October 2018.
- "IV. The Operation of the Aum – A Case Study on the Aum Shinrikyo".
- Haruki Murakami, Alfred Birnbaum, Philip Gabriel, Underground, Vintage International, 2001.
- Danzig, Richard, Marc Sageman, Terrance Leighton, Lloyd Hough, Hidemi Yuki, Rui Kotani and Zachary M. Hosford, "Aum Shinrikyo: Insights Into How Terrorists Develop Biological and Chemical Weapons Archived 24 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine", Center for a New American Security, July 2011; accessed 12 July 2018.
- Smitheson, Amy E. (9 October 2000). Ataxia: The Chemical and Biological Terrorism Threat and the US Response (PDF). p. 77. Retrieved 24 June 2015.
- Townshend, Charles (2011). Terrorism: a very short introduction (2nd ed.). Oxford [u.a.]: Oxford Univ. Press. p. 116. ISBN 9780199603947. Retrieved 7 August 2012.
(... enough Sarin in Aum's possession to kill over 4 million people).
- "Here's a chronology of poison gas attacks in Japan". Deseret News. 5 July 1995.
- "Four injured by Tokyo station gas fumes". United Press International. 4 July 1995.
- Tucker, Jonathan B. (February 2000). Toxic Terror: Assessing Terrorist Use of Chemical and Biological Weapons. p. 219. ISBN 9780262700719.
- "Aum Shinrikyo cult fugitive surrenders to Japan police". BBC News. Retrieved 1 January 2012.
- "Tokyo subway attack fugitive surrenders". News.com.au. AFP. 1 January 2012. Retrieved 1 January 2012.
- Kyodo News, "16-year Aum fugitive mum on life on run", Japan Times, January 2011, pg. 1.
- "Additional details emerge about Aum cult member Kikuchi's 17 years on the run". Japan Daily Press. 5 June 2012. Archived from the original on 1 February 2014. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
- "Last Aum cult fugitive Katsuya Takahashi arrested in Japan". BBC. 15 June 2012. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
- "Aum cult founder Asahara, 6 members hanged". Japan Today. 6 July 2018. Retrieved 12 July 2018.
- Lies, Elaine; Takenaka, Kiyoshi. "Japan hangs seven members of doomsday cult that attacked subway with sarin". Reuters. Retrieved 12 July 2018.
- "Japan hangs all 6 remaining Aum death row inmates".
- "Profiles of top Aum Shinrikyo members, including six still on death row". The Japan Times Online. 12 July 2018. Retrieved 10 July 2018.
- "Ashes of executed Aum leader to be scattered at sea".
- "Lower House panel approves bills to crack down on Aum". The Japan Times. 17 November 1999. Archived from the original on 23 March 2005. Retrieved 12 July 2018 – via japantimes.co.jp.
- "Surveillance of Aum to continue on grounds it still poses threat to public". Japan Times. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
- "A Chronology of Police Actions: Aum Shinri Kyo and the Japanese Police". t3.org. 12 January 1997. Archived from the original on 22 July 2006. Retrieved 8 July 2018.
- "Japanese police raid cult offices". BBC News. 16 September 2006. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- Hongo, Jun, "Last trial brings dark Aum era to end", Japan Times, 22 November 2011, p. 3.
- "Joyu Group Leaves AUM to Form New Organization". Religionnewsblog.com. 8 March 2007. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
- Fletcher, Holly (19 June 2012). "CFR Backgrounder: Aum Shinrikyo". Council on Foreign Relations.
- "The Small Print: See Ya!". Metropolis. No. 893. 6–19 May 2011. p. 4.
- "Aum cult tops 1,000 followers". Japan Times. Jiji Press. 19 November 2011. p. 2.
- Hongo, Jun (22 November 2011). "Aum may be gone in name but guru still has following". Japan Times. p. 2.
- Osaki, Tomohiro (20 March 2014). "Aum cultists inspire a new generation of admirers". Japan Times. Retrieved 6 July 2018.
- "元オウムの道場で見つかった公安調査庁長官の「串刺し写真」". NEWSポストセブン (in Japanese). Retrieved 18 June 2019.
- INC, SANKEI DIGITAL (7 November 2014). "公安調査官の写真串刺し、教団名隠し勧誘…旧オウム、「反社会性」は継続". 産経ニュース (in Japanese). Retrieved 18 June 2019.
- "Searches underway in Moscow, St. Pete in order to expose Aum Shinrikyo followers". TASS. Moscow. 5 April 2016. Retrieved 5 April 2016.
- Yecatherina Sinelschikova (4 October 2018). "Why has Aum Shinrikyo been banned in Russia only now?". rbth.com.
- "Offices of Aum successor Aleph raided over recruiting practices". Japan Times. 13 November 2017. Retrieved 6 July 2018.
- "9 injured as man rams car into pedestrians in Harajuku in 'retaliation for execution'". Japan Today. 1 January 2019. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
- Shoko Asahara, Supreme Initiation: An Empirical Spiritual Science for the Supreme Truth, 1988, AUM USA Inc., ISBN 0-945638-00-0. Highlights the main stages of Yogic and Buddhist practice, comparing Yoga-sutra system by Patanjali and the Eightfold Noble Path from Buddhist tradition.
- Shoko Asahara, Life and Death, (Shizuoka: Aum, 1993). Focuses on the process of Kundalini-Yoga, one of the stages in Aum's practice.
- Shoko Asahara, Disaster Approaches the Land of the Rising Sun: Shoko Asahara's Apocalyptic Predictions, (Shizuoka: Aum, 1995). A controversial book, later removed by Aum leadership, speaks about possible destruction of Japan.
- Stefano Bonino, Il Caso Aum Shinrikyo: Società, Religione e Terrorismo nel Giappone Contemporaneo, 2010, Edizioni Solfanelli, ISBN 978-88-89756-88-1. Preface by Erica Baffelli.
- Ikuo Hayashi, Aum to Watakushi (Aum and I), Tokyo: Bungei Shunju, 1998. Book about personal experiences by former Aum member.
- Robert Jay Lifton, Destroying the World to Save It: Aum Shinrikyo, Apocalyptic Violence, and the New Global Terrorism, Henry Holt, ISBN 0-8050-6511-3, LoC BP605.088.L54, 1999
- Haruki Murakami, Underground: The Tokyo Gas Attack and the Japanese Psyche, Vintage, ISBN 0-375-72580-6, LoC BP605.O88.M8613, 2001. Interviews with victims.
- Global Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction: A Case Study on the Aum Shinrikyo, [USA] Senate Government Affairs Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, 31 October 1995. online
- David E. Kaplan, and Andrew Marshall, The Cult at the End of the World: The Terrifying Story of the Aum Doomsday Cult, from the Subways of Tokyo to the Nuclear Arsenals of Russia, 1996, Random House, ISBN 0-517-70543-5. An account of the cult from its beginnings to the aftermaths of the Tokyo subway attack, including details of facilities, weapons and other information regarding Aum's followers, activities and property.
- Ian Reader, Religious Violence in Contemporary Japan: The Case of Aum Shinrikyo, 2000, Curzon Press
- (in English) PSIA (Public Security Investigative Agency) report